Earthquakes Science & Society

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-10-03
  • Publisher: Pearson

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With a unique three-part organization, this non-quantitative, carefully illustrated book introduces the scientific, historical, and personal safety aspects of earthquakes. It provides the basic scientific facts about earthquakes, explaining how the study of earthquakes has progressed through time, offering details on the development of earthquake instruments, and covering immediately practical aspects such as personal safety, building and living in areas prone to earthquakes, and earthquake geography. Earthquake prediction is discussed, including past and present attempts at prediction and the techniques available. A handbook for personal safety vs. earthquakes is provided, outlining the steps to take before, during, and after an earthquake. It assumes no scientific background. Earthquakes: Myths, Legends, and Logic; Measuring Earthquakes; Faults and Earthquakes; Earthquake Size and Location; The Earthquake Process; Plate Tectonics; Journey to the Center of the Earth; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Earthquake Triggering; Great Historic Earthquakes; Earthquakes in the United States; Earthquake Prediction; What to do Before, During, and After an Earthquake; Building for Earthquake Safety. A useful reference for anyone interested in learning more about earthquakes.

Author Biography

Dr. David S. Brumbaugh received his Ph.D. from Indiana University with a specialty in Geophysics. He is Professor at Northern Arizona University and Director of the Arizona Earthquake Information Center. His research interests include the mechanics of normal and thrust faulting; earthquake source mechanics; Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Colorado Plateau and transition zone; earthquake studies of the North Anatolian fault zone, Turkey, and the Aleutian plate boundary.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. vi
Earthquake Basicsp. 1
Earthquakes: Myths, Legends, and Logicp. 3
Myths, Legends, and Gods: Early Ideas on the Origin of Earthquakesp. 3
The Natural World and Earthquakesp. 7
The Age of Reason: The Eighteenth Centuryp. 9
The Elastic Rebound Theoryp. 12
Summaryp. 15
Measuring Earthquakesp. 17
Intensity of Ground Shakingp. 17
Development of Early Mechanical Seismographsp. 24
Seismographs and Earthquake Wavesp. 37
Development of Modern Seismic Observatories and Networksp. 42
Digital Networks and Arraysp. 46
IRIS and ANSSp. 47
Summaryp. 48
Faults and Earthquakesp. 50
An Introduction to Faults and Faultingp. 50
Not All Faults Are Alikep. 51
Fault Surfaces and Processesp. 54
Fault Behavior and Timep. 59
Faults and Topographyp. 63
Hidden Faultsp. 68
Summaryp. 69
Earthquake Data Analysis and Its Contributions to Sciencep. 71
Earthquake Size and Locationp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Earthquake Locationp. 73
Earthquake Depthp. 79
Earthquake Sizep. 80
Summaryp. 85
The Earthquake Processp. 87
Introductionp. 87
An Important Clue: First Motion of the Groundp. 87
The Fault Plane Solution: A Most Powerful Toolp. 90
Focus Versus Fault: Earthquake Modelingp. 94
Fault Plane Solution Versus Earthquake Modelingp. 98
The Hidden Is Revealedp. 100
Summaryp. 102
Plate Tectonicsp. 104
Introductionp. 104
Puzzles and Piecesp. 104
The Engine That Couldn'tp. 108
Convection and a Mobile Seafloorp. 109
Magnets, Poles, and Submarines: The Great Discoveryp. 111
Earthquakes and Plate Tectonicsp. 114
Summaryp. 119
Journey to the Center of Earthp. 120
Introductionp. 120
Caves and Hollow Places Below: Ideas About Earth's Interiorp. 120
Solid As a Rockp. 121
A Layered Earth: P-Wave Echosp. 123
Structure of Earth's Interiorp. 128
X-Rays into Earth: Through a Glass Darklyp. 130
Summaryp. 135
Earthquakes and Tsunamip. 136
Introductionp. 136
What Is a Tsunami?p. 136
Sumatra (2004)p. 139
New Guinea (1998)p. 140
Lituya Bay, Alaska (1958)p. 142
Summaryp. 144
Earthquake Triggeringp. 146
Introductionp. 146
The Clues Were Therep. 146
Landers (1992): Earthquakes As Triggersp. 148
A Record of Triggeringp. 151
Summaryp. 154
Earthquakes, Earthquake Geography, and Safetyp. 155
Great Historic Earthquakesp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Kourionp. 157
Baselp. 159
Shansip. 161
Jamaicap. 162
Lisbonp. 163
New Madridp. 165
Sonora, Mexicop. 168
San Franciscop. 168
Tokyop. 171
Chilep. 173
Alaskap. 175
Perup. 177
Mexico Cityp. 178
Izmitp. 180
Sumatrap. 181
Sichuanp. 182
Summaryp. 184
Earthquakes in the United Statesp. 186
Introductionp. 186
The Western United Statesp. 186
Hawaiip. 198
The Eastern United Statesp. 199
Summaryp. 205
Earthquake Predictionp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Snakes, Yaks, and Cockroachesp. 207
New Madrid: A False Alarmp. 208
Earthquake Prediction: The Long and Short of Itp. 209
Short-Term Prediction: Precursors, Successes, and Failuresp. 213
The Dilatant-Diffusion Theoryp. 214
Parkfield: The Earthquake Prediction Experimentp. 217
PRENLAB: An Interesting Success Storyp. 218
Fossil Earthquakes: Rocks Tell Talesp. 219
California and the Big Onep. 221
Emergency Preparednessp. 222
Summaryp. 222
What to Do Before, During, and After an Earthquakep. 224
Introductionp. 224
Earthquake Hazardsp. 224
Preparation Before an Earthquakep. 226
During an Earthquakep. 230
After an Earthquakep. 230
Case Histories: Luck Plays a Partp. 231
Summaryp. 233
Building for Earthquake Safetyp. 234
Introductionp. 234
The Basics: What Is a Building?p. 235
Site Selectionp. 235
Foundationsp. 236
Wallsp. 239
The Role of Design in Safetyp. 242
Ornamental Design and Chimneysp. 243
Mobile Homesp. 245
Summaryp. 246
Government Emergency Services and Geoscience Organizationsp. 247
Computer-Based Earthquake Informationp. 250
Suggested Readingsp. 251
Glossaryp. 253
Illustration Creditsp. 257
Indexp. 261
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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