Economics for Investment Decision Makers Micro, Macro, and International Economics

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-03-25
  • Publisher: Wiley
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The economics background investors need to interpret global economic news distilled to the essential elements: A tool of choice for investment decision-makers. Written by a distinguished academics and practitioners selected and guided by CFA Institute, the world's largest association of finance professionals, Economics for Investment Decision Makers is unique in presenting microeconomics and macroeconomics with relevance to investors and investment analysts constantly in mind. The selection of fundamental topics is comprehensive, while coverage of topics such as international trade, foreign exchange markets, and currency exchange rate forecasting reflects global perspectives of pressing investor importance. Concise, plain-English introduction useful to investors and investment analysts Relevant to security analysis, industry analysis, country analysis, portfolio management, and capital market strategy Understand economic news and what it means All concepts defined and simply explained, no prior background in economics assumed Abundant examples and illustrations Global markets perspective

Author Biography

CHRISTOPHER D. PIROS, PhD, CFA, is the Managing Director of Investment Strategy and Chairman of the Investment Policy Committee at Hawthorn, a member of the PNC Financial Services Group, Inc., which is dedicated to serving the needs of individuals and families with investable assets in excess of $20 million. Prior to joining PNC, Mr. Piros served on the team responsible for the curriculum underlying the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation. He also has served as Director of Investment Strategy & Portfolio Management at Prudential Investments LLC, the wealth management services arm of Prudential Financial. And he was a global fixed-income portfolio manager and head of fixed-income quantitative analysis at MFS Investment Management.

JERALD E. PINTO, PhD, CFA, is Director, Curriculum Projects, in the education division of the CFA Institute. Prior to joining CFA Institute, he consulted with corporations, foundations, and partnerships in investment planning, portfolio analysis, valuation, and quantitative analysis. Pinto also worked in the investment and banking industries in New York, and taught finance at NYU Stern School of Business. He holds an MBA from Baruch College, a PhD in finance from the Stern School, and is a member of CFA Virginia.

CFA INSTITUTE is a global, not-for-profit organization comprising the world's largest association of investment professionals. With over 100,000 members, and regional societies around the world, CFA Institute is dedicated to developing and promoting the highest educational, ethical, and professional standards in the investment industry. CFA Institute offers a range of educational and career resources, including the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and the Certificate in Investment Performance Measurement (CIPM) designations, and is a leading voice on global issues of fairness, market efficiency, and investor protection.

Table of Contents



About the CFA Institute Investment Series

Chapter 1 Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Types of Markets

3 Basic Principles and Concepts

3.1 The Demand Function and the Demand Curve

3.2 Changes in Demand vs. Movements along the Demand Curve

3.3 The Supply Function and the Supply Curve

3.4 Changes in Supply vs. Movements along the Supply Curve

3.5 Aggregating the Demand and Supply Functions

3.6 Market Equilibrium

3.7 The Market Mechanism: Iterating toward Equilibrium—or Not

3.8 Auctions as a Way to Find Equilibrium Price

3.9 Consumer Surplus—Value minus Expenditure

3.10 Producer Surplus—Revenue minus Variable Cost

3.11 Total Surplus—Total Value minus Total Variable Cost

3.12 Markets Maximize Society’s Total Surplus

3.13 Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus

4 Demand Elasticities

4.1 Own-Price Elasticity of Demand

4.2 Own-Price Elasticity of Demand: Impact on Total Expenditure

4.3 Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods

4.4 Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements

4.5 Calculating Demand Elasticities from Demand Functions

5 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 2 Demand and Supply Analysis: Consumer Demand

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Consumer Theory: From Preferences to Demand Functions

3 Utility Theory: Modeling Preferences and Tastes

3.1 Axioms of the Theory of Consumer Choice

3.2 Representing the Preference of a Consumer: The Utility Function

3.3 Indifference Curves: The Graphical Portrayal of the Utility Function

3.4 Indifference Curve Maps

3.5 Gains from Voluntary Exchange: Creating Wealth through Trade

4 The Opportunity Set: Consumption, Production, and Investment Choice

4.1 The Budget Constraint

4.2 The Production Opportunity Set

4.3 The Investment Opportunity Set

5 Consumer Equilibrium: Maximizing Utility Subject to the Budget Constraint

5.1 Determining the Consumer’s Equilibrium Bundle of Goods

5.2 Consumer Response to Changes in Income: Normal and Inferior Goods

5.3 How the Consumer Responds to Changes in Price

6 Revisiting the Consumer’s Demand Function

6.1 Consumer’s Demand Curve from Preferences and Budget Constraints

6.2 Substitution and Income Effects for a Normal Good

6.3 Income and Substitution Effects for an Inferior Good

6.4 Negative Income Effect Larger than Substitution Effect: Giffen Goods

6.5 Veblen Goods: Another Possibility for a Positively Sloped Demand Curve

7 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 3 Demand and Supply Analysis: The Firm

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Objectives of the Firm

2.1 Types of Profit Measures

2.2 Comparison of Profit Measures

3 Analysis of Revenue, Costs, and Profits

3.1 Profit Maximization

3.2 Productivity

4 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 4 The Firm and Market Structures

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Analysis of Market Structures

2.1 Economists’ Four Types of Structure

2.2 Factors That Determine Market Structure

3 Perfect Competition

3.1 Demand Analysis in Perfectly Competitive Markets

3.2 Supply Analysis in Perfectly Competitive Markets

3.3 Optimal Price and Output in Perfectly Competitive Markets

3.4 Factors Affecting Long-Run Equilibrium in Perfectly Competitive Markets

4 Monopolistic Competition

4.1 Demand Analysis in Monopolistically Competitive Markets

4.2 Supply Analysis in Monopolistically Competitive Markets

4.3 Optimal Price and Output in Monopolistically Competitive Markets

4.4 Factors Affecting Long-Run Equilibrium in Monopolistically Competitive Markets

5 Oligopoly

5.1 Demand Analysis and Pricing Strategies in Oligopoly Markets

5.2 Supply Analysis in Oligopoly Markets

5.3 Optimal Price and Output in Oligopoly Markets

5.4 Factors Affecting Long-Run Equilibrium in Oligopoly Markets

6 Monopoly

6.1 Demand Analysis in Monopoly Markets

6.2 Supply Analysis in Monopoly Markets

6.3 Optimal Price and Output in Monopoly Markets

6.4 Price Discrimination and Consumer Surplus

6.5 Factors Affecting Long-Run Equilibrium in Monopoly Markets

7 Identification of Market Structure

7.1 Econometric Approaches

7.2 Simpler Measures

8 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 5 Aggregate Output, Prices, and Economic Growth

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Aggregate Output and Income

2.1 Gross Domestic Product

2.2 The Components of GDP

2.3 GDP, National Income, Personal Income, and Personal Disposable Income

3 Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, and Equilibrium

3.1 Aggregate Demand

3.2 Aggregate Supply

3.3 Shifts in Aggregate Demand and Supply

3.4 Equilibrium GDP and Prices

4 Economic Growth and Sustainability

4.1 The Production Function and Potential GDP

4.2 Sources of Economic Growth

4.3 Measures of Sustainable Growth

5 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 6 Understanding Business Cycles

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Overview of the Business Cycle

2.1 Phases of the Business Cycle

2.2 Resource Use through the Business Cycle

2.3 Housing Sector Behavior

2.4 External Trade Sector Behavior

3 Theories of the Business Cycle

3.1 Neoclassical and Austrian Schools

3.2 Keynesian and Monetarist Schools

3.3 The New Classical School

4 Unemployment and Inflation

4.1 Unemployment

4.2 Inflation

5 Economic Indicators

5.1 Popular Economic Indicators

5.2 Other Variables Used as Economic Indicators

6 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 7 Monetary and Fiscal Policy

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Monetary Policy

2.1 Money

2.2 The Roles of Central Banks

2.3 The Objectives of Monetary Policy

2.4 Contractionary and Expansionary Monetary Policies and the Neutral Rate

2.5 Limitations of Monetary Policy

3 Fiscal Policy

3.1 Roles and Objectives of Fiscal Policy

3.2 Fiscal Policy Tools and the Macroeconomy

3.3 Fiscal Policy Implementation: Active and Discretionary Fiscal Policy

4 The Relationship Between Monetary and Fiscal Policy

4.1 Factors Influencing the Mix of Fiscal and Monetary Policy

4.2 Quantitative Easing and Policy Interaction

4.3 The Importance of Credibility and Commitment

5 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 8 International Trade and Capital Flows

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 International Trade

2.1 Basic Terminology

2.2 Patterns and Trends in International Trade and Capital Flows

2.3 Benefits and Costs of International Trade

2.4 Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Trade

3 Trade and Capital Flows: Restrictions and Agreements

3.1 Tariffs

3.2 Quotas

3.3 Export Subsidies

3.4 Trading Blocs, Common Markets, and Economic Unions

3.5 Capital Restrictions

4 The Balance of Payments

4.1 Balance of Payments Accounts

4.2 Balance of Payment Components

4.3 Paired Transactions in the BOP Bookkeeping System

4.4 National Economic Accounts and the Balance of Payments

5 Trade Organizations

5.1 International Monetary Fund

5.2 World Bank Group

5.3 World Trade Organization

6 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 9 Currency Exchange Rates

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 The Foreign Exchange Market

2.1 Market Functions

2.2 Market Participants

2.3 Market Size and Composition

3 Currency Exchange Rate Calculations

3.1 Exchange Rate Quotations

3.2 Cross-Rate Calculations

3.3 Forward Calculations

4 Exchange Rate Regimes

4.1 The Ideal Currency Regime

4.2 Historical Perspective on Currency Regimes

4.3 A Taxonomy of Currency Regimes

5 Exchange Rates, International Trade, and Capital Flows

5.1 Exchange Rates and the Trade Balance: The Elasticities Approach

5.2 Exchange Rates and the Trade Balance: The Absorption Approach

6 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 10 Currency Exchange Rates: Determination and Forecasting

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Foreign Exchange Market Concepts

2.1 Arbitrage Constraints on Spot Exchange Rate Quotes

2.2 Forward Markets

3 A Long-Term Framework For Exchange Rates

3.1 International Parity Conditions

3.2 Assessing an Exchange Rate’s Equilibrium Level

3.3 Tying It Together: A Model That Includes Long-Term Equilibrium

4 The Carry Trade

5 The Impact of Balance of Payments Flows

5.1 Current Account Imbalances and the Determination of Exchange Rates

5.2 Capital Flows and the Determination of Exchange Rates

6 Monetary And Fiscal Policies

6.1 The Mundell–Fleming Model

6.2 Monetary Models of Exchange Rate Determination

6.3 The Taylor Rule and the Determination of Exchange Rates

6.4 Monetary Policy and Exchange Rates—The Historical Evidence

6.5 Fiscal Policy and the Determination of Exchange Rates

7 Exchange Rate Management: Intervention And Controls

8 Currency Crises

9 Shorter-Term Forecasting Tools

9.1 Technical Analysis

9.2 Order Flow, Sentiment, and Positioning


Appendix: Currency Codes Used in This Reading

Practice Problems

Chapter 11 Economic Growth and the Investment Decision

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Growth in the Global Economy: Developed vs. Developing Countries

2.1 Savings and Investment

2.2 Financial Markets and Intermediaries

2.3 Political Stability, Rule of Law, and Property Rights

2.4 Education and Health Care Systems

2.5 Tax and Regulatory Systems

2.6 Free Trade and Unrestricted Capital Flows

2.7 Summary of Factors Limiting Growth in Developing Countries

3 Why Potential Growth Matters To Investors

4 Determinants of Economic Growth

4.1 Production Function

4.2 Capital Deepening vs. Technological Progress

4.3 Growth Accounting

4.4 Extending the Production Function

4.5 Natural Resources

4.6 Labor Supply

4.7 Labor Quality: Human Capital

4.8 Capital: ICT and Non-ICT

4.9 Technology

4.10 Public Infrastructure

4.11 Summary

5 Theories of Growth

5.1 Classical Model

5.2 Neoclassical Model

5.3 Endogenous Growth Theory

5.4 Convergence Debate

6 Growth in an Open Economy

7 Summary

Practice Problems

Chapter 12 Economics of Regulation

Learning Outcomes

1 Introduction

2 Overview of Regulation

2.1 Classification of Regulations and Regulators

2.2 Economic Rationale for Regulation

2.3 Regulatory Tools

3 Regulation of Commerce

4 Regulation of Financial Markets

5 Cost–Benefit Analysis of Regulation

6 Analysis of Regulation

6.1 Effects of Regulations

7 Summary

Practice Problems



About the Editors

About the CFA Program


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