Educational Assessment of Students

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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This highly respected text offers the most comprehensive discussion of traditional and alternative assessments of any classroom assessment text-explaining, giving examples, discussing pros and cons, and showing how to construct virtually all of the traditional and alternative assessments teachers use in the classroom. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

The Bases for Assessment in the Classroom
Classroom Decision Making and Using Assessmentp. 1
About This Chapterp. 2
Example of Assessments Used for an Educational Decisionp. 2
Teachers' Classroom Decisionsp. 3
Distinctions Among Assessments, Tests, Measurements, and Evaluationsp. 4
High-Stakes Assessment and Accountabilityp. 8
Assessment and Educational Decisions About Studentsp. 11
Acquiring the Competence to Assess Studentsp. 14
Describing the Goals and Learning Targets of Instructionp. 17
About This Chapterp. 18
Importance of Specifying Objectivesp. 18
Educational Goals, State Standards, and Learning Targetsp. 19
Taxonomies of Learning Targetsp. 25
Cognitive Domain Taxonomiesp. 25
Choosing a Taxonomyp. 31
Sources for Locating Learning Targetsp. 31
Evaluating the Learning Targets of a Course or Unitp. 32
How to Write Specific Learning Targetsp. 32
Making Sure Assessment Tasks Are Aligned With Learning Targetsp. 33
Validity of Assessment Resultsp. 37
About This Chapterp. 38
General Nature of Validityp. 38
Four Principles for Validationp. 38
Validity of Teacher-Crafted Classroom Assessment Resultsp. 40
Validity of Extraclassroom Assessmentsp. 45
Categories of Validity Evidencep. 48
Combining Evidence for Validity Judgments: An Argument-Based Approachp. 60
Validity Issues When Accommodating Students With Disabilitiesp. 61
Reliability of Assessment Resultsp. 66
About This Chapterp. 67
General Nature of Reliabilityp. 67
Causes of Measurement Error or Inconsistencyp. 68
Types of Reliability Coefficientsp. 69
Obtained Scores, True Scores, and Error Scoresp. 75
Standard Error of Measurementp. 76
Additional Factors Affecting Reliability and SEMp. 78
Reliability of Mastery and Pass-Fail Decisionsp. 79
How to Improve Reliabilityp. 81
Professional Responsibilities, Ethical Behavior, and Legal Requirements in Educational Assessmentsp. 84
About This Chapterp. 85
A Teacher's Professional Responsibilities in Assessmentp. 85
Students' Rights as Test Takersp. 93
Students' Responsibilitiesp. 93
Secrecy, Access, Privacy, Confidentiality, and the Teacherp. 95
Legally Defensible Assessment Accommodation Policiesp. 96
Testing Challenged in Courtp. 98
Bias in Educational Assessmentp. 99
Possible Future Directions of Test Fairnessp. 102
Crafting and Using Classroom Assessments
Planning for Integrating Assessment and Instructionp. 106
About This Chapterp. 107
How Making Your Own Assessments Improves Your Teachingp. 107
Are You Assessing for Formative or Summative Purposes?p. 107
Assessment Planning for a Marking Periodp. 109
Assessment Planning for One Unit of Instructionp. 110
Pretesting to Plan Your Teachingp. 113
Crafting a Plan for One Summative Assessmentp. 114
Blueprints for Student-Centered Assessmentp. 116
Criteria for Improving the Validity of Assessment Plansp. 116
What Range of Assessment Options Is Available?p. 120
Validity of Different Classroom Assessment Optionsp. 127
Completion, Short-Answer, and True-False Itemsp. 132
About This Chapterp. 133
Three Fundamental Principles for Crafting Assessmentsp. 133
Short-Answer Itemsp. 133
True-False Itemsp. 138
Usefulness of True-False Itemsp. 139
Multiple-Choice and Matching Exercisesp. 147
About This Chapterp. 148
Multiple-Choice Item Formatp. 148
Considerations Before Crafting Itemsp. 149
Advantages and Criticisms of Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 151
When Not to Use Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 152
Crafting Basic Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 153
A Checklist for Evaluating Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 165
Crafting Alternative Varieties of Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 166
Greater-Less-Same Itemsp. 167
Best-Answer Itemsp. 168
Experiment-Interpretation Itemsp. 170
Statement-and-Comment Itemsp. 173
Matching Exercise Formatp. 174
Advantages and Criticisms of Matching Exercisesp. 175
Crafting Basic Matching Exercisesp. 176
Crafting Alternative Varieties of Matching Exercisesp. 178
Masterlist (Keylist) Itemsp. 178
Tabular (Matrix) Itemsp. 181
Essay Assessment Tasksp. 188
About This Chapterp. 189
Formats for Essay Itemsp. 189
Usefulness of Essay Assessmentsp. 191
Constructing Essays Assessing Subject-Matter Learningp. 193
Optional Questionsp. 197
Constructing Prompts for Assessing Writing Achievementp. 197
Scoring Essay Assessmentsp. 201
Higher-Order Thinking, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinkingp. 207
About This Chapterp. 208
Assessing Higher-Order Thinkingp. 208
Context-Dependent Item Setsp. 208
Concepts and Concept Learningp. 209
Assessing Concrete Concept Learningp. 210
Assessing Concept Understanding at a Deeper Levelp. 211
Assessing Defined Concept Learningp. 212
Assessing Whether Students' Thinking Uses Rulesp. 213
Assessing Comprehension of Rules and Principlesp. 214
Problem Solvingp. 215
Assessing Problem-Solving Skillsp. 217
Other Promising Approaches for Assessing Problem Solvingp. 221
Critical Thinkingp. 221
Assessing Dispositions Toward Critical Thinkingp. 222
Assessing Critical-Thinking Abilitiesp. 222
Other Specific Higher-Order Skills and Abilitiesp. 234
Enhanced Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 238
Performance, Portfolio, and Authentic Assessments: An Overviewp. 243
About This Chapterp. 244
What Is Performance Assessment?p. 244
Types of Performance Assessmentsp. 245
Authentic Assessmentsp. 253
Advantages and Criticisms of Performance Assessmentsp. 254
How Using Performance Assessment Can Improve Your Teachingp. 256
Multiple Intelligences Perspective on Performance Assessmentsp. 256
How to Craft Performance Tasks, Projects, Portfolios, Rating Scales, and Scoring Rubricsp. 261
About This Chapterp. 262
Stages in Crafting Performance Tasks and Rubricsp. 262
Being Clear About the Performance to Assessp. 262
Crafting Performance Tasksp. 264
Crafting Rubrics, Checklists, and Rating Scalesp. 269
Types of Scoring Rubricsp. 269
Crafting Scoring Rubrics: How to Do Itp. 273
Crafting Checklistsp. 276
Crafting Rating Scalesp. 277
Evaluating Scoring Rubrics and Rating Scalesp. 284
Crafting Projectsp. 285
Crafting Portfoliosp. 287
Electronic Portfoliosp. 292
Formative Evaluation Using Informal Diagnostic Assessmentsp. 295
About This Chapterp. 296
Diagnostic Assessmentp. 296
Integrating Teaching, Diagnosis, and Assessmentp. 297
Profiling Content Strengths and Weaknessesp. 298
Identifying Prerequisite Deficitsp. 299
Identifying Objectives Not Masteredp. 301
Identifying Students' Errorsp. 303
Identifying Student Knowledge Structuresp. 304
Identifying Competencies for Solving Word Problemsp. 306
Interviewing Studentsp. 308
Preparing Your Students to Be Assessed and Using Students' Results to Improve Your Assessmentsp. 311
About This Chapterp. 312
Getting Students Readyp. 312
Preparing Students for the Assessmentp. 312
Testwisenessp. 314
Advice About Changing Answersp. 315
Test Anxietyp. 316
Putting the Assessment Togetherp. 317
Assessment Format and Appearancep. 317
Preparations for Scoring the Assessmentp. 319
Correction for Guessingp. 319
Using Students' Responses to Improve Assessmentsp. 320
Item Analysis for Classroom Assessmentsp. 320
Item Difficulty Indexp. 326
Item Discrimination Indexp. 327
Improving Multiple-Choice Item Qualityp. 328
Selecting Test Itemsp. 330
Using Computers for Test Assembly and Item Analysesp. 331
Evaluating and Grading Student Progressp. 335
About This Chapterp. 336
The Meanings and Purposes of Gradesp. 336
What Are Your Attitudes Toward Marks and Grades?p. 336
Continuous Assessment and Gradingp. 336
How People Perceive and Use Gradesp. 338
Criticisms of Grades and Marksp. 340
Report Cards and Other Official Reports of Student Progressp. 341
Student Progress Reporting Methodsp. 341
Crafting a Multiple Reporting Systemp. 346
Choosing a Grading Modelp. 348
Overview of Section IIIp. 348
Basic Concepts of Grading Frameworks for Classroom Evaluationp. 348
Choosing Your Grading Modelp. 352
Sensible Grading Practicesp. 353
Types of Performance to Assessp. 354
Consistent Grading Throughout the Marking Periodp. 355
Components of a Gradep. 356
Grade Boundariesp. 357
Failure Gradesp. 357
Techniques for Setting Grade Boundaries and Combining Scoresp. 359
Assigning Norm-Referenced Letter Gradesp. 359
Assigning Criterion-Referenced Letter Gradesp. 363
Gradebook Computer Programsp. 367
Interpreting and Using Standardized Tests
Standardized Achievement Testsp. 371
About This Chapterp. 372
Types of Testsp. 372
Standardized Survey Batteriesp. 372
State-Mandated Tests and Customized Testsp. 379
Nonstandardized Achievement Testsp. 380
Appropriate Uses of Standardized Test Resultsp. 381
Inappropriate Uses of Standardized Test Resultsp. 382
Multilevel Survey Batteriesp. 384
Choosing Standardized Testsp. 384
Complementing Your State Assessmentp. 385
How to Administer Standardized Testsp. 386
Ethical and Unethical Student Practice for Standardized Testsp. 387
Interpreting Norm-Referenced Scoresp. 391
About This Chapterp. 392
Three Referencing Frameworksp. 392
Using Normsp. 394
Types of Norm Groupsp. 394
Overview of Norm-Referenced Scoresp. 397
Percentile Ranksp. 397
Linear Standard Scoresp. 399
Normal Distributionsp. 401
Normalized Standard Scoresp. 404
Developmental and Educational Growth Scalesp. 407
Extended Normalized Standard Score Scalesp. 407
Grade-Equivalent Scoresp. 408
Comparison of Various Norm-Referenced Scoresp. 415
General Guidelines for Score Interpretationp. 416
Interpreting Scores to Parentsp. 417
Finding and Evaluating Published Assessmentsp. 420
About This Chapterp. 421
Locating a Published Testp. 421
Locating Evaluations of Published Testsp. 424
Locating Computerized Testing Materialsp. 426
Locating Unpublished Test Materialsp. 426
Restrictions on Purchasing and Using Testsp. 427
Evaluating and Selecting a Testp. 428
How a Standardized Test Is Developedp. 431
Scholastic Aptitude, Career Interests, Attitudes, and Personality Testsp. 434
About This Chapterp. 435
Aptitudes for Learningp. 435
Group Tests of Scholastic Aptitudesp. 437
Group Tests of Specific Aptitudesp. 441
Individually Administered Tests of General Scholastic Aptitudesp. 444
Assessing Adaptive Behaviorp. 447
Assessing Vocational and Career Interestsp. 448
Assessing Attitudesp. 451
Assessing Personality Dimensionsp. 451
Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Studentsp. 455
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Revised)p. 458
Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurementp. 461
Summaries of Taxonomies of Educational Objectives: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domainsp. 465
Categories of Learning Targets Derived from the Dimensions of Learning Modelp. 472
Assessment of Metacognitionp. 474
Examples of Alternative Blueprints for a Summative Unit Assessmentp. 476
Scoring Guide for Oregon's Writing Assessmentp. 479
Basic Statistical Conceptsp. 486
Computational Procedures for Various Reliability Coefficientsp. 498
A Limited List of Published Testsp. 503
List of Test Publishers and Their Websitesp. 505
Glossaryp. 507
Referencesp. 525
Name Indexp. 537
Subject Indexp. 540
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