Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice with Book

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-12-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
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This edition continues to have in-depth, practical coverage with a focus on the intentional teacher. It presents up-to-the-minute research that a reflective, intentional teacher can apply. The eighth edition of this popular text from renowned educational psychologist Robert Slavin translates theory into practices that teachers can use in their classrooms and focuses on the concept of intentionality. An "intentional teacher," according to Slavin, is one who constantly reflects on his or her practice and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students. To help readers become "intentional teachers," the author models best practices through classroom examples and offers questions to guide the reader. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Featuresp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
About the Authorp. xxvii
Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teachingp. 1
What Makes a Good Teacher?p. 3
Knowing the Subject Matters (but So Does Teaching Skill)p. 3
Mastering the Teaching Skillsp. 4
Can Good Teaching Be Taught?p. 5
The Intentional Teacherp. 5
What is the Role of Research in Educational Psychology?p. 8
Personal Reflection: Adaptingp. 9
The Goal of Research in Educational Psychologyp. 10
The Value of Research in Educational Psychology to the Teacherp. 10
Teaching as Decision Makingp. 10
Theory Into Practice: Teaching as Decision Makingp. 12
Research + Common Sense = Effective Teachingp. 13
Research on Effective Programsp. 13
Impact of Research on Educational Practicep. 14
Theory Into Practice: How to Be an Intelligent Consumer of Educational Psychology Researchp. 14
What Research Methods are Used in Educational Psychology?p. 16
Experimentsp. 16
Correlational Studiesp. 20
Descriptive Researchp. 21
Action Researchp. 21
Personal Reflection: Using Research to Inform Teachingp. 22
How Can I Become an Intentional Teacher?p. 22
Teacher Certificationp. 22
Beyond Certificationp. 24
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Choosing a New Curriculump. 25
Chapter Summaryp. 26
Key Termsp. 26
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 27
Theories of Development
What are Some Views of Human Development?p. 30
Aspects of Developmentp. 30
Issues of Developmentp. 30
How Did Piaget View Cognitive Development?p. 31
How Development Occursp. 32
Piaget's Stages of Developmentp. 33
Personal Reflection: Egocentrism in Actionp. 37
How is Piaget's Work Viewed Today?p. 41
Criticisms and Revisions of Piaget's Theoryp. 41
Theory Into Practice: Educational Implications of Piaget's Theoryp. 42
Neo-Piagetian and Information-Processing Views of Developmentp. 43
How Did Vygotsky View Cognitive Development?p. 43
How Development Occursp. 44
Applications of Vygotskian Theory in Teachingp. 46
Theory Into Practice: Classroom Applications of Vygotsky's Theoryp. 46
How Did Erikson View Personal and Social Development?p. 47
Stages of Psychosocial Developmentp. 48
Implications and Criticisms of Erikson's Theoryp. 50
What are Some Theories of Moral Development?p. 51
Piaget's Theory of Moral Developmentp. 51
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoningp. 53
Theory Into Practice: Fostering Moral Development in the Classroomp. 55
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theoryp. 56
Personal Reflection: Developing Characterp. 57
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Using Moral Reasoningp. 58
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Human Development to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 59
Chapter Summaryp. 60
Key Termsp. 61
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 62
Development during Childhood and Adolescencep. 64
How Do Children Develop During the Preschool Years?p. 66
Physical Development in Early Childhoodp. 67
Language Acquisitionp. 68
Personal Reflection: Understanding Developmentp. 68
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Adapting Instructionp. 71
Theory Into Practice: Promoting Literacy Development in Young Childrenp. 72
Socioemotional Developmentp. 73
What Kinds of Early Childhood Education Programs Exist?p. 75
Day-Care Programsp. 75
Preschoolsp. 75
Compensatory Preschool Programsp. 76
Early Interventionp. 77
Kindergarten Programsp. 77
Developmentally Appropriate Practicep. 78
How Do Children Develop During the Elementary Years?p. 78
Physical Development during Middle Childhoodp. 78
Cognitive Abilitiesp. 79
Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhoodp. 79
Theory Into Practice: Promoting the Development of Self-Esteemp. 81
Theory Into Practice: Helping Children Develop Social Skillsp. 83
How do Children Develop During the Middle School and High School Years?p. 83
Physical Development during Adolescencep. 83
Cognitive Developmentp. 84
Characteristics of Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoningp. 84
Theory Into Practice: Promoting Formal Operational Thoughtp. 85
Socioemotional Development in Adolescencep. 85
Identity Developmentp. 86
Personal Reflection: Coping with Changep. 86
James Marcia's Four Identity Statusesp. 87
Self-Concept and Self-Esteemp. 88
Social Relationshipsp. 88
Emotional Developmentp. 89
Problems of Adolescencep. 90
Theory Into Practice: Providing Developmental Assets for Adolescentsp. 92
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adolescent Students to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 92
Chapter Summaryp. 94
Key Termsp. 95
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 95
Student Diversityp. 96
What Is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning?p. 98
How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement?p. 99
The Role of Child-Rearing Practicesp. 101
The Link between Income and Summer Learningp. 101
The Role of Schools as Middle-Class Institutionsp. 102
School and Community Factorsp. 103
School, Family, and Community Partnershipsp. 103
Theory into Practice: Parent Involvementp. 104
Is the Low Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups Inevitable?p. 105
Implications for Teachersp. 105
How Do Ethnicity and Race Affect Students' School Experiences?p. 106
Racial and Ethnic Composition of the United Statesp. 106
Academic Achievement of Students from Under-Represented Groupsp. 107
Why Have Students from Under-Represented Groups Lagged in Achievement?p. 107
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Meeting Resistancep. 109
Effects of School Desegregationp. 110
Personal Reflection: Being Sensitive to Racep. 111
Theory into Practice: Teaching in a Culturally Diverse Schoolp. 111
How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs Affect Student Achievement?p. 112
Bilingual Educationp. 113
Theory into Practice: Teaching English Language Learnersp. 114
What Is Multicultural Education?p. 116
Dimensions of Multicultural Educationp. 117
How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students' School Experiences?p. 118
Do Males and Females Think and Learn Differently?p. 118
Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Biasp. 119
Theory into Practice: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teachingp. 120
How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles?p. 121
Definitions of Intelligencep. 122
Theory into Practice: Multiple Intelligencesp. 124
Origins of Intelligencep. 125
Theories of Learning Stylesp. 125
Aptitude-Treatment Interactionsp. 126
Personal Reflection: Understanding Diverse Thinkersp. 126
Chapter Summaryp. 127
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Student Diversity to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 128
Key Termsp. 130
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 130
Behavioral Theories of Learningp. 132
What Is Learning?p. 134
What Behavioral Learning Theories Have Evolved?p. 135
Pavlov: Classical Conditioningp. 135
Thorndike: The Law of Effectp. 136
Skinner: Operant Conditioningp. 136
What Are Some Principles of Behavioral Learning?p. 138
The Role of Consequencesp. 138
Reinforcersp. 139
Theory into Practice: Classroom Uses of Reinforcementp. 141
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcersp. 141
Theory into Practice: Practical Reinforcersp. 142
Punishersp. 143
Immediacy of Consequencesp. 145
Shapingp. 145
Personal Reflection: Modifying Behaviorp. 146
Extinctionp. 147
Schedules of Reinforcementp. 148
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Dealing with Behavior Problemsp. 150
Maintenancep. 151
The Role of Antecedentsp. 152
How Has Social Learning Theory Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Learning?p. 154
Bandura: Modeling and Observational Learningp. 154
Theory into Practice: Observational Learningp. 155
Meichenbaum's Model of Self-Regulated Learningp. 157
Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theoriesp. 159
Chapter Summaryp. 159
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Behavioral and Social Learning Theory to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 160
Key Termsp. 162
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 163
Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learningp. 164
What Is an Information-Processing Model?p. 166
Sensory Registerp. 167
Short-Term or Working Memoryp. 169
Long-Term Memoryp. 171
Factors That Enhance Long-Term Memoryp. 175
Other Information-Processing Modelsp. 175
Research on the Brainp. 177
What Causes People to Remember or Forget?p. 181
Forgetting and Rememberingp. 181
Theory into Practice: Reducing Retroactive Inhibitionp. 182
Practicep. 185
How Can Memory Strategies Be Taught?p. 186
Verbal Learningp. 186
Paired-Associate Learningp. 186
Theory into Practice: Keyword Mnemonicsp. 187
Serial and Free-Recall Learningp. 188
What Makes Information Meaningful?p. 189
Rote versus Meaningful Learningp. 190
Schema Theoryp. 191
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Differing Approachesp. 192
How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn?p. 192
What Study Strategies Help Students Learn?p. 193
Note-Takingp. 194
Underliningp. 194
Summarizingp. 194
Writing to Learnp. 195
Outlining and Mappingp. 195
The PQ4R Methodp. 195
Theory into Practice: Teaching the PQ4R Methodp. 196
Personal Reflection: Defining Effectivep. 196
How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn?p. 197
Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledgep. 197
Organizing Informationp. 199
Chapter Summaryp. 201
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Cognitive Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 202
Key Termsp. 204
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 205
The Effective Lessonp. 206
What is Direct Instruction?p. 209
Personal Reflection: Balancing Instructionp. 209
How Is a Direct Instruction Lesson Taught?p. 210
State Learning Objectivesp. 213
Theory into Practice: Planning a Lessonp. 213
Orient Students to the Lessonp. 214
Theory into Practice: Communicating Objectives to Studentsp. 215
Review Prerequisitesp. 215
Present New Materialp. 216
Conduct Learning Probesp. 219
Provide Independent Practicep. 222
Assess Performance and Provide Feedbackp. 224
Provide Distributed Practice and Reviewp. 224
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Designing Lessonsp. 225
What Does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Suggest?p. 226
Advantages and Limitations of Direct Instructionp. 227
How Do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts?p. 227
Concept Learning and Teachingp. 227
Teaching for Transfer of Learningp. 228
How Are Discussions Used in Instruction?p. 232
Subjective and Controversial Topicsp. 232
Difficult and Novel Conceptsp. 232
Affective Objectivesp. 232
Whole-Class Discussionsp. 233
Small-Group Discussionsp. 234
Chapter Summaryp. 235
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Direct Instruction to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 236
Key Termsp. 238
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 239
Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instructionp. 240
What is the Constructivist view of Learning?p. 243
Historical Roots of Constructivismp. 243
Top-Down Processingp. 245
Cooperative Learningp. 245
Discovery Learningp. 245
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Developing Self-Regulating Techniquesp. 247
Self-Regulated Learningp. 248
Scaffoldingp. 248
APA's Learner-Centered Psychological Principlesp. 249
Constructivist Methods in the Content Areasp. 250
Theory Into Practice: Introducing Reciprocal Teachingp. 252
Research on Constructivist Methodsp. 254
How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?p. 255
Cooperative Learning Methodsp. 256
Theory Into Practice: Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)p. 257
Research on Cooperative Learningp. 259
Personal Reflection: Working Togetherp. 261
How Are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught?p. 262
The Problem-Solving Processp. 262
Teaching Creative Problem Solvingp. 264
Teaching Thinking Skillsp. 266
Critical Thinkingp. 269
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 270
Chapter Summaryp. 271
Key Termsp. 272
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 273
Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needsp. 274
What Are Elements of Effective Instruction Beyond A Good Lesson?p. 276
Carroll's Model of School Learning and QAITp. 277
How Are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences?p. 279
Between-Class Ability Groupingp. 281
Untrackingp. 284
Regrouping for Reading and Mathematicsp. 284
Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schoolsp. 284
Within-Class Ability Groupingp. 285
What is Mastery Learning?p. 286
Forms of Mastery Learningp. 286
Theory Into Practice: Applying the Principles of Mastery Learningp. 287
Research on Mastery Learningp. 288
What Are Some Ways of Individualizing Instruction?p. 288
Peer Tutoringp. 289
Adult Tutoringp. 290
Theory Into Practice: Effectively Using Tutoring Methods to Meet Individual Needsp. 291
How is Technology Used in Education?p. 292
Technology for Instructionp. 292
Technology for Learningp. 293
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Should Computers Be in Labs or Classrooms?p. 293
Technology for Administrationp. 299
Research on Computer-Assisted Instructionp. 299
Cutting Edge Educational Technologiesp. 300
Personal Reflection: Computers in Educationp. 301
What Educational Programs Exist for Students Placed at Risk?p. 302
Compensatory Education Programsp. 303
Early Intervention Programsp. 307
Comprehensive School Reform Programsp. 308
After-School and Summer School Programsp. 309
Chapter Summaryp. 309
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needsp. 310
Key Termsp. 312
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 313
Motivating Students to Learnp. 314
What is Motivation?p. 317
What Are Some Theories of Motivation?p. 318
Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theoryp. 318
Motivation and Human Needsp. 319
Motivation and Attribution Theoryp. 321
Motivation and Self-Regulated Learningp. 324
Theory Into Practice: Giving Students Motivating Feedbackp. 324
Motivation and Expectancy Theoryp. 325
How Can Achievement Motivation Be Enhanced?p. 326
Motivation and Goal Orientationsp. 327
Personal Reflection: Using Different Stylesp. 327
Learned Helplessness and Attribution Trainingp. 330
Theory Into Practice: Helping Students Overcome Learned Helplessnessp. 331
Teacher Expectations and Achievementp. 331
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Expectationsp. 333
Anxiety and Achievementp. 333
How can Teachers Increase Students' Motivation to Learn?p. 334
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivationp. 334
How Can Teachers Enhance Intrinsic Motivation?p. 336
Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learnp. 338
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Adapting Strategiesp. 339
How Can Teachers Reward Performance, Effort, and Improvement?p. 341
Using Praise Effectivelyp. 342
Teaching Students to Praise Themselvesp. 343
Using Grades as Incentivesp. 343
Incentive Systems Based on Goal Structurep. 343
Chapter Summaryp. 344
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Motivation to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 346
Key Termsp. 347
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 347
Effective Learning Environmentsp. 348
What is an Effective Learning Environment?p. 351
What is the Impact of Time on Learning?p. 352
Using Allocated Time for Instructionp. 352
Using Engaged Time Effectivelyp. 355
Can Time On-Task Be Too High?p. 360
Personal Reflection: Maintaining Controlp. 360
Classroom Management in the Student-Centered Classroomp. 361
What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management?p. 361
Starting Out the Year Rightp. 362
Setting Class Rulesp. 363
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Rules of the Roomp. 364
What Are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior?p. 364
The Principle of Least Interventionp. 365
Preventionp. 365
Nonverbal Cuesp. 366
Praising Behavior That Is Incompatible with Misbehaviorp. 367
Praising Other Studentsp. 367
Verbal Remindersp. 367
Repeated Remindersp. 367
Applying Consequencesp. 368
How is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems?p. 369
How Student Misbehavior Is Maintainedp. 369
Principles of Applied Behavior Analysisp. 371
Applied Behavior Analysis Programsp. 374
Theory Into Practice: Using a Daily Report Card Systemp. 376
Theory into Practice: Establishing a Group
Contingency Programp. 377
Ethics of Behavioral Methodsp. 378
How Can Serious Behavior Problems be Prevented?p. 379
Preventive Programsp. 379
Identifying Causes of Misbehaviorp. 380
Enforcing Rules and Practicesp. 380
Enforcing School Attendancep. 380
Check and Connectp. 381
Avoiding Trackingp. 381
Practicing Interventionp. 381
Requesting Family Involvementp. 382
Using Peer Mediationp. 382
Judiciously Applying Consequencesp. 383
Chapter Summaryp. 383
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Effective Learning Environments to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 384
Key Termsp. 386
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 387
Learners with Exceptionalitiesp. 388
Who are Learners with Exceptionalities?p. 391
"People-First" Languagep. 392
Types of Exceptionalities and the Numbers of Students Servedp. 392
Students with Mental Retardationp. 394
Theory into Practice: Teaching Adaptive Behavior Skillsp. 398
Students with Learning Disabilitiesp. 399
Theory into Practice: Teaching Students with Learning Disabilitiesp. 401
Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderp. 403
Theory into Practice: Students with ADHD: The Role of the Teacherp. 403
Students with Speech or Language Impairmentsp. 404
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disordersp. 405
Students with Autismp. 407
Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairmentsp. 407
Students Who Are Gifted and Talentedp. 408
What is Special Education?p. 411
Public Law 94-142 and IDEAp. 411
An Array of Special-Education Servicesp. 414
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Referring a Studentp. 417
Theory into Practice: Preparing IEPsp. 419
What is Inclusion?p. 423
Personal Reflection: The Struggle over Inclusionp. 424
Research on Inclusionp. 425
Adapting Instructionp. 427
Theory into Practice: Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needsp. 427
Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awarenessp. 428
Prevention and Early Interventionp. 429
Computers and Students with Disabilitiesp. 429
Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoringp. 430
Special-Education Teamsp. 431
Social Integration of Students with Disabilitiesp. 431
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Finding What Worksp. 432
Chapter Summaryp. 433
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Learners with Exceptionalities to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 434
Key Termsp. 436
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 436
Assessing Student Learningp. 438
What are Instructional Objectives and How are They Used?p. 440
Planning Lesson Objectivesp. 441
Theory into Practice: Planning Courses, Units, and Lessonsp. 444
Linking Objectives and Assessmentp. 446
Using Taxonomies of Instructional Objectivesp. 447
Research on Instructional Objectivesp. 450
Why Is Evaluation Important?p. 450
Evaluation as Feedbackp. 451
Evaluation as Informationp. 452
Evaluation as Incentivep. 453
How is Student Learning Evaluated?p. 453
Formative and Summative Evaluationsp. 453
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluationsp. 453
Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goalsp. 454
How Are Tests Constructed?p. 456
Principles of Achievement Testingp. 456
Theory into Practice: Making Assessments Fairp. 458
Using a Table of Specificationsp. 459
Writing Selected-Response Test Itemsp. 461
Theory Into Practice: Writing Multiple-Choice Tests (Format Suggestions)p. 462
Writing Constructed-Response Itemsp. 465
Writing and Evaluating Essay Testsp. 466
Theory into Practice: Detecting Bluffing in Students' Essaysp. 468
Writing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Itemsp. 469
Theory into Practice: Peer Evaluationsp. 470
What are Authentic, Portfolio, and Performance Assessments?p. 472
Portfolio Assessmentp. 473
Theory into Practice: Using Portfolios in the Classroomp. 475
Performance Assessmentp. 477
How Well Do Performance Assessments Work?p. 477
Scoring Rubrics for Performance Assessmentsp. 479
How are Grades Determined?p. 480
Establishing Grading Criteriap. 481
Assigning Letter Gradesp. 481
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Establishing a Grading Systemp. 482
Performance Gradingp. 483
Other Alternative Grading Systemsp. 484
Assigning Report Card Gradesp. 486
Personal Reflection: Assigning Gradesp. 486
Chapter Summaryp. 487
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Assessing Student Learning to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 488
Key Termsp. 490
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 491
Standardized Testsp. 492
What are Standardized Tests and How are They Used?p. 495
Selection and Placementp. 496
Diagnosisp. 496
Evaluationp. 497
School Improvementp. 497
Accountabilityp. 497
Personal Reflection: Mixed Messagesp. 500
Theory into Practice: Teaching Test-Taking Skillsp. 501
What Types of Standardized Tests are Given?p. 503
Aptitude Testsp. 503
Norm-Referenced Achievement Testsp. 506
Criterion-Referenced Achievement Testsp. 507
Standard Settingp. 507
How are Standardized Tests Interpreted?p. 507
Percentile Scoresp. 507
Grade-Equivalent Scoresp. 508
Standard Scoresp. 509
Theory into Practice: Interpreting Standardized Test Scoresp. 512
What are Some Issues Concerning Standardized and classroom testing?p. 517
Test Validityp. 517
Test Reliabilityp. 518
Test Biasp. 519
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Dealing with High-Stakes Testingp. 520
Computer Test Administrationp. 520
Chapter Summaryp. 521
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Standardized Tests to Improve Teaching and Learningp. 522
Key Termsp. 522
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensurep. 524
Developing Your Portfoliop. 525
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