Educational Research : Fundamentals for the Consumer

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This book educates students to become intelligent consumers of educational research and introduces basic research principles to those who may eventually use research in their work. The book is designed to enable readers to become intelligent consumers of educational research and to introduce basic research principles to those who may eventually be involved in research in their work.Principles for conducting research and criteria for evaluating its overall credibility, understanding the intent of the researcher, the procedures, and the results -Instruction on how to analyze and evaluate research and judge the usefulness of the findings for educational practice.For anyone interested in educational research.

Table of Contents

To the Instructorp. xv
To the Studentp. xix
Introduction to Research in Educationp. 1
Chapter Road Mapp. 2
Why Research?p. 2
Sources of Knowledgep. 3
Personal Experiencep. 3
Traditionp. 3
Authorityp. 4
Researchp. 4
Characteristics of Scientific Inquiryp. 5
The Nature of Scientific Inquiryp. 5
Purpose of Scientific Inquiryp. 6
Principles of Scientific Inquiryp. 6
Applying Systematic Inquiry to Educationp. 8
Types of Educational Researchp. 10
Two Major Traditions of Research: Quantitative and Qualitativep. 10
Basic, Applied, Evaluation, and Action Researchp. 14
Research Ethicsp. 16
Educational Research Article Formatp. 18
Title and Author(s)p. 18
Abstractp. 19
Introductionp. 20
Review of Literaturep. 20
Specific Research Question or Hypothesisp. 20
Method and Designp. 20
Resultsp. 21
Discussionp. 21
Conclusionsp. 21
Referencesp. 21
Anatomy of a Research Articlep. 21
Study Questionsp. 29
Research Problems, Variables, and Hypothesesp. 31
Chapter Road Mapp. 32
Research Problemsp. 32
Sources for Research Problemsp. 33
Quantitative Research Problem Statements and Questionsp. 35
Variables in Quantitative Researchp. 36
Conceptual and Operational Definitionsp. 36
Types of Variablesp. 37
Specific Quantitative Research Problem Statements and Questionsp. 39
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Research Problemsp. 42
Hypothesesp. 44
Why Researchers Use Hypothesesp. 44
Types of Hypothesesp. 45
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Research Hypothesesp. 48
Qualitative Research Problem Statements and Questionsp. 49
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research Problemsp. 51
Study Questionsp. 52
Locating and Reviewing Related Literaturep. 54
Chapter Road Mapp. 55
The Purpose of Reviewing Related Literaturep. 55
Refining the Research Problemp. 56
Establishing the Conceptual or Theoretical Orientationp. 56
Developing Significancep. 56
Identifying Methodological Limitationsp. 56
Identifying Contradictory Findingsp. 57
Developing Research Hypothesesp. 57
Learning About New Informationp. 58
Steps to Review Related Literaturep. 58
Select a Topic and Key Termsp. 59
Identify Database and Access Softwarep. 61
Conduct Searchp. 62
Identify the Source as Primary or Secondaryp. 66
Summarize and Analyze Primary Source Informationp. 70
Organize and Write the Reviewp. 71
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating the Review of Literaturep. 76
Study Questionsp. 80
Using the Internet for Educational Researchp. 82
Chapter Road Mapp. 83
Introduction to the Internetp. 83
Strengths and Weaknesses of Using the Internet for Educational Researchp. 86
Organization of Information on the World Wide Webp. 88
Similarities Between Online and Print Research Techniquesp. 88
Differences Between Online and Print Research Techniquesp. 88
Elements of Website Organizationp. 88
Internet Search Strategiesp. 90
Subject Directoriesp. 90
Search Enginesp. 91
Metasearch Enginesp. 93
Blurring the Line Between Search Engine and Search Directoryp. 93
Beyond Web Pages: Scholarly Communication Strategiesp. 94
E-Mailp. 95
Newsgroups, E-Mail Discussion Groups, and Listservsp. 95
Conferencing and Telecommunicationsp. 96
Using Known Locationsp. 96
Review of Education Websitesp. 96
Federal Governmentp. 96
State Governmentp. 97
National Research Centersp. 97
Regional Educational Laboratoriesp. 98
Associations and Organizationsp. 98
Online Journals, Reviews and Abstractsp. 99
Statisticsp. 101
Associations and University Web Pagesp. 102
Institute of Education Sciencesp. 103
Consumer Tips: How to Cite Internet Resources in Your Referencesp. 103
Consumer Tips: Evaluating Information on the Internetp. 104
Using Educational Research: Internet Search Samplesp. 105
Study Questionsp. 107
Participants, Subjects, and Samplingp. 109
Chapter Road Mapp. 110
What Is a Participant, a Subject, and a Sample?p. 110
Types of Sampling Procedures for Quantitative Studiesp. 111
Probability Samplingp. 112
Nonprobability Samplingp. 117
Types of Sampling Procedures for Qualitative Studiesp. 119
Typical Case Samplingp. 120
Extreme Case Samplingp. 120
Maximum Variation Samplingp. 121
Snowball Samplingp. 121
Critical Case Samplingp. 121
How Participants and Sampling Affect Researchp. 122
Knowledge of Sampling Proceduresp. 122
Volunteer Samplesp. 122
Sample Sizep. 124
Subject Motivationp. 125
Sampling Biasp. 125
Response Variabilityp. 126
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Subjects Sections of Reports and Sampling Proceduresp. 127
Study Questionsp. 128
Foundations of Educational Measurementp. 130
Chapter Road Mapp. 131
Introduction to Measurementp. 131
What Is Measurement?p. 131
What Is Evaluation?p. 131
What Is Assessment?p. 132
The Purpose of Measurement for Researchp. 132
Scales of Measurementp. 133
Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurementp. 134
Frequency Distributionsp. 135
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 137
Measures of Variabilityp. 139
Correlationp. 141
Validity of Measurementp. 144
What Is Validity?p. 144
Sources of Validity Evidencep. 145
Effect of Validity on Researchp. 148
Reliability of Measurementp. 149
Types of Reliabilityp. 150
Effect of Reliability on Researchp. 154
Study Questionsp. 156
Types of Educational Measuresp. 158
Chapter Road Mapp. 159
Classifying Educational Measuresp. 159
Testsp. 160
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Interpretationsp. 160
Large-Scale Standardized Testsp. 161
Scores from Norm-Referenced Interpretationsp. 165
Questionnairesp. 166
Personality Assessmentp. 167
Attitude, Value, and Interest Questionnairesp. 168
Problems in Measuring Noncognitive Traitsp. 171
Observationsp. 172
Inferencep. 173
Laboratory Observationp. 174
Structured Field Observationsp. 174
Observer Effectsp. 175
Interviewsp. 176
Types of Interview Questionsp. 177
Interviewer Effectsp. 178
Locating and Evaluating Educational Measuresp. 180
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Instrumentationp. 182
Study Questionsp. 183
Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Designsp. 185
Chapter Road Mapp. 186
The Purpose of Nonexperimental Researchp. 186
Descriptive Studiesp. 186
Characteristics of Descriptive Studiesp. 186
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Descriptive Studiesp. 187
Relationships in Nonexperimental Designsp. 188
Comparative Studiesp. 189
Characteristics of Comparative Studiesp. 189
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Studiesp. 191
Correlational Studiesp. 193
Characteristics of Correlational Studiesp. 193
Prediction Studiesp. 194
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Correlational Studiesp. 198
Causal-Comparative and Ex Post Facto Studiesp. 201
Causal-Comparative Designsp. 202
Ex Post Facto Studiesp. 202
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Causal-Comparative and Ex Post Facto Studiesp. 203
Using Surveys in Nonexperimental Researchp. 204
Cross-Sectional Surveysp. 206
Longitudinal Surveysp. 207
Internet-Based Surveysp. 208
Anatomy of a Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Studyp. 210
Study Questionsp. 215
Experimental Research Designsp. 217
Chapter Road Mapp. 218
Characteristics of Experimental Researchp. 218
Experimental Validityp. 219
Internal Validityp. 220
External Validityp. 225
Types of Experimental Designsp. 227
Single-Group Posttest-Only Designp. 228
Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Designp. 228
Nonequivalent-Groups Posttest-Only Designp. 229
Nonequivalent-Groups Pretest-Posttest Designp. 230
Randomized-to-Groups Posttest-Only Designp. 232
Randomized-to-Groups Pretest-Posttest Designp. 234
Factorial Designsp. 234
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Experimental Researchp. 237
Single-Subject Designsp. 241
Characteristics of Single-Subject Researchp. 241
Types of Single-Subject Designsp. 242
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Single-Subject Researchp. 243
Anatomy of an Experimental Research Studyp. 245
Study Questionsp. 249
Understanding Statistical Inferencesp. 251
Chapter Road Mapp. 252
The Purpose and Nature of Inferential Statisticsp. 252
Degree of Certaintyp. 252
Estimating Errors in Sampling and Measurementp. 253
The Null Hypothesisp. 253
Beyond Significance Testingp. 255
Confidence Intervalsp. 255
Effect Sizep. 256
Interpreting Results of Specific Inferential Testsp. 258
The t Testp. 259
Simple Analysis of Variancep. 259
Factorial Analysis of Variancep. 260
Analysis of Covariancep. 264
Multivariate Statisticsp. 264
Chi-Squarep. 265
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Inferential Statisticsp. 267
Study Questionsp. 268
Qualitative Research Designs and Analysisp. 270
Chapter Road Mapp. 271
Introduction to Qualitative Researchp. 271
Characteristics of Qualitative Researchp. 272
Natural Settingsp. 272
Direct Data Collectionp. 273
Rich Narrative Descriptionsp. 273
Process Orientationp. 273
Inductive Data Analysisp. 274
Participant Perspectivesp. 275
Emergent Research Designp. 275
Ethnographic Studiesp. 276
Identifying and Entering the Research Sitep. 277
Selecting Participantsp. 277
Obtaining Datap. 278
Data Analysis and Interpretationp. 283
Case Studiesp. 288
Research Problem Statementp. 289
Entering the Research Sitep. 290
Selecting Participantsp. 290
Obtaining Datap. 291
Data Analysisp. 291
Phenomenological Studiesp. 291
Grounded Theory Studiesp. 293
Credibility of Qualitative Researchp. 295
Triangulationp. 296
Reliabilityp. 296
External Validityp. 298
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Researchp. 298
Anatomy of a Qualitative Research Studyp. 300
Study Questionsp. 306
Mixed-Method and Action Researchp. 308
Chapter Road Mapp. 309
Introduction to Mixed-Method Researchp. 309
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Mixed-Method Designsp. 310
When to Use Mixed-Method Designsp. 312
Types of Mixed-Method Designsp. 312
Characteristics and Procedural Considerations for Mixed-Method Designsp. 315
Steps in Conducting a Mixed-Method Studyp. 319
Consumer Tips: Evaluating Mixed-Method Studiesp. 320
Anatomy of a Mixed-Method Research Studyp. 321
Action Researchp. 329
What Is Action Research?p. 329
Benefits of Action Researchp. 330
Conducting Action Researchp. 332
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Action Researchp. 339
Anatomy of an Action Research Studyp. 340
Study Questionsp. 342
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 344
Chapter Road Mapp. 345
Purpose and Nature of the Discussionp. 345
Interpretation of the Resultsp. 346
Interpretation Related to the Problem and/or Hypothesisp. 346
Interpretation Based on Theoryp. 346
Interpretation Related to Methodologyp. 347
Interpretation Based on Statistical Proceduresp. 348
Interpretation Related to Previous Researchp. 350
Conclusionsp. 351
Limitationsp. 353
Recommendations and Implicationsp. 357
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Discussion and Conclusion Sectionsp. 359
Study Questionsp. 360
The Intelligent Consumer: Putting it All Togetherp. 361
Questions for Quantitative Studiesp. 362
Questions for Qualitative Studiesp. 364
Questions for Mixed-Method Studiesp. 366
Examples of Research Articlesp. 367
Referencesp. 395
Creditsp. 397
Indexp. 398
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