9780130315830

Effective Supervision A Guidebook for Supervisors, Team Leaders, and Work Coaches

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130315830

  • ISBN10:

    0130315834

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-08-31
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Effective Supervision: A Guidebook for Supervisors; Team Leaders, and Work Coaches presents hands-on, real-world supervision skills that are supported by coverage of the theory and principles of supervision. The text covers many important topics related to supervision, including facilitating change, decision making/problem solving, conflict management, and teambuilding and teamwork. Some of the features of this practical text include: Applications of supervision principles based on actual work cases that help provide context for the concepts presented Activities based on actual work cases that allow users to apply the theory and principles of supervision A worktext format that allows for immediate review and application of the concepts presented This text is appropriate for the traditional classroom as well as for seminars, workshops, and distance learning environments.

Author Biography

David L. Goetsch is Provost of the Fort Walton Beach Campus of the University of West Florida and Okaloosa-Walton Community College where he is also Professor of Quality, Safety, and Management. He teaches Effective Supervision in all of the formats described earlier and is also President and CEO of the Center for Effective Supervision, a private consulting and training company that specializes in developing supervisors for business, industry, and government organizations.

Table of Contents

Leadership
1(12)
What Is Leadership?
1(1)
What Is a Good Leader?
2(1)
Are Leaders Born or Made?
2(1)
Leadership and Motivation
3(1)
Understanding Individual Human Needs
3(1)
Theories of Leadership
4(2)
Theory X and Leadership
5(1)
Theory Y and Leadership
5(1)
Theory XY and Leadership
6(1)
Leadership Styles
6(2)
Autocratic Leadership
6(1)
Democratic Leadership
7(1)
Participative Leadership
7(1)
Goal-Oriented Leadership
7(1)
Situational Leadership
7(1)
Selecting the Appropriate Leadership Style
8(1)
Winning and Maintaining Followership
8(2)
Popularity and the Leader
8(1)
Leadership Characteristics That Win and Maintain Followership
9(1)
Pitfalls that will Undermine Followership
9(1)
Trust Building and Leadership
10(3)
Facilitating Change
13(10)
Facilitating Change as a Leadership Function
13(1)
Change-Management System
14(3)
Scanners
15(1)
Receiving Points
15(1)
Deliberative Groups
16(1)
Executive Committee
16(1)
Change Implementation Model
17(2)
Develop the Change ``Picture''
17(1)
Communicate with All Stakeholders about the Change
18(1)
Provide Any Necessary Training
18(1)
Implement the Change
18(1)
Monitor and Adjust
19(1)
Restructuring and Change
19(4)
Be Smart and Empathetic
20(1)
Communicate the Change ``Picture''
20(1)
Establish Incentives That Promote the Change
20(1)
Continue to Train
20(3)
Communication
23(18)
Communication Defined
23(2)
Communication Versus Effective Communication
24(1)
Communication Levels
24(1)
Communication as a Process
25(1)
Inhibitors of Communication
26(2)
Differences in Meaning
26(1)
Insufficient Trust
26(1)
Information Overload
26(1)
Interference
27(1)
Condescending Tones
27(1)
Listening Problems
27(1)
Premature Judgments
27(1)
Inaccurate Assumptions
27(1)
Technological Glitches
27(1)
Communication Networks
28(1)
Communication by Listening
29(2)
What Is Listening?
29(1)
Inhibitors of Effective Listening
30(1)
Communicating Nonverbally
31(2)
Body Factors
31(1)
Voice Factors
32(1)
Proximity Factors
32(1)
Communicating Verbally
33(1)
Interest
33(1)
Attitude
33(1)
Flexibility
34(1)
Tact
34(1)
Courtesy
34(1)
Improving Verbal Communication by Questioning
34(1)
Drop Your Defenses
34(1)
State Your Purpose
34(1)
Acknowledge Emotions
34(1)
Use Open-Ended Questions and Phrase Questions Carefully
35(1)
Communicating Corrective Feedback
35(1)
Steps to Improved Communication
36(1)
Selecting the Appropriate Communication Method
36(1)
Electronic Communication
37(4)
Ethics
41(12)
An Ethical Dilemma
41(1)
Ethics Defined
42(3)
Guidelines for Determining Ethical Behavior
43(2)
Ethical Behavior in Organizations
45(1)
The Supervisor's Role in Ethics
45(2)
Best Ratio Approach
46(1)
Black and White Approach
46(1)
Full Potential Approach
46(1)
The Organization's Role in Ethics
47(1)
Creating an Ethical Environment
47(1)
Setting an Ethical Example
47(1)
Handling Ethical Dilemmas
48(5)
Apply the Guidelines
48(1)
Select the Approach
49(1)
Proceed with the Decision
49(4)
Motivation
53(20)
Definition and Rationable for Motivation What Motivates People
54(2)
Specific Human Needs Related to Work
55(1)
The Work Ethic and Motivation
56(1)
Improving the Work Ethic
56(1)
Job Satisfaction and Motivation
57(1)
Expectancy and Motivation
58(1)
Achievement and Motivation
59(1)
Recognizing Achievement-Oriented Employees
59(1)
Using Achievement to Motivate Employees
59(1)
Job Design and Motivation
60(2)
Task-Oriented Job Design
60(1)
People-Oriented Job Design
61(1)
Balanced Orientation in Job Design
61(1)
How to Use Job Design to Motivate
61(1)
Competition and Motivation
62(1)
Communication and Motivation
63(1)
Promotions and Motivation
64(1)
New Employees and Motivation
64(2)
Problem Employees and Motivation
66(1)
Motivating Part-Time Workers
67(1)
Incentive Programs and Motivation
68(1)
Developing Personal Motivation Plans (PMPs)
69(4)
Decision Making and Problem Solving
73(16)
Decision Making Defined
73(2)
Evaluating Decisions
74(1)
Problems and Decision Making
75(2)
Characteristics of Problems
75(2)
The Decision-Making Process
77(3)
Identify/Anticipate the Problem
77(2)
Consider Alternatives
79(1)
Choose the Best Alternative, Monitor, and Adjust
79(1)
Decision-Making Models
80(1)
Objective Approach to Decision Making
80(1)
Subjective Approach to Decision Making
80(1)
Involving Employees in Decision Making
81(2)
Advantages of Employee Involvement
81(1)
Disadvantages of Employee Involvement
81(1)
Brainstorming
81(1)
Nominal Group Technique
82(1)
Quality Circles
82(1)
Potential Problems with Group Decision Making
82(1)
Information and Decision Making
83(2)
Data Versus Information
84(1)
Value of Information
84(1)
Amount of Information
84(1)
Creativity in Decision Making
85(4)
Creativity Defined
85(1)
Creative Process
86(1)
Factors That Inhibit Creativity
86(3)
Performance Appraisal
89(18)
Rationale for Performance Appraisals
89(1)
Effective Performance Appraisal
90(1)
Supervisor's Role in Performance Appraisal
90(1)
Developing and Completing the Appraisal Form
90(3)
Performance Criteria
92(1)
Rating Methodology
92(1)
Comments Section
92(1)
Employee's Response Section
93(1)
Supervisor's Report Section
93(1)
Keeping Performance Appraisals Consistent and Objective
93(3)
Review Performance Standards
93(1)
Base Ratings on Facts
94(1)
Avoid Personality Bias
95(1)
Avoid Extremes in Assigning Ratings
96(1)
Avoid the Halo Effect
96(1)
Avoid Pecking Order Bias
96(1)
Conducting the Appraisal Interview
96(2)
Communication
96(1)
Feedback
97(1)
Counseling
97(1)
Planning for Improvement
98(1)
Facilitating the Appraisal Interview
98(2)
Explain the Purpose of the Performance Appraisal
98(1)
Discuss the Ratings
98(1)
Solicit Feedback
99(1)
Find Out How Employees Rate Themselves
99(1)
Set Goals for Improvement
99(1)
Follow-Up and Feedback
99(1)
Giving Corrective Feedback To Employees
100(1)
Legal Aspects of Performance Appraisals
101(2)
Keep Comprehensive Records
101(1)
Focus on Performance, Not Personality
102(1)
Be Positive, Constructive, and Specific
102(1)
Be Honest and Treat All Employees the Same
102(1)
Apply Objective Standards
102(1)
The Supervisor as a Career Coach
103(4)
Employee Complaints
107(10)
Why Complaints Must Be Handled Properly
107(1)
Roles of Listening in Handling Complaints
108(1)
Role of Questioning and Confirming in Handling Complaints
109(1)
Handling Employee Complaints
110(1)
Handling Habitual Complainers
111(1)
Involving Employees in Resolving Complaints
112(1)
Handling Complaints About Wages
113(1)
Turning Complaints into Improvements
114(3)
Conflict Management/Workplace Violence
117(20)
Causes of Workplace Conflict
117(2)
How People React to Conflict
119(1)
Why Conflict Resolution Skills Are Important
119(1)
How Conflict Should Be Handled
120(1)
How and When Conflict Should Be Stimulated
121(1)
Communication in Conflict Situations
122(1)
Dealing With Angry Employees
123(2)
Behaviors to Avoid
123(1)
What Supervisors Should Do
124(1)
How to Calm an Angry Employee
124(1)
Overcoming Territorial Behavior in Organizations
125(2)
Manifestations of Territoriality
125(1)
Overcoming Territorial Behavior
126(1)
Overcoming Negativity in Employees
127(2)
Recognizing Negativity
127(1)
Overcoming Negativity
127(2)
Workplace Violence
129(1)
Rights of Violent Employees
129(1)
Employee Liability for Workplace Violence
129(1)
Making Work-Related Determinations
130(1)
Reducing the Risk
130(2)
Natural Surveillance
131(1)
Control of Access
131(1)
Establishment of Territoriality
132(1)
Activity Support
132(1)
Administrative Controls
132(1)
Contributing Factors
132(5)
Individual Factors Associated with Violence
132(1)
Environmental Factors Associated with Violence
133(1)
Rules of Thumb for Supervisors
134(3)
Legal Issues: Discipline, Termination, Sexual Harassment, and Drugs
137(18)
Disciplining Employees: The Rationale
137(1)
Fundamentals of Disciplining Employees
138(1)
Guidelines for Disciplining Employees
139(1)
The Discipline Process
140(1)
Informal Discussion/Counseling
141(1)
Verbal Warning
141(5)
Written Warning
142(1)
Suspension
143(1)
Dismissal
143(3)
Sexual Harassment and the Supervisor
146(4)
What Is Sexual Harassment?
146(1)
EEOC Guidelines on Sexual Harassment
146(1)
Effects of Sexual Harassment
147(1)
What Is the Supervisor's Role?
148(1)
Do's and Don'ts for Supervisors
149(1)
Drug Abuse in the Workplace
150(5)
Supervisor's Role in Handling Drug Abuse in the Workplace
150(5)
Training
155(16)
Training Defined
155(1)
Need for Training
156(2)
Competition in the Marketplace
157(1)
Rapid and Continual Change
157(1)
Technology Transfer Problems
157(1)
Changing Demographics
157(1)
Assessing Training Needs
158(2)
Writing Training Objectives
160(1)
Providing Training
161(2)
Internal Approaches
161(1)
External Approaches
162(1)
Partnership Approaches
162(1)
Evaluating Training
163(2)
The Supervisor as a Trainer
165(3)
Principles of Learning
165(1)
Four-Step Teaching Approach
166(2)
Training the Supervisor
168(3)
Health and Safety
171(16)
Legal Foundation of Health and Safety Programs
171(4)
Administration and Enforcement
171(1)
Employer and Employee Rights Under OSHA
172(2)
OSHA Violations
174(1)
Policy Aspects of Health and Safety
175(1)
Assigning Responsibility for Health and Safety
176(1)
Safety Training
176(1)
Accident Prevention Techniques
177(1)
Accident Investigation and Reporting
178(1)
Writing the Accident Report
178(1)
Worker's Compensation
179(2)
Worker's Compensation Benefits
180(1)
Employer Liability Beyond Workers' Compensation
180(1)
Bloodborne Pathogens and Employee Health and Safety
181(6)
Legal Considerations
181(6)
Staffing
187(22)
Staffing Defined
187(1)
Overview of the Staffing Process
188(1)
Analyzing and Specifying
188(1)
Forecasting
188(1)
Recruiting
188(1)
Interviewing
189(1)
Selecting
189(1)
Orienting
189(1)
Legal Considerations of Staffing
189(5)
Equal Employment Opportunity
190(1)
Compensation and Benefits
191(1)
Health and Safety
192(1)
Employee Relations
193(1)
Forecasting Staffing Needs
194(2)
Interviewing
196(3)
General Interviewing Guidelines
196(1)
Questions to Ask in an Interview
196(1)
Questions to Avoid in an Interview
197(1)
Characteristics to Look for in an Interview
198(1)
Contacting References
198(1)
The Employment Testing Issue
199(1)
Job Knowledge Skills
199(1)
Selection
200(1)
Put Aside Personal Bias
200(1)
Make a Checklist
200(1)
Physical Examination
201(1)
Check References
201(1)
Orientation
201(1)
Other Staffing Concerns
202(7)
Finding Employees During Labor Shortages
202(1)
Reference Checking
203(1)
Handling Layoffs Effectively
203(1)
Termination by Discharge
204(5)
Total Quality
209(8)
What Is Quality?
209(1)
Total Quality Defined
210(1)
How Is Total Quality Different?
210(1)
Key Elements of Total Quality
211(3)
Customer Focus
211(1)
Obsession with Quality
212(1)
Scientific Approach
212(1)
Long-Term Commitment
212(1)
Teamwork
212(1)
Continual Improvement of Systems
212(1)
Education and Training
212(1)
Freedom through Control
212(1)
Unity of Purpose
213(1)
Employee Involvement and Empowerment
213(1)
Supervisor's Role in Quality Improvement
214(3)
Team Building and Teamwork
217(16)
Overview of Teamwork
217(2)
Rationale for Teams
217(1)
Learning to Work Together
218(1)
Team Performance
218(1)
Four-Step Approach to Team Building
219(3)
Assessing Team Needs
220(1)
Planning Team-Building Activities
221(1)
Executing Team-Building Activities
222(1)
Evaluating Team-Building Activities
222(1)
``Coaching'' Work Teams
222(3)
Clearly Defined Charter
223(1)
Team Development/Team Building
223(1)
Mentoring
223(1)
Mutual Respect and Trust
223(1)
Human Diversity
224(1)
Handling Conflict in Teams
225(2)
Resolution Strategies for Team Conflicts
226(1)
Structural Inhibitors of Teamwork
227(1)
Rewarding Team and Individual Performance
228(2)
Nonmonetary Rewards
229(1)
Recognizing Teamwork and Team Players
230(3)
Appendix A Web Site Linkages for Supervisors 233(2)
Appendix B Success Tips for Supervisors 235(2)
Appendix C Checklists for Supervisors 237(4)
Index 241

Excerpts

BACKGROUND One of the most valuable assets an organization can have in today''s hypercompetitive global marketplace is talented supervisors who know how to achieve consistent peak performance from their direct reports and who know how to help their direct reports improve continually. A good supervisor makes the same kinds of contributions to an organization''s success that a good coach makes to a professional sports team''s success. Supervisors go by many names in today''s workplace--team leader, work coach, foreman, and many other titles. Regardless of what they are called, supervisors are people who are responsible for the performance of a given unit and the people, processes, and procedures that, together, generate that performance. Carrying out this responsibility has become an increasingly complex undertaking. There are many reasons for this. Prominent among them are rapid and continual technological advances; the unrelenting pressure of global competition; a steadily growing body of law relating to employee rights, safety, and health; a national trend toward more conflict and violence in the workplace; the persistent problems associated with substance abuse; the worldwide "quality revolution"; and demands from the public for ethical business practices. WHY THIS BOOK WAS WRITTEN AND FOR WHOM This book was written to satisfy the need for (1) an up-to-date teaching text that allows students in colleges, universities, and technical schools to learn "hands-on, real-world" supervision skills in addition to the foundational theories, principles, and concepts on which those skills are built; (2) a practical "how-to" teaching tool for use in business, industry, and government training settings such as seminars, workshops, and short courses; and (3) a "hands-on" oriented text that can be used for teaching supervision in a distance learning format (on-line, simulcast, or self-paced/text-based). Effective Supervisionwas developed in a "worktext" format so that it could meet all three of these needs. All of the text material one would expect to find in a traditional textbook on supervision is contained in this book. In addition, each section of text in each chapter is followed by real-world "Application and Discussion" activities that require learners to discuss and apply the material just presented. These activities help learners transform theoretical and conceptual material into practical, hands-on skills. At the end of every chapter, comprehensive "On-the-Job Scenarios" require learners to apply all of the material from the chapter in solving the types of actual problems supervisors confront on the job. The goal of Effective Supervisionis to develop individuals who don''t just know about supervision, but who know how to supervise. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK This book was designed to be used in any one or all of the following approaches: (1) as the principal teaching tool in a traditional classroom setting; (2) as a "hands-on" supplement to another text in a traditional classroom setting; (3) as the principal teaching tool for seminars, workshops, or short courses provided for business, industry, and government organizations; and (4) as the principal teaching tool in a distance learning course on supervision. Strategies for using this book most effectively in each of these settings follow. Traditional Classroom Setting In this setting, learners should read the text material in the usual manner. The "Application and Discussion" activities can be used in two ways. They can be used to guide and generate discussion during class, and they can be used as written assignments to be completed outside of class. The "On-the-Job Scenarios" at the end of each chapter can be used as group projects, written assignments, or tests, or as the basis for individual or group classroom presentations and research papers. Having students "act out" the scenarios in small groups in class is also an effective learning strategy. Having done so, the rest of the class can then discuss and critique their solutions. Tests are provided as a supplement. Supplement in a Traditional Classroom Setting Effective Supervisioncan be used to supplement other texts, particularly in providing realistic hands-on, skill-building activities. The "Application and Discussion" activities and the "On-the-Job Scenarios" from each chapter are flexible enough to be used in conjunction with any supervision text. Tests are provided in the supplement. Seminars, Workshops, and Short Courses Effective Supervisionwas designed in such a way as to be a complete "seminar in a book." Everything that is needed to provide a comprehensive seminar, workshop, or short course on supervision can be found within its covers. In addition, each chapter can be used as a one-topic seminar that focuses on a particular area of need or concern. The "Application and Discussion" activities and the "On-the-Job Scenarios" are especially effective for helping people who are already working to develop the knowledge and skills needed to be successful supervisors. Distance Learning Courses Effective Supervision,along with the supplemental Instructor''s Manual that accompanies it, makes an excellent tool for use in a distance learning course. All of the theories, concepts, and principles needed are contained in each chapter. The "Application and Discussion" activities can be used to guide and generate on-line discussion in chat rooms. They can also be used as written assignments that can be submitted electronically. The "On-the-Job Scenarios" can be used for assigning larger projects. Tests are provided in the supplement. Various web page linkages are listed in Appendix A. HOW THIS BOOK DIFFERS FROM OTHERS There are many excellent books available on supervision. Effective Supervisioncontains all of the material one would expect to find in these and any other current book on the topic, and it has the following strengths not associated with most supervision texts: (1) All of the discussion, application, and on-the-job activities come from actual work cases and are designed to place learners in the shoes of practicing supervisors and require them to answer the question, "Based on what you just learned, what would you do in this situation?" Learners read about no more than one subtopic at a time in a chapter before being required to apply that reading in dealing with an actual on-the-job problem; (2) All material in this book has been field-tested and revised based on instructor, student, and trainer input. Activities that worked well in a live setting were kept; others were replaced. The material contained herein has been tested in traditional classrooms, seminars, workshops, short courses, and distance learning settings. In all of these settings it has been well received, the practical hands-on approach being its most popular feature; and (3) Effective Supervisionis up-to-date in terms of both the text material and the hands-on activities. All activities contained in this book are of the kind that supervisors can expect to confront in today''s workplace. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the reviewers of this text: Constantine Ciesielski, East Carolina University (NC); Brian Hoyt, Ohio University; and Allen B. Young, Bessemer State Technical College (AL).

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