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9780130944382

Effective Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse Learners

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  • ISBN13:

    9780130944382

  • ISBN10:

    0130944386

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This popular book investigates the teaching, instruction and curricula required to meet the needs of diverse learners who by virtue of their experiential, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds, challenge traditional curriculum and instructional programs. It provides a summary of the characteristics of students with diverse learning and curricular needs as well as an essential examination of current issues in education. It also introduces six key principles to direct teachers through the design of instruction and curriculum to ensure that diverse learners succeed in the classroom. Characteristics of Students with Diverse Learning and Curricular Needs; Effective Strategies for Teaching Beginning Reading; Effective Strategies for Teaching Writing; Effective Strategies for Teaching Mathematics; Effective Strategies for Teaching Science; Effective Strategies for Teaching Social Studies; Modulating Instruction for English-language Learners; Contextual Issues and Their Influence on Curricular Change. For teachers of diverse learners.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(23)
A Retrospective of Educational Innovations
4(2)
Reading Innovations
4(1)
Mathematics Innovations
5(1)
Social Studies Innovations
5(1)
Science Education Innovations
6(1)
The Purpose of This Book
6(2)
Principles of High-Quality Educational Tools
8(7)
Big Ideas
8(2)
Conspicuous Strategies
10(1)
Mediated Scaffolding
11(1)
Strategic Integration
12(1)
Primed Background Knowledge
13(1)
Judicious Review
14(1)
Benefits of Instruction Based on Quality Design Tools
15(3)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
16(1)
Developing Effective Instructional Tools
16(1)
Selecting Instructional Tools
17(1)
Modifying Instructional Tools
18(1)
Summary
18(1)
References
19(2)
Author Note
21(2)
Characteristics of Students with Diverse Learning and Curricular Needs
23(30)
A Demographic Portrait of Diversity
26(3)
High-Quality Instructional Strategies to Teach Increasingly Diverse Students
28(1)
Learner Characteristics
29(16)
Retaining Information
30(5)
Strategy Knowledge and Use
35(5)
Vocabulary Knowledge
40(3)
Language Coding
43(2)
Summary
45(2)
References
47(4)
Author Note
51(2)
Effective Strategies for Teaching Beginning Reading
53(40)
Current Issues in Beginning Reading
54(2)
Research on Beginning Reading
55(1)
Principles for Improving Instructional Strategies in Beginning Reading
56(18)
Beginning Reading: Designing Instruction around Big Ideas
56(7)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies
63(4)
Designing Mediated Scaffolding
67(2)
Designing Strategic Integration
69(2)
Designing Primed Background Knowledge
71(1)
Designing Judicious Review
72(2)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
74(4)
Developing Instructional Tools
75(1)
Selecting Instructional Tools
76(1)
Modifying Instructional Tools
77(1)
Summary
78(11)
References
89(3)
Author Note
92(1)
Effective Strategies for Teaching Writing
93(28)
Current Issues in Writing Instruction
94(3)
Opportunity to Learn
94(1)
Author versus Secretary, or Author and Secretary
95(1)
Technology
96(1)
Writing Assessment
97(1)
Principles for Improving Instructional Strategies in Writing
97(15)
Designing Instruction around Big Ideas
97(2)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies
99(2)
Designing Mediated Scaffolding
101(6)
Designing Strategic Integration
107(3)
Designing Primed Background Knowledge
110(1)
Designing Judicious Review
110(2)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
112(3)
Development
112(1)
Selection
113(1)
Modification
114(1)
Summary
115(1)
References
116(3)
Author Note
119(2)
Effective Strategies for Teaching Mathematics
121(28)
Principles for Improving Math Instruction Strategies
124(19)
Designing Instruction around Big Ideas
124(5)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies
129(9)
Designing Mediated Scaffolding
138(1)
Designing Primed Background Knowledge
139(1)
Designing Strategic Integration
140(2)
Designing Judicious Review
142(1)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
143(3)
Developing Instructional Tools
143(1)
Selecting Instructional Tools
144(1)
Modifying Instructional Tools
145(1)
Summary
146(1)
References
147(1)
Author Note
148(1)
Effective Strategies for Teaching Science
149(28)
Current Issues in Science Instruction
150(2)
Principles for Improving Instructional Strategies in Science
152(17)
Designing Instruction around Big Ideas in Science Inquiry
152(1)
Component Steps and Concepts in Science Inquiry
153(1)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies for Science Inquiry
153(3)
Designing Instruction around Big Ideas in Science Subject Matter
156(2)
Components in Science Subject Matter
158(1)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies in Science Subject Matter
158(5)
Designing Mediated Scaffolding in Science Inquiry and Subject Matter Instruction
163(4)
Designing Judicious Review
167(1)
Designing Strategic Integration
168(1)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
169(2)
Developing Instructional Tools
169(1)
Selecting Instructional Tools
170(1)
Modifying Instructional Tools
171(1)
Summary
171(2)
References
173(2)
Author Note
175(2)
Effective Strategies for Teaching Social Studies
177(26)
Current Issues in Social Studies Instruction
178(2)
Principles for Improving Instructional Strategies in Social Studies
180(17)
Designing Instruction around Big Ideas
181(7)
Designing Conspicuous Strategies
188(2)
Designing Mediated Scaffolding
190(2)
Designing Strategic Integration
192(3)
Designing Primed Background Knowledge
195(1)
Designing Judicious Review
196(1)
The Application of Instructional Design Principles
197(3)
Developing Instructional Tools in Social Studies
197(1)
Selecting Instructional Tools
198(1)
Modifying Instructional Tools
199(1)
Summary
200(1)
References
201(1)
Author Note
202(1)
Modulating Instruction for English-Language Learners
203(16)
Problems in Current Instruction of English-Language Learners
205(3)
Differing Theories About and Approaches to Second Language Instruction
206(2)
Constructs for Conceptualizing Effective Instructional Practice
208(7)
Scenario One: Merging Language Learning with Reading Instruction
210(1)
Scenario Two: Building Intellectual Accountability during Literacy Instruction
211(1)
Scenario Three: Accessing First-Language Knowledge during Literacy Instruction
212(1)
Scenario Four: Integrating Responsiveness to Cultural and Personal Diversity into Literacy Instruction
213(2)
Summary
215(1)
References
215(2)
Author Note
217(2)
Contextual Issues and their Influence on Curricular Change
219(14)
Contextual Variables
222(2)
Revising Curricula for a More Diverse Student Population
224(2)
The Problems of Context and Curricular Change
226(3)
Summary
229(1)
References
230(1)
Author Note
231(2)
Name Index 233(6)
Subject Index 239

Excerpts

Like the first edition of this book, this edition is about diverse learners who, by virtue of their instructional, experiential, cultural, socioeconomic, linguistic, cognitive, and physiological backgrounds, bring different and oftentimes additional requirements to instruction and curriculum. What are these "different" and "additional" instructional and curricular requirements? Why are they different? Why are "additional" instructional and curricular requirements necessary for these learners? What is it about diverse learners that requires teachers, publishers, developers of educational materials (e.g., textbooks and basal reading programs), school administrators, legislators, and others to consider these additional burdens? Will a teacher's effective response to these additional instructional and curricular requirements help the average and high-performing learners? Although this book is about diverse learners, it would be of little value if it focused exclusively on them and their learning and behavioral characteristics, because as we see it, they are not the issue. Instead, they areour challengeandour promise.Thus, in the interest of full and accurate disclosure, this book is about the teaching, instruction, and curricula required to give diverse learners a fighting chance to beat the odds both in today's classrooms and outside the classroom. We offer in this text a synthesis of our critical examination of pedagogical and curricular requirements in schools. What is demanded explicitly or implicitly of students with diverse learning and curricular needs by typical school tasks and materials in grades K-8? Based on these analyses, we have developed a core of six architectural principles for designing, modifying, or evaluating the instruction and curriculum for diverse learners. These six principles are thecoreof this text and serve to frame our analysis and recommendations in teaching beginning reading (Chapter 3), writing (Chapter 4), mathematics (Chapter 5), science (Chapter 6), social studies (Chapter 7), and also in teaching English-language learners (Chapter 8). The text consists of nine chapters: an introductory chapter, a chapter on the characteristics of diverse learners, six content-specific chapters, and a chapter on the contextual social and economic issues that influence curriculum change and reform. But the heart of the text is the six principles--big ideas, conspicuous strategies, mediated scaffolding, primed background knowledge, strategic integration, and judicious review--and the application of these principles across different and sometimes unwieldy knowledge structures and skills in reading, science, social studies, and mathematics. We assert that these six principles serve as the organic basis, if not the DNA, for the design of instruction and curriculum for diverse learners. We view these principles as representing the minimum instructional and curricular elements necessary for the adequate design of school materials. However, architectural principles for designing instruction, principled curricular, and instructional analyses are necessary but insufficient to ensure that diverse learners succeed in the classroom. As most practitioners know, the harsh reality is that the day-to-day success of teachers and children resides in the instructional and curricular details--in the examples teachers use to teach a concept such as proportion in mathematics; in the strategies used to make visible and clear how best to work with concepts efficiently, effectively, broadly, and deeply; in the integration of concepts across topics; and in the decisions made to schedule further review and practice that students may need to ensure critical concepts or big ideas are not forgotten, or that these ideas are not confused with other highly similar concepts or ideas. In this text, we offer guidelines for determining the curricular and instructio

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