9789810238889

Einstein's Relativity and Beyond: New Symmetry Approaches

by
  • ISBN13:

    9789810238889

  • ISBN10:

    9810238886

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-03-01
  • Publisher: WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUB CO INC
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The purposes of this book are (1) to explore and expound relativity physics and four-dimensional symmetry from the logically simplest viewpoint by making one single postulate instead of two; and (2) to indicate the simplest generalization of the Lorentz transformation in order to cope with frames with constant linear acceleration.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Overview x
Logical Connections of Relativity Theories with 4-Dimensional Symmetry xix
Introduction
1(8)
Limitations of Special Relativity
1(1)
Question #1: Can the theory of relativity be formulated solely on the basis of the first principle of relativity (without assuming the constancy of the speed of light)?
2(2)
Question #2: Can one generalize the 4-dimensional transformation for inertial frames to non-inertial frames with a constant acceleration or rotation? In accelerated frames, the speed of light is no longer a universal; is the Planck constant still a universal constant?
4(1)
Question #3: Within the 4-dimensional symmetry framework of special relativity, it appears to be impossible, in principle, to generalize the classical Liouville equation for many-particle systems to a Lorentz invariant Liouville equation. Can we overcome this difficulty?
4(1)
Question #4: In view of the profound divergence difficulties in quantum field theory, is the spacetime 4-dimensional symmetry exact at very large momenta or short distances?
5(4)
A Brief Review of Space and Time
9(10)
Space and Objects
9(2)
Time and Motion
11(1)
Inertial Frames of References
11(2)
Space and Time Transformations
13(1)
Absolute Time, Relative Time, Common Time and Taiji Time
14(5)
The Nontrivial Pursuit of Earth's Absolute Motion
19(8)
Newton, Classical Mechanics and Invariant Laws of Motion
19(3)
Maxwell's Suggestion for Finding Absolute Motion and Michelson's Interferometer
22(5)
On the Right Track --- Voigt, Lorentz and Larmor
27(8)
``Absolute Contraction of Length'' and Lorentz's Heuristic Local Time
27(2)
Exact Transformations Discovered by Larmor and Lorentz
29(6)
Poincare's Contributions and the Aether (Past and Present)
35(26)
A Remarkable Insight of Physical Time
35(2)
Poincare's Innovative Principle of Relativity
37(2)
Poincare's Theory of relativity Based on 1 Postulate and 1 Definition
39(7)
The Concept of an ``Aether'' Never Fades Away
46(2)
Conformal Transformations for Inertial Frames with Absolute Velocity and ``Conformal 4-Dimensional Symmetry'' with the Constant Speed of Light
48(3)
Poincare's Contributions to Relativity and Symmetry Principles
51(10)
Young Einstein's Novel Creation Based on 2 Postulates
61(19)
The Power of a Young Mind
61(1)
Einstein's Formulation of Special Relativity with 2 Postulates
62(4)
The Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations
66(2)
Novel Relative Properties of Space and Time
68(3)
Physical Implications of Einstein's Special Relativity
71(1)
Einstein and Poincare
72(8)
Minkowski's 4-Dimensional Spacetime, Adjustable Clocks and Flexibility in the Concept of Time
80(7)
The Completion of Special Relativity by Minkowski's Idea of 4-Dimensional Spacetime
80(2)
The Collision of the Titanic and Haywire Clocks
82(1)
The Primacy of the 4-Dimensional Symmetry
83(1)
A Flexible Concept of Time
83(4)
Taiji Relativity Based Solely on 1 Principle --- the First Principle of Relativity
87(13)
Refreshingly Innocent Questions
87(1)
4-Dimensional Taiji Transformations
88(2)
Taiji Time and Clock Systems
90(1)
Taiji Velocity Transormations
91(1)
Comparisons with Special Relativity
92(3)
Einstein's Time, Common Time, Reichenbach's Time and Unspecified Time
95(1)
Discussions and Remarks
96(4)
The Arbitrary Speed of Light in Taiji Relativity and the Michelson-Morley Experiment
100(12)
Does the Michelson-Morley Experiment Imply a Constant and Isotropic Speed of Light?
100(3)
The Michelson-Morely Experiment Supports the First Postulate of Relativity
103(3)
Do Any Experiments Really Show the Universal Constancy of the Speed of Light c?
106(3)
Physical Quantities Measured by Using Taiji Time
109(3)
Lorentz and Poincare Invariance Without Involving a Constant Corresponding to the Speed of Light
112(13)
Group Properties of Taiji Transormations
112(3)
The Lorentz Group Without Involving the Constant Speed of Light
115(5)
The Poincare Group with Ten Generators and Without Involving the Constant Speed of Light
120(5)
Truly Universal Constants and Physical Laws Based on Taiji Relativity
125(13)
Truly Universal Constants and Invariant Actions
125(3)
Atomic Structures and Doppler Shifts
128(3)
Dirac's Conjecture of Truly Fundamental Constants vs. Taiji Relativity's Results, and the Origin of the ``Universal Value'' c = 29979245800cm/sec
131(3)
The Maxwell Equations Without the Constant Speed of Light c
134(4)
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity and Dilatation of Lifetimes and Decay-Lenghts
138(10)
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity
138(4)
Experimental Measurements of Dilatation for Decay-Lenghts and Decay-Lifetimes
142(6)
Common Relativity: A Common Time for All Observers
148(19)
Why Common Time?
148(1)
Two Basic Postulates of Common Relativity
149(1)
The Space-Lightime Transformations and Physical Clocks
150(3)
Relativity of the Speed of Light Measured by Using Common Time
153(1)
The Symmetry Between Any Two Frames F and F'
154(1)
The Two-Way Speed of Light
155(2)
The Inverse Transformations and the Lorentz Group
157(1)
4-Dimensional Maxwell Equations and Lorentz Force with Scalar Physical Time
158(4)
Quantum Electrdynamics Based on Common Relativity
162(2)
New Properties in Common Relativity
164(3)
Common Time and Many-Particle Systems in a 4-Dimensional Symmetry Framework
167(28)
Problems of Relative Simultaneity for Many-Particle Systems
167(3)
Invariant Hamiltonian Dynamics and Phase Space
170(4)
The Invariant Kinetic Theory of Gases
174(4)
The Invariant Liouville Equation
178(2)
Invariant Entropy, Temperature and Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
180(2)
The Invariant Boltzmann-Vlasov Equation
182(6)
Boltzmann's Transport Equation with 4-Dimensional Symmetry
188(3)
Boltzmann's H Theorem with 4-Dimensional Symmetry
191(4)
Common Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
195(12)
Fuzziness at Short Distances and the Invariant `Genergy'
195(2)
Fuzzy Quantum Mechanics with an Inherent Fuzziness in the Position of a Point Particle
197(5)
A Fuzzy Point and Modified Coulomb Potential at Short Distances
202(2)
Inherent Probability for Suppression of Large Momentum States
204(3)
Common Relativity and Fuzzy Quantum Field Theory
207(14)
Fuzzy Quantum Field Theories
207(5)
Fuzzy Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Common Relativity
212(4)
Experimental Tests of Possible Approximate 4-Dimensional Symmetry of Special Relativity at Very High Energies and Short Distances
216(5)
Common Relativity and the 3 K Cosmic Background Radiation
221(11)
Implications of Non-Invariant Planck's Law of Blackbody Radiation
221(1)
The Invariant Partition Function
221(2)
Covariant Thermodynamics
223(3)
Canonical Distribution and Blackbody Radition
226(2)
Question on Earth's ``Absolute'' Motion in the 3 K Radiation
228(4)
Extended Relativity: A Weaker Postulate for the Speed of Light
232(16)
4-Dimensional Symmetry as a Guiding Principle
232(2)
Edwards' Transformations with Reichenbach's Time
234(2)
Difficulties of Edwards' Transformations
236(2)
Extended Relativity --- A 4-Dimensional Theory with Reichenbach's Time
238(4)
Two Basic Postulates of Extended Relativity
242(2)
Invariant Action for a Free Particle in Extended Relativity
244(4)
Extended Relativity with the Lorentz Group and Lifetime Dilatation
248(8)
A Comparison of Extended Relativity and Special Relativity
248(2)
An Unpassable Limit and Non-Constant Speed of Light
250(1)
The Lorentz Group and the Space-Lightime Transformations
251(2)
The Decay Rate and ``Lifetime Dilatation''
253(3)
Physical Implications of Extended Relativity
256(17)
4-Dimensional Symmetry with a Universal 2-Way Speed of Light
256(3)
Some Experimental Implications of Extended Relativity
259(1)
Doppler Shifts of Frequency and Atomic Energy Levels
260(3)
Classical Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativity
263(3)
Quantum Electrodynamics Based on Extended Relativity
266(4)
A Clock System for Lightime, Lifetime Dilatation and the Maximum Speed of Physical Objects
270(3)
Determination of the Parameters of General Linear Transformations by Precision Experiments
273(9)
A General Parameterization of Linear Transformations
273(2)
Determinations of Parameters by Three Experiments
275(3)
Flexibility of the Relation for t and t' in 4-Dimensional Symmetry Framework
278(4)
Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Non-Inertial Frames Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
282(22)
An Answer to Young Einstein's Question and Its Implications
282(4)
Physical Time and Clocks in Linearly Accelerated Frames
286(4)
Moller's Gravitational Approach to Accelerated Transformations
290(3)
A Kinematical Approach to Accelerated Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
293(3)
Generalized Moller-Wu-Lee Transformations Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
296(4)
Minimal Generalization of the Lorentz Transformations --- the Wu Transformations
300(4)
Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Particles in Non-Inertial Frames with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
304(23)
Classical Electrodynamics in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames
304(3)
Quantum Particles and Dirac's Equation in CLA Frame
307(2)
Stability of Atomic Levels Against Constant Accelerations
309(3)
Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Charge with Constant Linear Acceleration
312(8)
Covariant Randiative Reaction Force in Special Relativity and Common Relativity, and Conservation Laws for Radiations
320(7)
Experimental Tests of Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames
327(9)
Tests of Physical Time in Non-Inertial Frames
327(3)
Experiments of Accelerated Decay-Length Dilatation and the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
330(3)
Experiments on Wu-Doppler Effects of Waves Emitted from Accelerated Atoms
333(3)
Quantizations of Scalar, Spinor and Electromagnetic Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration Frames
336(19)
Scalar Fields in Constant-Linear-Accelerations Frames
336(3)
Quantization of Scalar Fields in CLA Frames
339(6)
Quantization of Spinor Fields in CLA Frames
345(6)
Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field in CLA Frames
351(4)
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
355(13)
A Smooth Connection of Rotational and Inertial Frames
355(1)
Taiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry
356(3)
Physical Properties of Taiji Rotational Transformations
359(2)
The Metric Tensors for Rotating Frames
361(2)
The Invariant Action for Electromagnetic Fields and Charged Particles in Roting Frames and Truly Universal Constants
363(1)
The 4-Momentum and `Lifetime Dilatation' of a Particle at Rest in a Rotating Frame
364(4)
Epilogue
368(4)
Appendix A Noether's Theorem in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Frames 372(12)
Appendix B Quantum Electrodynamics in Both Linearly Accelerated and Inertial Frames 384(12)
Appendix C De Sitter and Poincare Gauge-Invariant Fermion Lagrangians and Gravity 396(7)
Appendix D The Relativity of Lifetime Dilatation and an Experimental Test of ``Twin Particles'' Involving Linear Accelerations 403(10)
Name Index 413(2)
Subject Index 415

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