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Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems,9780130824608
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Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems

by
ISBN13:

9780130824608

ISBN10:
0130824607
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $125.00
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Summary

For one-semester, undergraduate-level courses in Motor Controls, Electric Machines, Power Electronics, and Electric Power. This best-selling text employs a theoretical, practical, multidisciplinary approach to provide introductory students with a broad understanding of modern electric power. The scope of the book reflects the rapid changes that have occurred in power technology over the past few yearsallowing the entrance of power electronics into every facet of industrial drives, and expanding the field to open more career opportunities.

Table of Contents

PART I. FUNDAMENTALS 3(68)
1. UNITS
3(12)
1.0 Introduction
3(1)
1.1 Systems of units
3(1)
1.2 Getting used to SI
4(1)
1.3 Base and derived units of the SI
4(1)
1.4 Definitions of base units
5(1)
1.5 Definitions of derived units
5(2)
1.6 Multiples and submultiples of SI units
7(1)
1.7 Commonly used units
7(1)
1.8 Conversion charts and their use
8(1)
1.9 The per-unit system of measurement
9(1)
1.10 Per-unit system with one base
10(1)
1.11 Per-unit system with two bases
11(1)
Questions and Problems
12(3)
2. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS
15(35)
2.0 Introduction
15(1)
2.1 Conventional and electron current flow
15(1)
2.2 Distinction between sources and loads
16(1)
2.3 Sign notation
17(1)
2.4 Double-subscript notation for voltages
17(1)
2.5 Sign notation for voltages
17(1)
2.6 Graph of an alternating voltage
18(1)
2.7 Positive and negative currents
19(1)
2.8 Sinusoidal voltage
19(1)
2.9 Converting cosine functions into sine functions
20(1)
2.10 Effective value of an ac voltage
20(1)
2.11 Phasor representation
21(2)
2.12 Harmonics
23(2)
2.13 Energy in an inductor
25(1)
2.14 Energy in a capacitor
25(1)
2.15 Some useful equations
26(1)
ELECTROMAGNETISM
2.16 Magnetic field intensity H and flux density B
27(1)
2.17 B-H curve of vacuum
27(1)
2.18 B-H curve of a magnetic material
27(1)
2.19 Determining the relative permeability
28(1)
2.20 Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction
29(1)
2.21 Voltage induced in a conductor
30(1)
2.22 Lorentz force on a conductor
31(1)
2.23 Direction of the force acting on a straight conductor
31(1)
2.24 Residual flux density and coercive force
32(1)
2.25 Hysteresis loop
33(1)
2.26 Hysteresis loss
33(1)
2.27 Hysteresis losses caused by rotation
33(1)
2.28 Eddy currents
34(1)
2.29 Eddy currents in a stationary iron core
35(1)
2.30 Eddy-current losses in a revolving core
35(1)
2.31 Current in an inductor
36(4)
CIRCUITS AND EQUATIONS
2.32 Kirchhoff's voltage law
40(1)
2.33 Kirchhoff's voltage law and double-subscript notation
40(1)
2.34 Kirchhoff's current law
41(1)
2.35 Currents, impedances, and associated voltages
41(2)
2.36 Kirchhoff's laws and ac circuits
43(1)
2.37 KVL and sign notation
43(1)
2.38 Solving ac and dc circuits with sign notation
44(1)
2.39 Circuits and hybrid notation
45(1)
Questions and Problems
46(4)
3. FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT
50(21)
3.0 Introduction
50(1)
3.1 Force
50(1)
3.2 Torque
51(1)
3.3 Mechanical work
51(1)
3.4 Power
52(1)
3.5 Power of a motor
52(1)
3.6 Transformation of energy
53(1)
3.7 Efficiency of a machine
53(1)
3.8 Kinetic energy of linear motion
54(1)
3.9 Kinetic energy of rotation, moment of inertia
54(3)
3.10 Torque, inertia, and change in speed
57(1)
3.11 Speed of a motor/load system
57(1)
3.12 Power flow in a mechanically coupled system
58(1)
3.13 Motor driving a load having inertia
58(1)
3.14 Electric motors driving linear motion loads
59(1)
3.15 Heat and temperature
60(1)
3.16 Temperature scales
61(1)
3.17 Heat required to raise the temperature of a body
61(1)
3.18 Transmission of heat
62(1)
3.19 Heat transfer by conduction
62(1)
3.20 Heat transfer by convection
63(1)
3.21 Calculating the losses by convection
63(1)
3.22 Heat transfer by radiation
64(1)
3.23 Calculating radiation losses
64(1)
Questions and Problems
65(6)
PART II. ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 71(125)
4. DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS
71(25)
4.0 Introduction
71(1)
4.1 Generating an ac voltage
71(1)
4.2 Direct-current generator
72(1)
4.3 Difference between ac and dc generators
73(1)
4.4 Improving the waveshape
73(2)
4.5 Induced voltage
75(1)
4.6 Neutral zones
76(1)
4.7 Value of the induced voltage
76(1)
4.8 Generator under load: the energy conversion process
77(1)
4.9 Armature reaction
77(1)
4.10 Shifting the brushes to improve commutation
78(1)
4.11 Commutating poles
79(1)
4.12 Separately excited generator
79(1)
4.13 No-load operation and saturation curve
79(1)
4.14 Shunt generator
80(1)
4.15 Controlling the voltage of a shunt generator
81(1)
4.16 Equivalent circuit
82(1)
4.17 Separately excited generator under load
82(1)
4.18 Shunt generator under load
83(1)
4.19 Compound generator
83(1)
4.20 Differential compound generator
84(1)
4.21 Load characteristics
84(1)
4.22 Generator specifications
84(1)
CONSTRUCTION OF DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS
4.23 Field
84(1)
4.24 Armature
85(1)
4.25 Commutator and brushes
86(2)
4.26 Details of a multipole generator
88(3)
4.27 The ideal commutation process
91(1)
4.28 The practical commutation process
92(1)
Questions and Problems
93(3)
5. DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS
96(24)
5.0 Introduction
96(1)
5.1 Counter-electromotive force (cemf)
96(1)
5.2 Acceleration of the motor
97(1)
5.3 Mechanical power and torque
98(2)
5.4 Speed of rotation
100(1)
5.5 Armature speed control
101(1)
5.6 Field speed control
102(1)
5.7 Shunt motor under load
103(1)
5.8 Series motor
104(1)
5.9 Series motor speed control
105(1)
5.10 Applications of the series motor
106(1)
5.11 Compound motor
106(1)
5.12 Reversing the direction of rotation
107(1)
5.13 Starting a shunt motor
108(1)
5.14 Face-plate starter
108(1)
5.15 Stopping a motor
109(1)
5.16 Dynamic braking
109(1)
5.17 Plugging
110(1)
5.18 Dynamic braking and mechanical time constant
111(2)
5.19 Armature reaction
113(1)
5.20 Flux distortion due to armature reaction
113(1)
5.21 Commutating poles
113(1)
5.22 Compensating winding
114(1)
5.23 Basics of variable speed control
114(3)
5.24 Permanent magnet motors
117(1)
Questions and Problems
118(2)
6. EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES
120(14)
6.0 Introduction
120(1)
6.1 Mechanical losses
120(1)
6.2 Electrical losses
120(3)
6.3 Losses as a function of load
123(1)
6.4 Efficiency curve
123(2)
6.5 Temperature rise
125(1)
6.6 Life expectancy of electric equipment
126(1)
6.7 Thermal classification of insulators
126(1)
6.8 Maximum ambient temperature and hot-spot temperature rise
127(2)
6.9 Temperature rise by the resistance method
129(1)
6.10 Relationship between the speed and size of a machine
130(1)
Questions and Problems
131(3)
7. ACTIVE, REACTIVE, AND APPARENT POWER
134(24)
7.0 Introduction
134(1)
7.1 Instantaneous power
134(2)
7.2 Active power
136(1)
7.3 Reactive power
137(1)
7.4 Definition of reactive load and reactive source
138(1)
7.5 The capacitor and reactive power
139(1)
7.6 Distinction between active and reactive power
140(1)
7.7 Combined active and reactive loads: apparent power
141(1)
7.8 Relationship between P, Q, and S
141(2)
7.9 Power factor
143(1)
7.10 Power triangle
144(1)
7.11 Further aspects of sources and loads
144(2)
7.12 Systems comprising several loads
146(2)
7.13 Reactive power without magnetic fields
148(1)
7.14 Solving AC circuits using the power triangle method
148(3)
7.15 Power and vector notation
151(3)
7.16 Rules on sources and loads (sign notation)
154(1)
7.17 Rules on sources and loads (double subscript notation)
154(1)
Questions and Problems
155(3)
8. THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS
158(25)
8.0 Introduction
158(1)
8.1 Polyphase systems
158(1)
8.2 Single-phase generator
159(1)
8.3 Power output of a single-phase generator
160(1)
8.4 Two-phase generator
160(1)
8.5 Power output of a 2-phase generator
161(1)
8.6 Three-phase generator
162(1)
8.7 Power output of a 3-phase generator
162(2)
8.8 Wye connection
164(1)
8.9 Voltage relationships
165(2)
8.10 Delta connection
167(1)
8.11 Power transmitted by a 3-phase line
168(1)
8.12 Active, reactive and apparent power in 3-phase circuits
169(1)
8.13 Solving 3-phase circuits
170(1)
8.14 Industrial loads
171(3)
8.15 Phase sequence
174(1)
8.16 Determining the phase sequence
175(1)
8.17 Power measurement in ac circuits
176(1)
8.18 Power measurement in 3-phase, 3-wire circuits
176(1)
8.19 Power measurement in 3-phase, 4-wire circuits
177(1)
8.20 Varmeter
177(1)
8.21 A remarkable single-phase to 3-phase transformation
178(2)
Questions and Problems
180(3)
9. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER
183(14)
9.0 Introduction
183(1)
9.1 Voltage induced in a coil
183(1)
9.2 Applied voltage and induced voltage
184(1)
9.3 Elementary transformer
185(1)
9.4 Polarity of a transformer
186(1)
9.5 Properties of polarity marks
186(1)
9.6 Ideal transformer at no-load; voltage ratio
187(1)
9.7 Ideal transformer under load; current ratio
188(3)
9.8 Circuit symbol for an ideal transformer
191(1)
9.9 Impedance ratio
191(1)
9.10 Shifting impedances from secondary to primary and vice versa
192(3)
Questions and Problems
195(2)
10. PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS
197(28)
10.0 Introduction
197(1)
10.1 Ideal transformer with an imperfect core
197(2)
10.2 Ideal transformer with loose coupling
199(1)
10.3 Primary and secondary leakage reactance
200(2)
10.4 Equivalent circuit of a practical transformer
202(1)
10.5 Construction of a power transformer
203(1)
10.6 Standard terminal markings
204(1)
10.7 Polarity tests
204(1)
10.8 Transformer taps
205(1)
10.9 Losses and transformer rating
206(1)
10.10 No-load saturation curve
206(1)
10.11 Cooling methods
207(2)
10.12 Simplifying the equivalent circuit
209(2)
10.13 Voltage regulation
211(1)
10.14 Measuring transformer impedances
212(3)
10.15 Introducing the per unit method
215(1)
10.16 Impedance of a transformer
216(1)
10.17 Typical per-unit impedances
216(3)
10.18 Transformers in parallel
219(2)
Questions and Problems
221(4)
11. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS
225(18)
11.0 Introduction
225(1)
11.1 Dual-voltage distribution transformer
225(1)
11.2 Autotransformer
226(2)
11.3 Conventional transformer connected as an autotransformer
228(2)
11.4 Voltage transformers
230(1)
11.5 Current transformers
231(2)
11.6 Opening the secondary of a CT can be dangerous
233(1)
11.7 Toroidal current transformers
234(1)
11.8 Variable autotransformer
235(1)
11.9 High-impedance transformers
236(1)
11.10 Induction heating transformers
237(1)
11.11 High-frequency transformers
238(3)
Questions and Problems
241(2)
12. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS
243(20)
12.0 Introduction
243(1)
12.1 Basic properties of 3-phase transformer banks
243(1)
12.2 Delta-delta connection
244(2)
12.3 Delta-wye connection
246(1)
12.4 Wye-delta connection
247(1)
12.5 Wye-wye connection
248(1)
12.6 Open-delta connection
248(1)
12.7 Three-phase transformers
249(2)
12.8 Step-up and step-down autotransformer
251(2)
12.9 Phase-shift principle
253(1)
12.10 Three-phase to 2-phase transformation
254(2)
12.11 Phase-shift transformer
256(2)
12.12 Calculations involving 3-phase transformers
258(2)
12.13 Polarity marking of 3-phase transformers
260(1)
Questions and Problems
260(3)
13. THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
263(36)
13.0 Introduction
263(1)
13.1 Principal components
263(1)
13.2 Principle of operation
264(1)
13.3 The rotating field
265(5)
13.4 Direction of rotation
270(1)
13.5 Number of poles-synchronous speed
271(2)
13.6 Starting characteristics of a squirrelcage motor
273(1)
13.7 Acceleration of the rotor-slip
274(1)
13.8 Motor under load
274(1)
13.9 Slip
274(1)
13.10 Voltage and frequency induced in the rotor
275(1)
13.11 Characteristics of squirrel-cage induction motors
276(1)
13.12 Estimating the currents in an induction motor
277(1)
13.13 Active power flow
278(3)
13.14 Torque versus speed curve
281(1)
13.15 Effect of rotor resistance
282(2)
13.16 Wound-rotor motor
284(1)
13.17 Three-phase windings
285(3)
13.18 Sector motor
288(1)
13.19 Linear induction motor
289(2)
13.20 Traveling waves
291(1)
13.21 Properties of a linear induction motor
291(2)
13.22 Magnetic levitation
293(2)
Questions and Problems
295(4)
14. SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
299(23)
14.0 Introduction
299(1)
14.1 Standardization and classification of induction motors
299(1)
14.2 Classification according to environment and cooling methods
299(2)
14.3 Classification according to electrical and mechanical properties
301(2)
14.4 Choice of motor speed
303(1)
14.5 Two-speed motors
303(2)
14.6 Induction motor characteristics under various load conditions
305(3)
14.7 Starting an induction motor
308(1)
14.8 Plugging an induction motor
308(1)
14.9 Braking with direct current
309(1)
14.10 Abnormal conditions
310(1)
14.11 Mechanical overload
310(1)
14.12 Line voltage changes
310(1)
14.13 Single-phasing
310(1)
14.14 Frequency variation
311(1)
14.15 Induction motor operating as a generator
311(3)
14.16 Complete torque-speed characteristic of an induction machine
314(1)
14.17 Features of a wound-rotor induction motor
315(1)
14.18 Start-up of high-inertia loads
315(1)
14.19 Variable-speed drives
315(1)
14.20 Frequency converter
315(3)
Questions and Problems
318(4)
15. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR
322(13)
15.0 Introduction
322(1)
15.1 The wound-rotor induction motor
322(3)
15.2 Power relationships
325(1)
15.3 Phasor diagram of the induction motor
326(1)
15.4 Breakdown torque and speed
327(1)
15.5 Equivalent circuit of two practical motors
327(1)
15.6 Calculation of the breakdown torque
328(1)
15.7 Torque-speed curve and other characteristics
329(1)
15.8 Properties of an asynchronous generator
330(1)
15.9 Tests to determine the equivalent circuit
331(2)
Questions and Problems
333(2)
16. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS
335(34)
16.0 Introduction
335(1)
16.1 Commercial synchronous generators
335(1)
16.2 Number of poles
335(1)
16.3 Main features of the stator
336(4)
16.4 Main features of the rotor
340(2)
16.5 Field excitation and exciters
342(1)
16.6 Brushless excitation
343(1)
16.7 Factors affecting the size of synchronous generators
344(1)
16.8 No-load saturation curve
345(1)
16.9 Synchronous reactance-equivalent circuit of an ac generator
346(2)
16.10 Determining the value of X(s)
348(1)
16.11 Base impedance, per-unit X(s)
349(1)
16.12 Short-circuit ratio
350(1)
16.13 Synchronous generator under load
350(2)
16.14 Regulation curves
352(1)
16.15 Synchronization of a generator
353(2)
16.16 Synchronous generator on an infinite bus
355(1)
16.17 Infinite bus-effect of varying the exciting current
355(1)
16.18 Infinite bus-effect of varying the mechanical torque
355(2)
16.19 Physical interpretation of alternator behavior
357(1)
16.20 Active power delivered by the generator
358(1)
16.21 Control of active power
359(1)
16.22 Transient reactance
359(2)
16.23 Power transfer between two sources
361(1)
16.24 Efficiency, power, and size of electrical machines
362(2)
Questions and Problems
364(5)
17. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
369(22)
17.0 Introduction
369(1)
17.1 Construction
370(2)
17.2 Starting a synchronous motor
372(1)
17.3 Pull-in torque
372(1)
17.4 Motor under load-general description
372(1)
17.5 Motor under load-simple calculations
373(3)
17.6 Power and torque
376(1)
17.7 Mechanical and electrical angles
377(1)
17.8 Reluctance torque
378(1)
17.9 Losses and efficiency of a synchronous motor
379(1)
17.10 Excitation and reactive power
380(1)
17.11 Power factor rating
381(1)
17.12 V-curves
382(1)
17.13 Stopping synchronous motors
383(2)
17.14 The synchronous motor versus the induction motor
385(1)
17.15 Synchronous capacitor
385(3)
Questions and Problems
388(3)
18. SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS
391(26)
18.0 Introduction
391(1)
18.1 Construction of a single-phase induction motor
391(2)
18.2 Synchronous speed
393(1)
18.3 Torque-speed characteristic
394(1)
18.4 Principle of operation
394(2)
18.5 Locked-rotor torque
396(1)
18.6 Resistance split-phase motor
396(2)
18.7 Capacitor-start motor
398(1)
18.8 Efficiency and power factor of single-phase induction motors
399(2)
18.9 Vibration of single-phase motors
401(1)
18.10 Capacitor-run motor
402(1)
18.11 Reversing the direction of rotation
403(1)
18.12 Shaded-pole motor
403(1)
18.13 Universal motor
404(1)
18.14 Hysteresis motor
405(2)
18.15 Synchronous reluctance motor
407(1)
18.16 Synchro drive
408(1)
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR
18.17 Magnetomotive force distribution
409(1)
18.18 Revolving mmfs in a single-phase motor
410(1)
18.19 Deducing the circuit diagram of a single-phase motor
411(3)
Questions and Problems
414(3)
19. STEPPER MOTORS
417(22)
19.0 Introduction
417(1)
19.1 Elementary stepper motor
417(1)
19.2 Effect of inertia
418(1)
19.3 Effect of a mechanical load
419(1)
19.4 Torque versus current
420(1)
19.5 Start-stop stepping rate
420(1)
19.6 Slew speed
421(1)
19.7 Ramping
422(1)
19.8 Types of stepper motors
422(2)
19.9 Motor windings and associated drives
424(3)
19.10 High-speed operation
427(1)
19.11 Modifying the time constant
428(1)
19.12 Bilevel drive
428(6)
19.13 Instability and resonance
434(1)
19.14 Stepper motors and linear drives
434(1)
Questions and Problems
434(5)
PART III. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC DRIVES 439(196)
20. BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL MOTOR CONTROL
439(33)
20.0 Introduction
439(1)
20.1 Control devices
439(4)
20.2 Normally-open and normally-closed contacts
443(1)
20.3 Relay coil exciting current
443(2)
20.4 Control diagrams
445(1)
20.5 Starting methods
446(1)
20.6 Manual across-the-line starters
447(1)
20.7 Magnetic across-the-line starters
448(2)
20.8 Inching and jogging
450(1)
20.9 Reversing the direction of rotation
451(2)
20.10 Plugging
453(1)
20.11 Reduced-voltage starting
454(1)
20.12 Primary resistance starting
454(4)
20.13 Autotransformer starting
458(2)
20.14 Other starting methods
460(1)
20.15 Cam switches
461(1)
ELECTRIC DRIVES
20.16 Fundamentals of electric drives
462(1)
20.17 Typical torque-speed curves
463(1)
20.18 Shape of the torque-speed curve
464(2)
20.19 Current-speed curves
466(1)
20.20 Regenerative braking
467(1)
Questions and Problems
468(4)
21. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF POWER ELECTRONICS
472(69)
21.0 Introduction
472(1)
21.1 Potential level
472(2)
21.2 Voltage across some circuit elements
474(1)
THE DIODE AND DIODE CIRCUITS
21.3 The diode
475(1)
21.4 Main characteristics of a diode
476(1)
21.5 Battery charger with series resistor
476(2)
21.6 Battery charger with series inductor
478(2)
21.7 Single-phase bridge rectifier
480(1)
21.8 Filters
481(2)
21.9 Three-phase, 3-pulse diode rectifier
483(2)
21.10 Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier
485(4)
21.11 Effective line current, fundamental line current
489(1)
21.12 Distortion power factor
490(1)
21.13 Displacement power factor, total power factor
490(1)
21.14 Harmonic content, THD
491(1)
THE THYRISTOR AND THYRISTOR CIRCUITS
21.15 The thyristor
492(1)
21.16 Principles of gate firing
492(2)
21.17 Power gain of a thyristor
494(1)
21.18 Current interruption and forced commutation
495(1)
21.19 Basic thyristor power circuits
496(1)
21.20 Controlled rectifier supplying a passive load (Circuit 1, Table 21 D)
496(1)
21.21 Controlled rectifier supplying an active load (Circuit 2, Table 21D)
497(1)
21.22 Line-commutated inverter (Circuit 3, Table 21D)
498(2)
21.23 AC static switch (Circuit 4, Table 21D)
500(1)
21.24 Cycloconverter (Circuit 5, Table 21D)
501(1)
21.25 Three-phase, 6-pulse controllable converter (Circuit 6, Table 21D)
502(1)
21.26 Basic principle of operation
503(1)
21.27 Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier feeding an active load
504(1)
21.28 Delayed triggering-rectifier mode
505(2)
21.29 Delayed triggering-inverter mode
507(1)
21.30 Triggering range
508(1)
21.31 Equivalent circuit of a converter
509(2)
21.32 Currents in a 3-phase, 6-pulse converter
511(1)
21.33 Power factor
511(3)
21.34 Commutation overlap
514(1)
21.35 Extinction angle
514(1)
DC-TO-DC SWITCHING CONVERTERS
21.36 Semiconductor switches
515(2)
21.37 DC-to-DC switching converter
517(2)
21.38 Rapid switching
519(3)
21.39 Impedance transformation
522(1)
21.40 Basic 2-quadrant dc-to-dc converter
522(3)
21.41 Two-quadrant electronic converter
525(1)
21.42 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc converter
526(2)
21.43 Switching losses
528(1)
DC-TO-AC SWITCHING CONVERTERS
21.44 Dc-to-ac rectangular wave converter
529(1)
21.45 Dc-to-ac converter with pulse-width modulation
530(2)
21.46 Dc-to-ac sine wave converter
532(1)
21.47 Generating a sine wave
533(1)
21.48 Creating the PWM pulse train
534(1)
21.49 Dc-to-ac 3-phase converter
535(2)
21.50 Conclusion
537(1)
Questions and Problems
537(4)
22. ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS
541(34)
22.0 Introduction
541(1)
22.1 First quadrant speed control
541(3)
22.2 Two-quadrant control-field reversal
544(1)
22.3 Two-quadrant control-armature reversal
545(1)
22.4 Two-quadrant control-two converters
545(1)
22.5 Four-quadrant control-two converters with circulating current
546(3)
22.6 Two-quadrant control with positive torque
549(1)
22.7 Four-quadrant drive
549(2)
22.8 Six-pulse converter with freewheeling diode
551(5)
22.9 Half-bridge converter
556(2)
22.10 DC traction
558(2)
22.11 Motor drive using a dc-to-dc switching converter
560(5)
22.12 Introduction to brushless dc motors
565(1)
22.13 Commutator replaced by reversing switches
566(2)
22.14 Synchronous motor as a brushless dc machine
568(1)
22.15 Standard synchronous motor and brushless dc machine
569(1)
22.16 Practical application of a brushless dc motor
569(2)
Questions and Problems
571(4)
23. ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS
575(60)
23.0 Introduction
575(1)
23.1 Types of ac drives
575(2)
23.2 Synchronous motor drive using current-source dc link
577(3)
23.3 Synchronous motor and cycloconverter
580(1)
23.4 Cycloconverter voltage and frequency control
580(2)
23.5 Squirrel-cage induction motor with cycloconverter
582(7)
23.6 Squirrel-cage motor and static voltage controller
589(1)
23.7 Soft-starting cage motors
590(2)
SELF-COMMUTATED INVERTERS
23.8 Self-commutated inverters for cage motors
592(1)
23.9 Current-source self-commutated frequency converter (rectangular wave)
593(1)
23.10 Voltage-source self-commutated frequency converter (rectangular wave)
594(3)
23.11 Chopper speed control of a wound-rotor induction motor
597(2)
23.12 Recovering power in a wound-rotor induction motor
599(3)
PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION DRIVES
23.13 Review of pulse-width modulation
602(2)
23.14 Pulse-width modulation and induction motors
604(1)
TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTORS
23.15 Dc motor and flux orientation
604(1)
23.16 Slip speed, flux orientation, and torque
605(2)
23.17 Features of variable-speed control-constant torque mode
607(3)
23.18 Features of variable-speed control-constant horsepower mode
610(1)
23.19 Features of variable-speed control-generator mode
610(1)
23.20 Induction motor and its equivalent circuit
611(1)
23.21 Equivalent circuit of a practical motor
612(1)
23.22 Volts per hertz of a practical motor
613(1)
23.23 Speed and torque control of induction motors
614(1)
23.24 Carrier frequencies
615(1)
23.25 Dynamic control of induction motors
615(1)
23.26 Principle of flux vector control
616(2)
23.27 Variable-speed drive and electric traction
618(3)
23.28 Principal components
621(1)
23.29 Operating mode of the 3-phase converter
622(2)
23.30 Operating mode of the single-phase converter
624(5)
23.31 Conclusion
629(1)
Questions and Problems
629(6)
PART IV. ELECTRIC UTILITY POWER SYSTEMS 635(196)
24. GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
635(29)
24.0 Introduction
635(1)
24.1 Demand of an electrical system
635(2)
24.2 Location of the generating station
637(1)
24.3 Types of generating stations
637(1)
24.4 Controlling the power balance between generator and load
638(1)
24.5 Advantage of interconnected systems
639(2)
24.6 Conditions during an outage
641(1)
24.7 Frequency and electric clocks
642(1)
HYDROPOWER GENERATING STATIONS
24.8 Available hydro power
642(1)
24.9 Types of hydropower stations
643(1)
24.10 Makeup of a hydropower plant
644(2)
24.11 Pumped-storage installations
646(2)
THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS
24.12 Makeup of a thermal generating station
648(2)
24.13 Turbines
650(1)
24.14 Condenser
650(1)
24.15 Cooling towers
650(1)
24.16 Boiler-feed pump
651(1)
24.17 Energy flow diagram for a steam plant
651(1)
24.18 Thermal stations and the environment
652(3)
NUCLEAR GENERATING STATIONS
24.19 Composition of an atomic nucleus; isotopes
655(1)
24.20 The source of uranium
655(1)
24.21 Energy released by atomic fission
656(1)
24.22 Chain reaction
656(1)
24.23 Types of nuclear reactors
657(1)
24.24 Example of a light-water reactor
658(1)
24.25 Example of a heavy-water reactor
659(1)
24.26 Principle of the fast breeder reactor
660(1)
24.27 Nuclear fusion
661(1)
Questions and Problems
661(3)
25. TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
664(34)
25.0 Introduction
664(1)
25.1 Principal components of a power distribution system
664(1)
25.2 Types of power lines
665(2)
25.3 Standard voltages
667(1)
25.4 Components of a HV transmission line
667(1)
25.5 Construction of a line
668(1)
25.6 Galloping lines
669(1)
25.7 Corona effect-radio interference
669(1)
25.8 Pollution
669(1)
25.9 Lightning strokes
670(1)
25.10 Lightning arresters on buildings
671(1)
25.11 Lightning and transmission lines
671(1)
25.12 Basic impulse insulation level (BIL)
672(1)
25.13 Ground wires
673(1)
25.14 Tower grounding
673(2)
25.15 Fundamental objectives of a transmission line
675(1)
25.16 Equivalent circuit of a line
676(1)
25.17 Typical impedance values
676(2)
25.18 Simplifying the equivalent circuit
678(2)
25.19 Voltage regulation and power-transmission capability of transmission lines
680(1)
25.20 Resistive line
680(1)
25.21 Inductive line
681(2)
25.22 Compensated inductive line
683(2)
25.23 Inductive line connecting two systems
685(1)
25.24 Review of power transmission
686(1)
25.25 Choosing the line voltage
687(2)
25.26 Methods of increasing the power capacity
689(1)
25.27 Extra-high-voltage lines
689(3)
25.28 Power exchange between power centers
692(1)
25.29 Practical example of power exchange
693(2)
Questions and Problems
695(3)
26. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
698(31)
26.0 Introduction
698(1)
SUBSTATIONS
26.1 Substation equipment
698(1)
26.2 Circuit breakers
698(4)
26.3 Air-break switches
702(1)
26.4 Disconnecting switches
702(1)
26.5 Grounding switches
702(1)
26.6 Surge arresters
702(3)
26.7 Current-limiting reactors
705(1)
26.8 Grounding transformer
706(1)
26.9 Example of a substation
707(2)
26.10 Medium-voltage distribution
709(1)
26.11 Low-voltage distribution
709(5)
PROTECTION OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
26.12 Coordination of the protective devices
714(1)
26.13 Fused cutouts
715(1)
26.14 Reclosers
716(1)
26.15 Sectionalizers
716(1)
26.16 Review of MV protection
717(1)
LOW-VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
26.17 LV distribution system
717(2)
26.18 Grounding electrical installations
719(1)
26.19 Electric shock
719(1)
26.20 Grounding of 120 V and 240 V/120 V systems
720(1)
26.21 Equipment grounding
721(2)
26.22 Ground-fault circuit breaker
723(1)
26.23 Rapid conductor heating: I^(2)t factor
724(1)
26.24 The role of fuses
725(1)
26.25 Electrical installation in buildings
725(1)
26.26 Principal components of an electrical installation
725(2)
Questions and Problems
727(2)
27. THE COST OF ELECTRICITY
729(17)
27.0 Introduction
729(1)
27.1 Tariff based upon energy
730(1)
27.2 Tariff based upon demand
730(1)
27.3 Demand meter
730(2)
27.4 Tariff based upon power factor
732(1)
27.5 Typical rate structures
733(1)
27.6 Demand controllers
733(4)
27.7 Power factor correction
737(3)
27.8 Measuring electrical energy, the watthourmeter
740(1)
27.9 Operation of the watthourmeter
741(1)
27.10 Meter readout
742(1)
27.11 Measuring three-phase energy and power
743(1)
Questions and Problems
743(3)
28. DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
746(22)
28.0 Introduction
746(1)
28.1 Features of dc transmission
746(1)
28.2 Basic dc transmission system
747(1)
28.3 Voltage, current, and power relationships
748(3)
28.4 Power fluctuations on a dc line
751(1)
28.5 Typical rectifier and inverter characteristic
752(1)
28.6 Power control
753(1)
28.7 Effect of voltage fluctuations
754(1)
28.8 Bipolar transmission line
754(1)
28.9 Power reversal
755(1)
28.10 Components of a dc transmission line
755(1)
28.11 Inductors and harmonic filters on the dc side (6-pulse converter)
756(1)
28.12 Converter transformers
756(1)
28.13 Reactive power source
757(1)
28.14 Harmonic filters on the ac side
757(1)
28.15 Communications link
757(1)
28.16 Ground electrode
757(1)
28.17 Example of a monopolar converter station
757(1)
28.18 Thyristor converter station
758(2)
28.19 Typical installations
760(5)
Questions and Problems
765(3)
29. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SOLID-STATE CONTROLLERS
768(31)
TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW CONTROLLERS
29.0 Introduction
768(1)
29.1 Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC)
769(2)
29.2 Vernier control
771(2)
29.3 Static synchronous compensator
773(3)
29.4 Eliminating the harmonics
776(1)
29.5 Unified power flow controller (UPFC)
776(4)
29.6 Static frequency changer
780(2)
DISTRIBUTION CUSTOM POWER PRODUCTS
29.7 Disturbances on distribution systems
782(2)
29.8 Why PWM converters?
784(1)
29.9 Distribution system
785(2)
29.10 Compensators and circuit analysis
787(1)
29.11 The shunt compensator: principle of operation
787(6)
29.12 The series compensator: principle of operation
793(3)
29.13 Conclusion
796(1)
Questions and Problems
797(2)
30. HARMONICS
799(32)
30.0 Introduction
799(1)
30.1 Harmonics and phasor diagrams
799(1)
30.2 Effective value of a distorted wave
800(1)
30.3 Crest factor and total harmonic distortion (THD)
801(1)
30.4 Harmonics and circuits
802(2)
30.5 Displacement power factor and total power factor
804(1)
30.6 Non-linear loads
804(1)
30.7 Generating harmonics
805(2)
30.8 Correcting the power factor
807(1)
30.9 Generation of reactive power
808(1)
EFFECT OF HARMONICS
30.10 Harmonic current in a capacitor
809(1)
30.11 Harmonic currents in a conductor
810(1)
30.12 Distorted voltage and flux in a coil
810(2)
30.13 Harmonic currents in a 3-phase, 4-wire distribution system
812(1)
30.14 Harmonics and resonance
813(5)
30.15 Harmonic filters
818(1)
30.16 Harmonics in the supply network
819(2)
30.17 Transformers and the K factor
821(2)
30.18 Procedure of analyzing a periodic wave
823(4)
Questions and Problems
827(4)
References 831(6)
Appendix 837(8)
AXO Conversion Charts 837(4)
AX1 Properties of Insulating Materials 841(1)
AX2 Electrical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Some Common Conductors (and Insulators) 842(1)
AX3 Properties of Round Copper Conductors 843(2)
Answers to Problems 845(4)
Answers to Industrial Application Problems 849(2)
Index 851


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