Elementary Statistics in Social Research Essentials

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-15
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Author Biography

Jack Levin, Ph.D. is the Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology at Northeastern University in Boston, where he co-directs its Center on Violence and Conflict.  He has authored or co-authored 30 books, including the recently published volumes Serial Killers and Sadistic Murderers–Up Close and Personal and The Violence of Hate.  Dr. Levin was honored by the Massachusetts Council for Advancement and Support of Education as its “Professor of the Year” and by the American Sociological Association with its Public Understanding of Sociology Award. He has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the Department of Justice, the Department of Education, OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (a membership of 59 countries) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.


James Alan Fox, Ph.D. is the Lipman Family Professor of Criminology, Law, and Public Policy at Northeastern University. He has written 18 books, including his newest, Violence and Security on Campus: From Preschool through College. He has also published dozens of journal and magazine articles, and hundreds of freelance columns in newspapers around the country. Fox often gives keynote talks and testimony before Congress and in criminal and civil courts. He has briefed various leaders here and abroad, including President Clinton, Attorney General Reno and Princess Anne of Great Britain. Finally, Fox was honored in 2007 by the Massachusetts Committee against the Death Penalty with the Hugo Adam Bedau Award for excellence in capital punishment scholarship and by Northeastern University with the 2008 Klein Lectureship.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statisticsp. 1
The Nature of Social Researchp. 1
Why Test Hypotheses?p. 3
The Stages of Social Researchp. 4
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Researchp. 5
The Functions of Statisticsp. 12
Summaryp. 18
Questions and Problemsp. 18
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Surveyp. 21
Descriptionp. 23
Organizing the Datap. 25
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Datap. 25
Comparing Distributionsp. 26
Proportions and Percentagesp. 26
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Datap. 28
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Datap. 29
Cumulative Distributionsp. 31
Dealing with Decimal Datap. 33
Flexible Class Intervalsp. 35
Cross-Tabulationsp. 37
Graphic Presentationsp. 43
Summaryp. 50
Questions and Problemsp. 51
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 58
The Modep. 58
The Medianp. 59
The Meanp. 60
Taking One Step at a Timep. 62
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Meanp. 62
Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Meanp. 63
Summaryp. 67
Questions and Problemsp. 68
Measures of Variabilityp. 72
The Rangep. 73
The Variance and the Standard Deviationp. 74
Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviationp. 75
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviationp. 76
Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scoresp. 77
The Meaning of the Standard Deviationp. 78
Comparing Measures of Variabilityp. 81
Summaryp. 82
Questions and Problemsp. 82
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Datap. 85
From Description to Decision Makingp. 89
Probability and the Normal Curvep. 91
Probabilityp. 92
Probability Distributionsp. 93
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distributionp. 96
Characteristics of the Normal Curvep. 97
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curvep. 97
The Area under the Normal Curvep. 99
Standard Scores and the Normal Curvep. 105
Finding Probability under the Normal Curvep. 107
Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curvep. 108
Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curvep. 113
Summaryp. 114
Questions and Problemsp. 114
Samples and Populationsp. 118
Random Samplingp. 119
Sampling Errorp. 120
Sampling Distribution of Meansp. 121
Standard Error of the Meanp. 128
Confidence Intervalsp. 129
The t Distributionp. 133
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using tp. 138
Estimating Proportionsp. 140
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportionsp. 141
Summaryp. 142
Questions and Problemsp. 143
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populationsp. 146
Decision Makingp. 149
Testing Differences between Meansp. 151
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Meansp. 153
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Meansp. 154
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Meansp. 154
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Meansp. 158
Levels of Significancep. 162
Standard Error of the Difference between Meansp. 166
Testing the Difference between Meansp. 167
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Meansp. 169
Comparing Dependent Samplesp. 171
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twicep. 172
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samplesp. 175
Two Sample Test of Proportionsp. 177
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportionsp. 177
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Meansp. 179
Summaryp. 180
Questions and Problemsp. 181
Analysis of Variancep. 191
The Logic of Analysis of Variancep. 192
The Sum of Squaresp. 194
A Research Illustrationp. 195
Mean Squarep. 200
The F Ratiop. 201
Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variancep. 204
Requirements for Using the F Ratiop. 208
Summaryp. 208
Questions and Problemsp. 209
Nonparametric Tests of Significancep. 215
One-Way Chi-Square Testp. 216
Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Squarep. 219
Two-Way Chi-Square Testp. 220
Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significancep. 226
Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groupsp. 230
The Median Testp. 236
Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Testp. 236
Summaryp. 239
Questions and Problemsp. 239
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differencesp. 248
From Decision Making to Associationp. 251
Correlationp. 253
Strength of Correlationp. 253
Direction of Correlationp. 254
Curvilinear Correlationp. 255
The Correlation Coefficientp. 256
Pearson's Correlation Coefficientp. 257
Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficientp. 263
Summaryp. 265
Questions and Problemsp. 266
Regression Analysisp. 272
The Regression Modelp. 273
Interpreting the Regression Linep. 278
Regression and Pearson's Correlationp. 280
Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysisp. 281
Summaryp. 283
Questions and Problemsp. 283
Nonparametric Measures of Correlationp. 290
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficientp. 290
Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficientp. 295
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gammap. 298
Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gammap. 299
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 × 2 Tablep. 302
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 × 2 Tablesp. 304
Summaryp. 307
Questions and Problemsp. 307
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Associationp. 315
Applying Statisticsp. 317
Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problemsp. 319
Research Situationsp. 323
Research Solutionsp. 340
Appendixesp. 349
Instructions for Using ABCalcp. 351
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematicsp. 355
Tablesp. 360
List of Formulasp. 372
Answers to Problemsp. 377
Indexp. 383
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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