9781319214739

Elements of Argument: A Text and Reader Thirteenth Edition

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  • ISBN13:

    9781319214739

  • ISBN10:

    1319214738

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-09-22
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Table of Contents

An asterisk (*) indicates a new selection.


PART ONE Understanding Argument


*1.  What Is Argument?
Why Study Argument?
Argument in the Twenty-First Century
             *MEL BONDAR, The Financial Case for Trade School over College
The Purposes of Argument
The Elements of Argument
The Ethics of Argument
So, Why Write Arguments?
 
2.  Critical Reading of Written Arguments
Prereading
             Strategies for Prereading
*GRETA THUNBERG, How Dare You?      
Reading with an Open Mind
*MARK R. LEVIN, News, Propaganda, and Pseudo-Events
Reading for Content and Structure
             Strategies for Annotating a Text
CHRISTOPHER ELLIOTT, A Tale of Two Airlines
Summarizing
             Research Skill: Using Summaries in Research
*OCEAN VUONG, Reimagining Masculinity
Evaluating
             Strategies for Evaluating Arguments
             BRUCE SCHNEIER, The Internet Is a Surveillance State
             WHITNEY CRAMER, Giving Up Our Privacy: Is It Worth It? (student essay)           
             Argument Essentials: Examining Written Arguments
Assignments for Critical Reading of Written Arguments
 
3.  Critical Reading of Multimodal Arguments
Visual Rhetoric
             Photographs
             *ERIK MCGREGOR, Candlelight Vigil for Mass Shooting Victims
             *MICHAEL CAMPANELLA, Friday School Strikes, August 2018
             *MARCO MERLINE, Fridays for the Future, Six Months Later
             *NORMA JEAN GARGASZ, The View from the Other Side
             *JOSEPH PREZIOSO, A Standoff over Immigration 
             *COURTENEY COKO MOORE, Little Boy Holds Hand of Crying Classmate
             Argument Essentials: Visual Rhetoric
             Print Advertisements
             WORLD WILDLIFE FUND, Stop Climate Change before It Changes You 
             AD COUNCIL, It Only Takes a Moment to Make a Moment
             *L’OREAL, My Future Is What I Make It
             Political Cartoons
             *FRAN, Citizenship Test Forum
             *PETER STEINER, Understand the Ten Commandments
             *CHIP BOK, Sorry, Sir, You’ve Been Red-Flagged
             Graphics
             THEWORLD.ORG, Tobacco’s Shifting Burden
             UNION OF CONCERNED SCIENTISTS, Where Your Gas Money Goes
Audio and Audiovisual Rhetoric
             Television Commercials
             TOYOTA, Let’s Go Places
             Podcasts
             *LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER, Recession Fears, Immigration Rules, and “Electability”
             *TOM BALDWIN and NINA SCHICK, INTELLIGENCE SQUARED, How the Information Age              
             Crashed Our Democracy
             Argument Essentials: Audiovisual Rhetoric
             ELIZABETH WARREN, Remarks at the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate
             Strategies for Critical Listening
Online Environments
             Networking Sites
             WILLIAM WHARTON, “Peaceful” Act of Compassion
             Argument Essentials: Online Environments
             Research Skill: Evaluating Online Sources
             Interactive Websites
             AD COUNCIL, embracerefugees.org
Assignments for Critical Reading of Multimodal Arguments
 
4.  Writing Argument Analysis
             Argument Essentials: Argument Analysis
Writing the Thesis (Main Claim)
             Argument Essentials: Writing the Claim
Planning the Structure
             Argument Essentials: Planning the Structure
Providing Support
             Summarizing
             Paraphrasing
             Argument Essentials: Providing Support
             Quoting
             Research Skill: Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
Documenting Your Sources
             Strategies for Documenting Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
             JAMES W. INGRAM III, Electoral College Is Best Way to Choose U.S. President
             HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT, The Science Facts about Autism and Vaccines (infographic)
             *STEFAN ANDREASSON, Fossil Fuel Divestment Will Increase Carbon Emissions, Not Lower Them
             *BEN ADLER, Are Plastic-Bag Bans Good for the Climate?
             *LESLEY WEXLER AND JENNIFER K. ROBBENNOLT, #MeToo and Restorative Justice: Realizing              
Restoration for Victims and Offenders
             *DESTINÉE MILLER, Restorative Justice and the #MeToo Movement (student essay)
             *SABRA STAPLETON, How to Pick a President: Electoral College vs. National Popular Vote (student essay)
Assignments for Writing Argument Analysis
 
PART TWO Writing Argument
 
*5.  Approaches to Argument
Aristotelian Rhetoric
             Ethos
             Logos
             Pathos
             Ancient Rhetoric Today
             Argument Essentials: Aristotelian Rhetoric
             *CHESLEY B. “SULLY” SULLENBERGER III, We Saved 155 Lives on the Hudson. Now Let’s Vote for Leaders Who’ll Protect Us All. 
             LIZA LONG, I Am Adam Lanza’s Mother
             Rogerian Argument
             Argument Essentials: Rogerian Argument
             MALLORY SIMON, Gun Debate: Where Is the Middle Ground? 
             SARAH SELTZER, Teaching Trigger Warnings: What Pundits Don’t Understand about the Year’s Most Controversial Higher-Ed Debate
Stasis Theory
             The Stasis Questions
             Stasis Theory Claims
             Research Skill: Narrowing Your Research
The Toulmin Model
             The Claim
             The Support
             The Assumption
             Toulmin and the Syllogism
             Argument Essentials: The Toulmin Model
             *ANGIRA PATEL, To Be a Good Doctor, Study the Humanities
             STEVEN REINBERG, Embryo Selection May Help Prevent Some Inherited Disorders
Assignments for Approaches to Argument
 
6.  Claims
Claims of Fact
             Argument Essentials: Claims of Fact
             Research Skill: Using Databases
             *AMY FROIDE, Spinster, Old Maid, or Self-Partnered: Why Words for Single Women Have Changed through Time
             DOMTAR PAPER, Paper Because (advertisement)
Claims of Value
             Aesthetics
             Morality
             Argument Essentials: Claims of Value
             SAMUEL CHI, The NFL’s Protest Crisis
             *ODIE HENDERSON, Black Panther
Claims of Policy
             Argument Essentials: Claims of Policy
             ELISHA DOV HACK, College Life versus My Moral Code
             *JESSICA ANDREWS, How to Avoid Cultural Appropriation at Coachella
             Strategies for Reading and Writing Claims
Assignments for Claims
 
7.  Support
             Strategies for Reading and Writing Support
Evidence
             Factual Evidence
             Images
             Research Skill: Evaluating Factual Evidence
             Expert Opinion
             Research Skill: Evaluating Expert Opinion
             Argument Essentials: Evidence
             KRISTEN WEINACKER, Safer? Tastier? More Nutritious? The Dubious Merits of Organic Foods (student essay)
             SID KIRCHHEIMER, Are Sports Fans Happier?
Appeals to Needs and Values
             Appeals to Needs
             Argument Essentials: Appeals to Needs and Values
             Appeals to Values
             Strategies for Evaluating Appeals to Needs and Values
             RONALD M. GREEN, Building Baby from the Genes Up
             *SARAH GRIFFITHS, Why Having a Crush Is Good for You
Assignments for Support
 
8.   Assumptions
General Principles
Widely Held Assumptions
             Argument Essentials: Assumptions
Recognizing and Analyzing Unstated Assumptions
             “Obvious” Assumptions
             Intention to Deceive
             Strategies for Recognizing Assumptions
             *THOMAS R. WELLS, Let the Anti-Vaxxers Have Their Way
             Research Skill: Focusing a Research Topic
             MICHAEL LEVIN, The Case for Torture
             ROBERT A. SIRICO, An Unjust Sacrifice
Assignments for Assumptions
 
9.   Structuring the Argument
Organizing the Argument
             Defending the Thesis
             Refuting an Opposing View
             Strategies for Refuting an Opposing View
             SHARON ASTYK AND AARON NEWTON, The Rich Get Richer, the Poor Go Hungry
             Finding the Middle Ground      
             Strategies for Finding the Middle Ground
             *JACK BEYRER, Innovative Gun Control Idea Gains Support
             Presenting the Stock Issues
             JOHN R. KOZA, States Can Reform Electoral College?—?Here’s How to Empower Popular Vote
             Argument Essentials: Organizing the Argument
Writing
             Writing the Introduction
             Writing the Conclusion
Assignments for Structuring Arguments
 
PART THREE Strengthening Argument
 
10.  Language

The Power of Words
             Emotive Language
             STIHL, Consumer Confidence (advertisement)
             *DONALD J. TRUMP, Remarks on the Shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio
             PAMELA POWERS HANNLEY, Bathroom Politics: Preserving the Sanctity of the “Ladies’ Room”
Slanting
             Research Skill: Evaluating Language in Sources
Figurative Language
             W. E. B. DU BOIS, Of Our Spiritual Strivings
Concrete and Abstract Language
Shortcuts
             Clichés
             Slogans
             Strategies for Evaluating Word Choice and Choosing Your Words Carefully
             *RACHEL SYME, Selfie: The Revolutionary Potential of Your Own Face
             BARACK OBAMA, Remarks at Memorial Service for Fallen Dallas Police Officers
Assignments for Language
 
11.  Definition
The Purposes of Definition
             Argument Essentials: Purposes of Definition
             SUNNIVIE BRYDUM, The True Meaning of the Word “Cisgender”
             *LUCAS WRIGHT, Twitter Bans Dehumanization
Defining the Terms in Your Argument
             The Limitations of Dictionary Definitions
             Stipulation and Negation: Stating What a Term Is and Is Not
             Defining Vague and Ambiguous Terms
             Research Skill: Using Encyclopedias to Find Definitions
             Definition by Example
             Argument Essentials: Defining the Terms in Your Argument
             Extended Definitions
             Strategies for Writing a Definition Essay
             ISHMEAL BRADLEY, Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Moral Dilemma
             BRIAN WHITAKER, The Definition of Terrorism
Assignments for Definition
 
12.  Logic
             Induction
             Argument Essentials: Induction
             *STEVEN DOLOFF, Greta Garbo, Meet Joan Rivers . . . (Talk Amongst Yourselves)”
Deduction
             Argument Essentials: Deduction
             *SEAMUS O’MAHONY, Are We Living Too Long?
             HILLARY CLINTON, Remarks at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Women and the Economy Summit
Common Fallacies
             Research Skill: Structuring Your Research with Generalizations and Specifics 
             Hasty Generalization
             Faulty Use of Authority
             Post Hoc or Doubtful Cause
             False Analogy
             Ad Hominem
             False Dilemma
             Slippery Slope
             Begging the Question
             Straw Man
             Red Herring
             Two Wrongs Make a Right
             Non Sequitur
             Ad Populum
             Strategies for Uncovering Logical Fallacies
             Appeal to Tradition
             CHRISTOPHER CALDWELL, Drivers Get Rolled
             *JUSTICE HENRY BILLINGS BROWN, Plessy v. Ferguson: The Opinion of the Court
Assignments for Logic
 
PART FOUR Incorporating Research
             
13.  Planning and Research

Finding an Appropriate Topic
             Invention Strategies
             Evaluating Possible Topics
             Strategies for Identifying Effective Research Paper Topics
Initiating Research
             Keeping Research on Track
             Strategies for Keeping Your Research on Track
             Research Skill: What Is Common Knowledge?
             Sketching a Preliminary Outline
             Types of Sources
             Research Skill: Popular vs. Scholarly Articles
Finding Sources
             Databases
             Encyclopedias
             Statistical Resources
             Government Resources
             Online Sources
             Multimodal Sources
Evaluating Sources
             Evaluating Sources for Relevance
             Evaluating Sources for Reliability
             Research Skill: Evaluating Multimodal Sources
             Argument Essentials: Evaluating Sources
Taking Notes
             Note Taking and Prewriting
             Working with Your Outline
             Managing and Documenting Sources
             Argument Essentials: Taking Notes
             *ALICIA OGLESBY, Safe Spaces
             *MEGAN YEE, Why “Safe Spaces” Are Important for Mental Health — Especially on College Campuses
 
14.  Drafting, Revising, and Presenting Arguments
Reviewing Your Research
             Research Skill: Reviewing Your Research
Avoiding Plagiarism
             Argument Essentials: Avoiding Plagiarism
Building an Effective Argument
             Argument Essentials: Checklist for Effective Arguments
Using Sentence Forms to Write Arguments
             Argument Essentials: Addressing Opposing Arguments Using Sentence Forms
Revising
Oral Arguments and Presentations
             The Audience
             Credibility
             Organization
             Language
             Support
             Presentation Aids
             *JIMMY CARTER, Why I Believe the Mistreatment of Women Is the Number One Human Rights Abuse
             KATHLEEN SEBELIUS, Remarks to Georgetown University’s Public Policy Institute     
 
15.  Documenting Sources
MLA In-Text Citations
MLA Works Cited Entries
             Directory of MLA Works Cited Entries
             Print Sources
             The Elements of Citation: Book (MLA)
             Online Sources
             The Elements of Citation: Article from a Website (MLA)
             The Elements of Citation: Article from a Database (MLA)
             Other Sources
MLA-Style Annotated Bibliography
MLA-Style Paper Format
MLA-Style Sample Research Paper
             *ANNA HARVIN, The Place for Safe Space: Mental Health and the College Student Experience (student essay in MLA style)
APA In-Text Citations
APA List of References
             Directory of APA Reference Entries
             Print Sources
             The Elements of Citation: Book (APA)
             Online Sources
             The Elements of Citation: Article from a Website (APA)
             The Elements of Citation: Article from a Database (APA)
             Other Sources
APA-Style Paper Format
APA-Style Sample Research Paper
             *DANIEL M. WEINZAPFEL, The Economic Argument for Expanding GMO Regulation in America (student essay in APA style)
 
PART FIVE Debating the Issues
 
*16.  The Anti-Vaxx Movement: What Values Are at Stake?

*ROBERT F. KENNEDY JR., This Is the Chronic Disease Epidemic  
*KATHLEEN KENNEDY TOWNSEND, JOSEPH P. KENNEDY II, AND MAEVE KENNEDY MCKEAN, RFK Jr., Is Our Brother and Uncle. He’s Tragically Wrong about Vaccines.
 
*17.  Confederate Monuments: Where Is Their Place in Today’s America?
*GRACY OLMSTEAD, There Are Good Reasons to Consider Removing Confederate Memorials from Our Public Squares
*JOHN DANIEL DAVIDSON, Why We Should Keep the Confederate Monuments Right Where They Are
 
*18.  Breed-Specific Legislation: Should Ownership of Aggressive Dogs Be Regulated?
*KENNETH M. PHILLIPS, Arguments For and Against Breed-Specific Laws
*AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS (ASPCA), Position Statement on Breed-Specific Legislation
 
19.  Gender Stereotypes: Is the “Princess” Phenomenon Detrimental to Girls’ Self-Image?            
CALAH ALEXANDER, The Dangers of the Princess Culture           
CRYSTAL LIECHTY, In Defense of Princess Culture           
 
20.  Economics and College Sports: Should College Athletes Be Paid?

PAUL MARX, Athlete’s New Day            
WARREN HARTENSTINE, College Athletes Should Not Be Paid
 
PART SIX Multiple Viewpoints
 
21.  Social Networking: What Are the Consequences of Becoming an Online Society?

ALFREDO LOPEZ, Social Networking and the Death of the Internet
*JASMINE GARSD, #BLESSED: Is Everyone Happier Than You on Social Media?
ISAAC GILMAN, Online Lives, Offline Consequences: Professionalism, Information Ethics, and Professional Students
*JOSH MOODY, Why Colleges Look at Students’’ Social Media
*GRETCHEN MCCULLOCH, Post Internet People
 
*22.  Mass Shootings in America: Who Is to Blame? How Should We Respond?
*JILLIAN PETERSON AND JAMES DENSLEY, What We’ve Learned about Mass Shooters Since 1966
*ROXANNE DUNBAR-ORTIZ, Inside the Minds of American Mass Shooters
*ELLY VINTIADIS, Mass Shooting and the Myth of the Violent Mentally Ill
WAYNE LAPIERRE, What Should America Do about Gun Violence?
GRETCHEN BLYNT, Preparing Kids for School Shootings Damages Them, Too
ALEX MESOUDI, Mass Shootings and the Mass Media: Does Media Coverage of Mass Shootings Inspire Copycat Crimes?
 
23. Climate Change: It Exists. What Now?
NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION, How Will Climate
Change Affect the World and Society?
*JOHN R. WENNERSTEN AND DENISE ROBBINS, Climate Refugees Are on the Verge of Becoming a Global Problem
*CHELSEY KIVLAND AND ANNE SOSIN, Why Climate Change Is Worsening Public Health Problems
REYNARD LOKI, 4 Reasons Climate Change Affects National Security
DIANA LIVERMAN AND AMY GLASMEIER, What Are the Economic Consequences of Climate Change?
 
*24.  Diversity and Inclusion: Are Equality Initiatives Successful?
*DREW ALLEN AND GREGORY C. WOLNIAK, When College Tuition Goes Up, Campus Diversity Goes Down
*JULIE A. PETERSON AND LISA M. RUDGERS, The Attack on Affirmative Action Is Simple and Powerful — and Wrong
*BOBBY ALLYN, College Board Drops Its “Adversity Score” for Each Student after Backlash
*ANTHONY ABRAHAM JACK, I Was a Low-Income College Student. Classes Weren’t the Hard Part.
*NICK HANAUER, Better Schools Won’t Fix America
 
25.  Freedom of Speech on Campus: Are Limitations on Our Rights Ever Justified?
*JAMES MCWILLIAMS, What Can We Learn from the Campus Free Speech Debates?
AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, Speech on Campus
JANET NAPOLITANO, It’s Time to Free Speech on Campus Again
*EMMA KERR, College Students Want Free Speech — Sort Of
*JOAN WALLACH SCOTT, Freedom of Speech v. Civility
 
*26.  Mistrust of the Media: How Much Should We Rely on Our Information Sources?
*JAMES CARSON, Fake News: What Exactly Is It?—?and How Can You Spot It?
*JEFFREY M. JONES, U.S. Media Trust Continues to Recover from 2016 Low
*HANS ROSLING, The Blame Instinct
*ALAN RUSBRIDGER, Journalism Has Changed in the Blink of an Eye
 
PART SEVEN Classic Arguments
JONATHAN SWIFT, A Modest Proposal
THOMAS JEFFERSON, The Declaration of Independence
HENRY DAVID THOREAU, Civil Disobedience
SOJOURNER TRUTH, Ain’t I a Woman?
RACHEL CARSON, The Obligation to Endure
NELSON MANDELA, Black Man in a White Man’s Court
THURGOOD MARSHALL, Reflections on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution
 
Glossary
Index

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