9780765615725

The Elements Of International English Style

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780765615725

  • ISBN10:

    076561572X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2005-03-31
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xvii
1. The Language of Global Business Is International English 3(12)
A Riddle
3(1)
What Is International English Style?
4(7)
The Two Strategies: Culture-Free, Culture-Fair
11(2)
Discussion Questions
13(1)
Sources and Resources
14(1)
2. Principles of Simplicity 15(23)
Meaning and Risk
15(2)
Ogden's Basic English
17(19)
Tactic 1: Adopt a Locally Invented, Controlled English
18(1)
Tactic 2: Adopt a Reduced Dictionary
19(1)
Tactic 3: Adopt an Industry-Sanctioned Controlled English
19(2)
Tactic 4: Choose Words with One or Few Meanings
21(3)
Tactic 5: Avoid Verbs with Two or Three Words in Them (Phrasal Verbs)
24(1)
Tactic 6: Use the Simplest Verb Forms
25(1)
Tactic 7: Define Many Terms in a Glossary
26(2)
Tactic 8: Choose Words that Are Pronounceable
28(1)
Tactic 9: Do not Coin Words that Are not Needed
29(1)
Tactic 10: Avoid Redundant and Wordy Expressions for Time and Place
30(2)
Tactic 11: Avoid Unhelpful Redundancies
32(1)
Tactic 12: Avoid Nominalizations
33(3)
Discussion Questions
36(1)
Sources and Resources
36(2)
3. Principles of Clarity 38(25)
The Problem: Clear Only If Known
38(23)
Tactic 13: Be Careful of Loosely Connected Words and Phrases
40(2)
Tactic 14: Be Aware of Frequently Misplaced Descriptive Words
42(1)
Tactic 15: Do not Confuse Frequently Confused Terms
43(2)
Tactic 16: Form Words in Standard Ways
45(1)
Tactic 17: Use Standard Spellings
46(1)
Tactic 18: Avoid Converting Nouns into Verbs
46(1)
Tactic 19: Be Aware of the Several Englishes
47(1)
Tactic 20: Be Careful with Money and Dates
48(1)
Tactic 21: Avoid Illogical or Arbitrary Idioms
48(2)
Tactic 22: Avoid Words that Can Have Opposite Meanings
50(1)
Tactic 23: Avoid Abbreviations, Contractions, and Acronyms
51(1)
Tactic 24: Avoid Figurative Language in General
51(1)
Tactic 25: Avoid Literary and Cultural Allusions
52(1)
Tactic 26: Avoid Military and Sports Vocabulary
53(2)
Tactic 27: Avoid Technical Terms Used with Nontechnical Meanings
55(1)
Tactic 28: Avoid Business Jargon and Fashionable Business Terms
56(1)
Tactic 29: Avoid Regionalisms and Slang
57(1)
Tactic 30: Avoid Sarcasm or Irony
58(1)
Tactic 31: Avoid Humor and Wordplay
59(1)
Tactic 32: Suit Your English Idiom to the Local Language
60(1)
Discussion Questions
61(1)
Sources and Resources
62(1)
4. Reducing Burdens 63(30)
Reading and Stress
63(6)
Tactic 33: Prefer Shorter Sentences
65(1)
Tactic 34: Prefer Simple Sentences to Compound Sentences
66(1)
Tactic 35: Prefer Simple Sentences to Complex Sentences
67(1)
Tactic 36: Retain Certain Optional Words
68(1)
Punctuation and International English
69(8)
Tactic 37: Use Commas Aggressively
72(1)
Tactic 38: Use Hyphens Aggressively
73(2)
Tactic 39: Avoid Quotation Marks
75(2)
The Burdensome Page
77(13)
Tactic 40: Do not Justify Text, but Do not Break Words at the Ends of Lines
78(2)
Tactic 41: Create a Readable, Accessible Page
80(4)
Tactic 42: Reduce GOTOs
84(1)
Tactic 43: Break Apart Long Paragraphs
85(1)
Tactic 44: Convert Some Paragraphs into Lists
86(1)
Tactic 45: Convert Some Paragraphs into Tables
87(1)
Tactic 46: Convert Some Paragraphs into Playscripts
87(1)
Tactic 47: Convert Some Paragraphs into Decision Tables
88(1)
Tactic 48: Convert Some Paragraphs into Logic Diagrams
89(1)
Reducing Burdens as an Ethical Objective
90(1)
Discussion Questions
90(1)
Sources and Resources
91(2)
5. Writing for Translation 93(12)
Limits on Translation
93(2)
Translation Is a Business Expense
95(2)
Preparing a Manuscript for Translation
97(2)
Controlled Language and the Future of Translation
99(4)
Discussion Questions
103(1)
Sources and Resources
104(1)
6. Principles of Correspondence 105(19)
Business Letters: An Exercise in Style
105(13)
Tactic 49: Eliminate Western Letter Lingo and Formats
107(4)
Tactic 50: Adopt the Receiver's Format
111(4)
Tactic 51: Emulate the Receiver's Opening Paragraph and Customary Closing
115(1)
Tactic 52: Emulate the Receiver's Content Restrictions
116(2)
What about E-mail?
118(1)
Adapting E-mail for International Recipients
119(3)
Discussion Questions
122(1)
Sources and Resources
123(1)
7. Principles of Cultural Adaptation 124(17)
Was der Bauer nicht kennt...
124(11)
Tactic 53: Be Extremely Polite and Formal
127(2)
Tactic 54: Assess Other Cultures without Stereotyping
129(2)
Tactic 55: Localize Radically
131(2)
Tactic 56: Define Your Graphics Strategy
133(1)
Tactic 57: Consider Hall's Context Continuum
133(2)
Issues of Philosophy and "Hypernorms"
135(4)
Discussion Questions
139(1)
Sources and Resources
140(1)
Appendixes
1. Projects for Students of International English
141(2)
2. Sentences that Need Editing
143(2)
3. Instructional/Technical Passages that Overburden the Reader
145(4)
4. A Portfolio of Bad News Letters
149(4)
5. An Internationalized Website Checklist
153(4)
Index 157

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