9780123876706

Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications, Four-Volume Set

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780123876706

  • ISBN10:

    0123876702

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-04-24
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Everyone agrees that we're living in the Information Age. How have we shaped the Information Age, and how has it shaped us? The Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications exhaustively explores the ways that editorial content--from journalism and scholarship to films and infomercials--is developed, presented, stored, analyzed, and regulated around the world. For readers and researchers of all levels, the Encyclopedia provides perspective and context about content, delivery systems, and their myriad relationships, as well as clearly drawn avenues for further research. *Articles begin with easily understandable concepts and become increasingly sophisticated, satisfying the needs of all readers. *Articles by leading authors from major institutions, organizations, and corporations around the world *Contains approximately 220 separate articles, all original contributions commissioned for this work *Extensive cross-referencing system links related articles; "further reading" lists appear at the end of each entry

Table of Contents

Contents by Subject Area xi
Contributors xv
Foreword xxi
Preface xxiii
Guide to the Use of the Encyclopedia xvii
Adversary, Role of Media as
1(6)
Brant Houston
Advertising and Promotion
7(10)
John Philip Jones
Advertising: Electronic Media
17(10)
Joanne Gula
Advertising: Evaluation of Effectiveness
27(8)
John Philip Jones
Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, Status of Media in
35(12)
Silvio Waisbord
Armenia, Status of Media in
47(6)
Christine Ogan
Australia and New Zealand, Status of Media in
53(12)
John Henningham
Austria and Switzerland, Status of Media in
65(12)
Werner A. Meier
Baltic States, Status of Media in
77(10)
Marius Lukosiunas
Books
87(18)
Murray Seeger
Books, Future Role of
105(16)
Murray Seeger
Botswana, Status of Media in
121(8)
James Zaffiro
Brazil, Status of Media in
129(10)
Rosental Calmon Alves
Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, Status of Media in
139(14)
Bertil Lintner
Business and Economics Journalism
153(10)
Nixon K. Kariithi
Cartoons and Animated Films
163(12)
S. L. Harrison
Cellular Telephony
175(14)
Richard A. Gershon
Censorship
189(16)
Michael S. Sweeney
Central America, Status of Media in
205(10)
Rick Rockwell
China, Status of Media in
215(12)
Judy Polumbaum
Cold War, Role of Media in
227(8)
Louis W. Liebovich
Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, Status of Media in
235(12)
Leonardo C. Ferreira
Comic Strips and Comic Books
247(12)
John A. Lent
Communication Conglomerates
259(12)
Carla Brooks Johnston
Computer Networks
271(8)
Timothy Stephen
Sibel Adali
Computers, Early Development of
279(16)
Judith Clapp
Computers, Overview
295(8)
Sharon Kleinman
Computers: Personal Computers
303(22)
Harpreet Mahajan
Conflict of Interest
325(8)
Samuel P. Winch
Copyright Law
333(14)
Geoffrey P. Hull
Crime Reporting
347(10)
William J. Drummond
Cross-Cultural Communication
357(12)
Carla Brooks Johnston
Cultural Values and Mass Communications
369(12)
S. M. Mazharul Haque
Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, Status of Media in
381(10)
Peter Bajomi-Lazar
Zuzana Simek
Daytime Television, Culture of
391(8)
Robert J. Thompson
Democracy and the Media
399(10)
Kathleen M. McGraw
R. Andrew Holbrook
Developing Nations and the Media
409(10)
George A. Krimsky
Disasters, Reporting of
419(12)
Phil Scraton
Documentary Films
431(16)
Jeremy Murray-Brown
Dramatic Shows (Television)
447(14)
Mary B. Cassata
East Africa, Status of Media in
461(8)
Nicholls K. Boas
Economic Development, Communication and
469(10)
Heather E. Hudson
Egypt, Status of Media in
479(10)
Hussein Amin
Electronic Commerce
489(16)
Rolf T. Wigand
Electronic Mail
505(10)
Teresa M. Harrison
Electronic (Virtual) Communities
515(8)
Nancy Williams
Barry Kort
English Language, Role in International Communications
523(6)
Larry E. Smith
English-Speaking West Africa, Status of Media in
529(14)
Ritchard Tamba M'Bayo
Environmental Movement and the Media
543(10)
Michael Frome
Ethics in Media, Overview
553(8)
Sherry Baker
Michael Perkins
Ethiopia, Status of Media in
561(10)
Getachew Metaferia
Ethnic and Foreign-Language Press
571(16)
Arthur S. Hayes
Ethnic and Gender Stereotyping
587(10)
Ronald N. Jacobs
Gayle Sulik
Ethnic Conflict and the Media
597(12)
Kimberly Jones
Ethnic Media, Overview
609
Donald R. Shanor
Film
1(10)
Lisa Joniak
Film, Historic Development of
11(12)
Bruce Evensen
Foreign Policy and the Media
23(8)
Abbas Malek
France, Status of Media in
31(10)
Raymond Kuhn
Freedom of Expression, Western Historical Foundations of
41(12)
David J. Vergobbi
Freedom of Information Laws
53(16)
Kathleen Edwards
Freedom of the Press, Concept of
69(12)
Kyu Ho Youm
Freedom of the Press, Historic Aspects of
81(14)
Leonard R. Sussman
Freedom of the Press in Africa
95(22)
Lyombe Eko
Freedom of the Press in Asia
117(10)
Shelton A. Gunaratne
Freedom of the Press in Eastern Europe
127(14)
Donald R. Shanor
Freedom of the Press in Latin America
141(14)
Craig L. LaMay
Coulter M. Bump
Freedom of the Press in the Former Soviet Republics
155(14)
Laura Belin
Freedom of the Press in the Middle East and North Africa
169(12)
Joel Campagna
Freedom of the Press in the United States
181(12)
Margaret Blanchard
Freedom of the Press in Western Europe
193(10)
Howard Tumber
Marina Prentoulis
French-Speaking Central Africa, Status of Media in
203(6)
Festus Eribo
French-Speaking West Africa, Status of Media in
209(12)
Mitchell Land
Germany 1933--1945, as Media Case Study
221(16)
Rudolf Stober
Germany, Status of Media in
237(14)
Peter J. Humphreys
Ghana, Status of Media in
251(14)
Carla W. Heath
Globalization of Media, Concept and Nature of
265(14)
William Hachten
Global Media, Historic Development of
279(14)
Monroe E. Price
Government Role in Media
293(12)
Carla Brooks Johnston
Greece, Status of Media in
305(14)
Michael G. Meimaris
Health and Medical Reporting
319(10)
Scott C. Ratzan
Matthew D. Matsaganis
J. Gregory Payne
Hollywood, Culture and Influence of
329(10)
Michael Real
Hong Kong, Status of Media in
339(12)
Frank Ching
Human Rights Issues
351(12)
Susan Moeller
India, Status of Media in
363(20)
Ammu Joseph
Indonesia, Status of Media in
383(12)
Krishna Sen
Information Overload, Concept of
395(12)
David Shenk
Information Society
407(12)
William H. Dutton
Information Warfare
419(10)
Randall Whitaker
Intellectual Property Law
429(22)
Randall Larsen
Intelligence Gathering, Role of Media in
451(12)
John J. Schulz
International Communication Regimes
463(14)
J. P. Singh
Internet
477(12)
Elliot King
Internet Access
489(14)
Trevor R. Roycroft
Internet as Political Advocacy Forum
503(6)
Kenneth S. Rogerson
Internet: Commercial and Corporate Web Sites
509(8)
Jackie O. Pavlik
Internet, Global Aspects of
517(10)
Oussama Cherribi
Internet, Government Regulation of
527(14)
Barbara M. Jones
Internet, History and Development of
541(10)
Henry Edward Hardy
Internet Law
551(12)
Richard Warner
Internet News Reporting
563(12)
Abraham Santibanez
Internet: Private and Personal Web Sites
575(8)
Susannah R. Stern
Investigative Journalism
583(10)
James L. Aucoin
Iraq, Status of Media in
593(6)
Mahmoud Tarabay
Ireland and Northern Ireland, Status of Media in
599(12)
Kevin Cullen
Islamic Culture, Role of Media in
611(10)
Richard W. Bulliet
Israel, Status of Media in
621(12)
Yehiel Limor
Italy, Status of Media in
633(8)
John English
Japan, Status of Media in
641(14)
Takesato Watanabe
Journalism/Communications Education
655(18)
LeAnne Daniels
Journalistic Codes of Ethics and Conduct
673(14)
Ralph D. Barney
Journals, Scholarly
687(12)
Fytton Rowland
Hazel Woodward
Korea (North and South), Status of Media in
699
Kyu Ho Youm
Legal System and the Media
1(20)
Arthur S. Hayes
Libel and Slander
21(14)
David Heller
Sandra Baron
Libraries, Public
35(14)
R. Kathleen Molz
Literacy, Current Status of
49(12)
Naz Rassool
Literacy, Historic Development of
61(14)
Randal Holme
Literary Journalism and the Media
75(12)
Helen Benedict
Magazines: News
87(14)
David E. Sumner
Magazines: Special Interest
101(12)
David Abrahamson
Malaysia, Status of Media in
113(10)
Lay Kim Wang
Media Criticism
123(20)
Craig L. LaMay
Mexico, Status of Media in
143(6)
Rick Rockwell
Minorities, Media Depiction of
149(6)
Joy F. Morrison
Namibia, Status of Media in
155(8)
James Zaffiro
National Development and Communications
163(14)
Robert L. Stevenson
Nationalist Movements and the Media
177(14)
Donald R. Shanor
National Security Affairs Reporting
191(14)
John J. Schulz
Native American Culture and the Media
205(10)
Shiela Reaves
Patty Loew
Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, Status of Media in
215(10)
Kees Brants
New Media
225(10)
John V. Pavlik
Adam Clayton Powell III
News Agencies
235(12)
Christopher H. Sterling
Newspapers, Elite and National
247(10)
Richard Gross
Newspapers, Evolution of: 1955--Present
257(10)
Stephen Lacy
Daniel Riffe
Newspapers, Future Role of
267(10)
Roger F. Fidler
Newspapers, Local
277(22)
Dane S. Claussen
News Reporting, Radio
299(16)
Ronald Garay
News Reporting, Television
315(20)
Robert Zelnick
New World Information and Communication Order
335(16)
Leonard R. Sussman
Nigeria, Status of Media in
351(12)
Christopher Olugbenga Ayeni
Nonviolent Struggle and the Media
363(8)
Gene Sharp
North African States, Status of Media in
371(12)
Mustapha Masmoudi
Objectivity in Reporting
383(10)
Wolfgang Donsbach
Pacific Islands, Status of Media in
393(32)
Suzanna Layton
Pakistan and Bangladesh, Status of Media in
425(14)
Shelton A. Gunaratne
Philippines, Status of Media in
439(10)
Sheila S. Coronel
Phonograms
449(12)
Geoffrey P. Hull
Photography
461(10)
Paul Martin Lester
Photojournalism (Still News Photography)
471(12)
David D. Perlmutter
Poetry, Drama, and Fiction
483(12)
Gail Shivel
Poland, Status of Media in
495(10)
Jane Leftwich Curry
Political Advertising
505(12)
Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Paul A. Waldman
Political Bias in the Media
517(10)
Holli Semetko
Political Cartoons
527(16)
Terry L. Seip
Politics and the Media
543(12)
Penn Kimball
Polling
555(10)
Frank Newport
Prior Restraint
565(8)
T. Barton Carter
Privacy vs Public Right to Know
573(12)
Jane E. Kirtley
Privatization, Liberalization, and Deregulation
585(12)
Folu F. Ogundimu
Propaganda
597(10)
John Spicer Nichols
Propaganda Films
607(10)
James Forsher
Public Journalism
617(14)
Tanni Haas
Public Opinion and the Media
631(10)
Carroll J. Glynn
Irkwon Jeong
Public Relations
641
Don Bates
Radio Broadcasting: Post-1945
1(12)
Christopher H. Sterling
Radio Broadcasting: Pre-1945
13(12)
Christopher H. Sterling
Radio, Future Role of
25(8)
Dwight DeWerth-Pallmeyer
Radio, International
33(14)
Donald R. Browne
Rating Systems for Media
47(12)
Joanne Cantor
Reality-Based Television (Docudrama)
59(12)
Barbara J. Irwin
Reference Works (Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, etc.)
71(10)
Blanche Woolls
Religion and the Media
81(10)
Wayne Luther Thompson
Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania, Status of Media in
91(12)
Peter Gross
Russia, Status of Media in
103(12)
Michael J. Berlin
Satellite Broadcasting
115(12)
Robert M. Frieden
Saudi Arabia and Gulf States, Status of Media in
127(16)
Deborah Wheeler
Science Reporting
143(12)
Joanna S. Ploeger
Separatist Movements and the Media
155(14)
Donald R. Shanor
Sexual Content in Film and Television
169(8)
Amy Richards Franzini
Singapore, Status of Media in
177(16)
Eddie C. Y. Kuo
Hao Xiaoming
Sources, Confidentiality of
193(12)
Dominic Lasorsa
South Africa, Status of Media in
205(12)
Sebiletso Mokone-Matabane
South America, Status of Media in
217(10)
Joseph D. Straubhaar
Southeastern Africa, Status of Media in
227(18)
Francis P. Kasoma
Soviet Union 1929--1991, Status of Media in
245(10)
Laura Roselle
Spain and Portugal, Status of Media in
255(20)
Jose A. Garcia Aviles
Sports Reporting
275(10)
Stephen V. Bird
Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland, Status of Media in
285(16)
Helge Ronning
Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, Status of Media in
301(16)
Nabil H. Dajani
Orayb Aref Najjar
Tabloid Journalism
317(12)
Joe Atkinson
Taiwan, Status of Media in
329(12)
Ringo Ma
Talk Show Culture
341(14)
Ellen Hume
Telegraph
355(12)
Christopher H. Sterling
Telephone
367(14)
Phyllis Bernt
Television Broadcasting: Cable TV
381(12)
Patrick R. Parsons
Television Broadcasting: Networks
393(16)
William A. Richter
Television Formats
409(6)
Riley Maynard
Television, Future Role of
415(14)
David F. Donnelly
Television, Role of: 1945--1975
429(14)
Christopher H. Sterling
Television, Role of: 1975--Present
443(16)
George Comstock
Erica Scharrer
Terrorism and the Media
459(14)
Brigitte L. Nacos
Thailand, Status of Media in
473(16)
Peter J. Eng
Theatrical Films
489(12)
Randy Steinberg
Traditional Cultures, Impact of Media on
501(10)
Raul Reis
Turkey, Status of Media in
511(8)
Christine Ogan
Ukraine, Status of Media in
519(10)
Craig L. LaMay
United Kingdom, Status of Media in
529(12)
Holli Semetko
United Nations, Role of
541(10)
Joseph A. Mehan
United States, Status of Media in
551(10)
Jean Folkerts
Vietnam, Status of Media in
561(12)
Russell Hiang-Khng Heng
Violence in Films and Television
573(12)
Joanne Cantor
Virtual Diplomacy
585(10)
Sheryl J. Brown
Margarita S. Studemeister
War Reporting: Access, Censorship, and Other Issues
595(16)
John J. Schulz
War Reporting, Overview
611(12)
Debra Reddin van Tuyll
West Bank and Gaza, Status of Media in
623(16)
Orayb Aref Najjar
Women in the Media
639(14)
Marilyn Greenwald
Yugoslavia (Former), Status of Media in
653(14)
Roland Brunner
Nena Skopljanac
Zimbabwe, Status of Media in
667(16)
Last Moyo
Index 683

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