Energetic Polymers : Binders and Plasticizers for Enhancing Performance

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-03-26
  • Publisher: Vch Pub

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This up-to-date overview provides the latest information on the performance, sensitivity, strength and processability aspects of propellants and explosive formulations, with the nature of polymer binder/plasticizer as the variable factor. Apart from applications, this monograph explores the principles behind energetic polymers, while discussing the synthetic routes and energetic characteristics of an individual family of energetic polymers. Furthermore, a number of case studies illustrate the role of energetic polymers in enhancing the performance of formulations as compared to their inert counterparts. The emphasis is on safety throughout, with practical guidance on how to safely handle and formulate as well as synthesize using energetic polymers. With the advent of a new generation of energetic polymers, this book is relevant to academic research and industrial R&D, as well as for industry and defense organizations.

Author Biography

How Ghee Ang is the founding director of the Energetics Research Institute (EnRI) at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. In his capacity as advisor to both Defence Science and Technology Association (DSTA) and DSO National Laboratories, Professor Ang plays a key role in strategizing and building up capabilities on chemical defence and energetic materials in Singapore. His research interests lie in several areas of chemistry (fluorine, phosphorus, organometallic and cluster chemistry) and energetic materials. He is Fellow of many professional bodies and serves on the editorial advisory board of several journals including the Journal of Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, the Central European Journal of Energetic Materials and the Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials. Sreekumar Pisharath is a senior research fellow at the Energetics Research Institute (EnRI) at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. He was awarded his PhD in materials science and engineering from NTU, Singapore, in 2005. Since then he has been associated with Energetics Research Institute (EnRI). His research interests are in the areas of synthesis and characterization of energetic polymers, thermal analysis of energetic material composites, deformation, fracture behavior and microscopy of composite materials.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. IX
Abbreviationsp. XI
Polymers as Binders and Plasticizers - Historical Perspectivep. 1
Nitrocellulosep. 1
Polysulfidesp. 2
Polybutadienes (PBAA, PBAN, and CTPB)p. 3
Polyurethanesp. 4
Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadienep. 5
Explosive Bindersp. 5
Thermoplastic Elastomersp. 6
Energetic Polymers (Other Than NC) as Bindersp. 8
Polyglycidyl Nitratep. 8
GAPp. 9
Energetic Polyoxetanesp. 10
Polyphosphazenesp. 11
Energetic Thermoplastic Elastomersp. 11
Energetic Polymer Plasticizersp. 12
Referencesp. 15
High Nitrogen Content Polymersp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Preparation of Energetic Azido Polymersp. 19
Glycidyl Azide Polymerp. 19
Azido Polymers from Oxetanesp. 22
Poly(BAMO)p. 23
Poly(AMMO)p. 24
Physical Properties of Azido Polymersp. 25
Curing of Azido Polymersp. 25
Curing by Polyisocyanatesp. 25
Preparationp. 26
Structure of Cured Polyurethane Elastomerp. 28
Kinetics of Curing of Azido Polymersp. 29
Gel-Time Characteristicsp. 31
Post-Cure Propertiesp. 33
Curing of Azido Polymers by Dipolarophilesp. 38
Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Azido Polymersp. 41
Mechanism of Thermal Decompositionp. 41
Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Azido Polymersp. 43
Combustion of Azido Polymersp. 47
Thermal Decomposition and Combustion of Energetic Formulations with Azido Polymersp. 49
Thermal Decomposition of Azido Polymer/Nitramine Mixturesp. 50
Combustion of Azido Polymer/Nitramine Propellant Mixturesp. 54
Combustion of Azido Polymer/Ammonium Nitrate Composite Propellantsp. 57
Combustion of Azido Polymer Propellants with HNFp. 58
Performance of Azido Polymer-Based Propellantsp. 61
Azido Polymers as Explosive Bindersp. 63
Azido Polymer Based PBX Formulations for Underwater Explosivesp. 65
Tetrazole Polymers and Their Saltsp. 66
N-N-Bonded Epoxy Bindersp. 69
Referencesp. 70
Nitropolymers as Energetic Bindersp. 81
Introductionp. 81
Preparation of Nitropolymersp. 82
Nitrocellulosep. 82
Poly(Glycidyl Nitrate) (PGN)p. 83
Curing of PGNp. 85
Poly(Nitratomethyl-methyl Oxetane) (Poly(NIMMO))p. 88
Nitrated HTPB (NHTPB)p. 90
Nitrated Cyclodextrin Polymers (Poly(CDN))p. 90
Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Nitropolymersp. 91
Nitrocellulosep. 91
Poly(Nitratomethyl-Methyl Oxetane) (Poly(NIMMO))p. 94
Poly(Glycidyl Nitrate) (PGN)p. 98
Combustion of Nitrate Ester Polymers and Propellantsp. 100
NC Based Double-Base Propellantsp. 100
Composite Modified Double-Base (CMDB) Propellantsp. 101
Poly(NIMMO)-Based Composite Propellantsp. 106
PGN-Based Composite Propellantsp. 109
Nitropolymer-Based Explosive Compositionsp. 111
Referencesp. 115
Energetic Thermoplastic Elastomersp. 121
Introductionp. 121
Preparation of Energetic Thermoplastic Elastomersp. 122
Thermal Decomposition and Combustion of ETPEsp. 132
Combustion of ETPE Propellant Formulationsp. 137
Performance of ETPE Based Propellant Formulationsp. 139
Melt-Cast Explosives Based on ETPEsp. 141
ETPE Based Polymer Nanocompositesp. 142
Referencesp. 144
Fluoropolymers as Bindersp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)p. 148
Phase Transitions of PTFEp. 148
Energetic Composites of PTFEp. 149
Copolymers of Tetrafluoroethylenep. 152
Kel-F800p. 153
Dynamic Behavior of Kel-F800 under Shockp. 153
Thermal Decompositionp. 155
Viton Ap. 156
Thermal Decomposition of Vitonp. 158
Energetic Polymers Containing Fluorinep. 159
Miscellaneous Energetic Fluoropolymersp. 161
PBX Formulations with Fluoropolymersp. 162
Referencesp. 165
Energetic Plasticizers for High Performancep. 171
Introductionp. 171
Energetic Plasticizers Based on Azido Compoundsp. 172
Azido Acetate Ester Based Plasticizersp. 172
Azido Based Oligomeric Plasticizersp. 174
Performance of Propellant Formulations Containing Azido Plasticizersp. 178
Nitrate Ester Plasticizersp. 180
General Characteristicsp. 180
Performancep. 183
Nitrate Ester Oligomers as Energetic Plasticizersp. 184
Miscellaneous Plasticizers Based on Nitro-Groupsp. 186
Polynitro-Aliphatic Plasticizersp. 186
Nitratoethylnitramine (NENA) Plasticizersp. 188
Referencesp. 189
Application of Computational Techniques to Energetic Polymers and Formulationsp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Overview of Computational Techniquesp. 193
Application of Computational Modeling Techniques to Energetic Polymer Formulationsp. 197
Quantum Mechanical Methodsp. 197
Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulationsp. 201
Mesoscale Simulationsp. 205
Macroscale Simulationsp. 206
Future Outlookp. 207
Referencesp. 208
Indexp. 211
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