Engineering Your Future : The Professional Practice of Engineering

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-06
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Engineering Your Future focuses on the non-technical aspects of professional practice and is designed to be a valuable textbook for engineering and other technical program students, as well as a practical reference book for young technical professionals. With respect to students, this book supports the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)s Engineering Criteria 2000, as well as ASCE's current BoK and ASME and AIChE's work on their own BoK's. This updated edition includes new coverage of presentation methods, marketing skills, team building exercises, business accounting, and quality control/quality assurance.

Author Biography

Stuart G. Walesh, PhD, PE, is an independent consultant who provides management, engineering, and education/training services to private, public, academic, and volunteer sector organizations. With over forty years of engineering, education, and management experience in the government, academic, and private sectors, Walesh has worked as a project manager, department head, discipline manager, author, marketer, sole proprietor, professor, and dean of an engineering college.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Editionp. xix
Technical Competency: Necessary but Not Sufficientp. xix
Audiences: Students and Practitionersp. xx
Organization and Contentp. xx
Additions and Improvementsp. xxi
This Book and ABET Engineering Accreditation Criteriap. xxii
This Book and the Body of Knowledge Movementp. xxiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxvii
Cited Sourcesp. xxviii
List of Abbreviationsp. xxix
Introduction: Engineering and the Engineerp. 1
The Playing Fieldp. 1
Definitions of Engineeringp. 3
Leading, Managing, and Producing: Deciding, Directing, and Doingp. 4
Leading, Managing, and Producing Definedp. 4
The Traditional Pyramidal, Segregated Organizational Modelp. 4
The Shared Responsibility Organizational Modelp. 6
The Focus of This Book: Managing and Leadingp. 7
Leading Misconceptionsp. 8
The Seven Qualities of Effective Leadersp. 8
Honesty and Integrityp. 9
Vision: Reach and Teachp. 9
Strategies and Tactics to Achieve the Visionp. 12
Always a Studentp. 13
Courageousp. 15
Calm in a Crisis and Chaosp. 17
Creative, Innovative, Collaborative, and Synergisticp. 18
The Engineer as Builderp. 19
Concluding Thoughts: Common Sense, Common Practice, and Good Habitsp. 20
Cited Sourcesp. 22
Annotated Bibliographyp. 23
Exercisesp. 24
Leading and Managing: Getting Your Personal House in Orderp. 27
Start with Youp. 27
Time Management: But First Roles and Goalsp. 28
Time is a Resourcep. 28
Roles, Goals, and Then, and Only Then, Time Managementp. 28
Time Management: The Great Equalizerp. 30
Time Management Tips: The ABCsp. 31
A Time Management Systemp. 45
Key Ideas about Time Managementp. 46
Employment or Graduate School?p. 46
Full-Time Graduate Studyp. 47
Full-Time Employmentp. 48
Learn From Potential Employersp. 48
The New Work Environment: Culture Shock?p. 49
No Partial Creditp. 49
Little Tolerance for Tardinessp. 49
Assignments are Not Gradedp. 50
Schedules are More Complicatedp. 50
Higher Grooming and Dress Expectationsp. 50
Teamwork is Standard Operating Procedurep. 51
Expect and Embrace Changep. 51
The First Few Months of Practice: Make or Break Timep. 51
Recognize and Draw on Generic Qualitiesp. 52
Guard Your Reputationp. 53
Learn and Respect Administrative Procedures and Structurep. 53
Complete Assignments in Accordance with Expectationsp. 53
Get Things Donep. 54
Trim Your Hedgesp. 54
Keep Your Supervisor Informedp. 55
Speak Up and Speak Positivelyp. 55
Dress Appropriatelyp. 56
Hone Communication Abilityp. 57
Seize Opportunities for You and Your Organizationp. 57
Choose To Be a Winnerp. 57
Summing it Upp. 59
Managing Personal Professional Assets: Building Individual Equityp. 59
Personal Professional Assetsp. 59
Annual Accountingp. 60
Careful Management of Personal Professional Equityp. 60
Continuing Educationp. 61
Involvement in Professional Organizations: Taking and Givingp. 61
Licensingp. 64
Concluding Thoughts: Getting Your Personal House in Orderp. 67
Cited Sourcesp. 68
Annotated Bibliographyp. 69
Exercisesp. 70
Communicating to Make Things Happenp. 73
Five Forms of Communicationp. 73
Three Distinctions between Writing and Speakingp. 75
Single-Channel versus Multi-Channelp. 75
One-Directional versus Two-Directionalp. 76
Conveying versus Convincingp. 76
Listening: Using Ears and Eyesp. 77
Be Attentivep. 77
The Value of Facts and Feelingsp. 78
Body Language: The Silent Messengerp. 78
Verify Understandingp. 80
Use What Is Learnedp. 80
Writing Tips: How to Write to Make Things Happenp. 80
Define the Purposep. 80
Profile the Audiencep. 81
Structure the Document to Reflect the Audience Profilep. 82
Ask About Document-Writing Guidelinesp. 84
Start Writing on "Day 1"p. 84
Get Started: Overcome Writer's Blockp. 85
Avoid Tin Earp. 87
Retain Some of the Outline in the Documentp. 88
Write Major Documents in Third Person: Mostlyp. 88
Employ a Gender-Neutral Stylep. 89
Write in an Active, Direct Manner Rather Than a Passive, Indirect Mannerp. 89
Recognize that Less Is Morep. 90
Apply Rhetorical Techniquesp. 92
Adopt a Flexible Format for Identifying Tables, Figures, and Sourcesp. 93
Use Listsp. 94
Design a Standard Base Map or Diagramp. 94
Compose Informative Titlesp. 94
Establish Milestonesp. 95
Produce an Attractive and Appealing Documentp. 95
Cite All Sourcesp. 95
Read One More Timep. 96
Speaking Tips: How to Speak to Make Things Happenp. 97
Conquer Reluctance to Speak: Commit to Competencep. 98
Prepare the Presentationp. 99
Deliver the Presentationp. 111
Follow-Up the Presentationp. 116
Concluding Thoughts about Writing and Speakingp. 118
Cited Sourcesp. 118
Annotated Bibliographyp. 120
Exercisesp. 121
Developing Relationshipsp. 123
Taking the Next Career Stepp. 123
Personality Profilesp. 124
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needsp. 125
The Hierarchyp. 125
Applicationp. 126
Theories X and Yp. 127
Definitionsp. 127
Applications of Theory X and Theory Y Knowledgep. 127
Dominance of Theory Ysp. 128
Delegation: Why Put Off Until Tomorrow What Someone Else Can Do Today?p. 129
Reasons to Delegatep. 129
Reluctance to Delegatep. 131
Delegation Isn't Always Downp. 133
Delegation Tipsp. 133
Three Possible Outcomesp. 134
Orchestrating Meetingsp. 135
Reasons to Meetp. 135
When Not To Call a Meetingp. 136
Tips for Successful Meetingsp. 136
Additional Meeting Thoughtsp. 145
Working with Technologists, Technicians, and Other Team Membersp. 145
Essential Members of the Organizationp. 146
Challenges Unique to Working with Varied Team Membersp. 147
A Dozen Tips for the Entry-Level Technical Personp. 148
Selecting Co-Workers and "Managing Your Boss"p. 150
Carefully Select Your "Boss" and Co-workersp. 150
Seek a Mutually-Beneficial Relationshipp. 150
Avoid Being a "Yes" Man/Womanp. 151
Caring Isn't Coddlingp. 151
Coachingp. 152
Coaching Tipsp. 152
Concluding Thoughtp. 153
Teamworkp. 153
Three Teamwork Essentialsp. 154
Creating a Teamp. 155
The Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing Processp. 157
Closing Thoughts about Teamsp. 157
Effective Professional Meeting and Conference Attendancep. 158
Learning about the Conferencep. 158
Before the Conferencep. 158
At the Conferencep. 159
After the Conferencep. 162
Looking Aheadp. 163
Concluding Thoughts about Developing Relationshipsp. 163
Cited Sourcesp. 164
Annotated Bibliographyp. 165
Exercisesp. 166
Project Management: Planning, Executing, and Closingp. 167
Project Broadly Definedp. 167
Project Management Definedp. 168
The Centrality of Project Managementp. 169
Relevance of Project Management to the Student and Entry-Level Technical Personp. 172
Planning the Projectp. 173
All Projects Are Done Twicep. 173
The Project Plan:
Introductionp. 174
Consequences of Poor or No Planningp. 175
The Project Plan Avoidance Syndromep. 175
Preparing the Project Planp. 176
Principal Project Plan Elementsp. 177
Objectives - What Do We Want to Accomplish?p. 178
Scope - How Are We Going to Do It?p. 178
Risks - What Could Go Wrong?p. 178
Deliverables - What Will We Provide to the Client/Owner/Customer?p. 181
Milestones/Schedule - When Will We Provide the Deliverables?p. 181
Tasks - What Tasks Need to be Done and in What Order to Provide the Deliverables?p. 182
Resources/Budget - How Much Will the Project Cost?p. 183
Directory - Who Will Participate?p. 184
Communication Protocol - How Will We Collaborate?p. 185
Monitoring and Control Procedure - How Will We Know How We Are Doing Relative to the Project Plan?p. 185
Ten Possible Additional Project Plan Elementsp. 186
Project Planning Versus Project Doingp. 187
Executing the Projectp. 188
Keep the Project Team on Trackp. 188
Interact With Client, Owner, or Customerp. 188
Communicate With Stakeholdersp. 188
Monitor Project Progress and Take Appropriate Actionsp. 189
Closing the Projectp. 190
Seek External Inputp. 190
Conduct Project Team Meetingp. 191
Leverage the Just-Completed Projectp. 191
Closure: Common Sense and Self Disciplinep. 192
Cited Sourcesp. 192
Annotated Bibliographyp. 193
Exercisesp. 194
Project Management: Critical Path Method and Scope Creepp. 195
This Chapter Relative to the Preceding Chapterp. 195
The Critical Path Methodp. 196
Introduction: The Four Schedule Questionsp. 196
Alternative Scheduling Methodsp. 197
Network Fundamentalsp. 199
Critical Path Method Stepsp. 200
Example Application of the Critical Path Methodp. 201
Tips for Determining Tasksp. 207
Some Observations about the Critical Path Methodp. 208
Review of Earlier Schedule Questionsp. 209
Closing Thoughts about the Critical Path Methodp. 210
Scope Creepp. 210
Two Types of Scope Creepp. 210
Consequences of Uncompensated Scope Creepp. 212
Drivers of Uncompensated Scope Creepp. 213
Doing Something Extra: The Platinum Rulep. 215
Relevance to You as a Studentp. 215
Preventing Uncompensated Scope Creepp. 216
Resolving Uncompensated Scope Creepp. 223
Ideas for Clients, Owners, and Customers about Avoiding Uncompensated Scope Creepp. 225
Closing Thoughts about Scope Creepp. 227
Cited Sourcesp. 227
Annotated Bibliographyp. 228
Exercisesp. 228
Quality: What Is It and How Do We Achieve It?p. 231
Everyone Is for It!p. 231
Quality Definedp. 232
Quality as Opulencep. 232
Quality as Excellence or Superiorityp. 233
Quality as Meeting All Requirementsp. 233
A Caution for Engineers and Other Technical Personnelp. 235
Quality Control and Quality Assurancep. 236
Suggestions for Developing a Quality Seeking Culturep. 237
Strive to Understand Client, Owner, and Customer Wants and Needsp. 238
Define the Other Project Requirementsp. 242
Assess and Manage Riskp. 242
Think Upstream, Not Downstreamp. 242
Create, Use, and Continuously Improve Written Guidance for Repetitive Tasks and Processesp. 243
Expect Each Person to Check His or Her Workp. 248
Arrange for External Reviewsp. 249
Reduce Cycle Timep. 249
Tools and Techniques for Stimulating Creative and Innovative Thinkingp. 250
The Need for and Value of Tools and Techniquesp. 250
Create and Innovate Definedp. 250
Brainstormingp. 251
Mulitvotingp. 252
Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threatsp. 252
Stakeholder Inputp. 253
Process Diagrammingp. 253
Fishbone Diagrammingp. 254
Pareto Analysisp. 254
Problems-First Meetingsp. 256
Mind Mappingp. 256
Ohno Circlep. 258
Metricsp. 259
Freehand Drawingp. 260
Take a Breakp. 263
Closure: Commit to Qualityp. 264
Cited Sourcesp. 264
Annotated Bibliographyp. 266
Exercisesp. 267
Design: To Engineer Is to Createp. 269
The Root of Engineeringp. 269
This Chapter's Approachp. 270
Design in the Context of Major Engineering Functionsp. 271
Four Engineering Functionsp. 271
Interactionp. 271
"Back-of-the-Envelope" Sketches and Calculationsp. 272
Design Phasesp. 273
Hard and Soft Resultsp. 274
The Disproportionate Impact of the Design Functionp. 274
Design in Terms of Deliverablesp. 274
Drawingsp. 275
Technical Specificationsp. 276
Non-Technical Provisionsp. 277
Design as Risky Businessp. 278
Design as a Personally-Satisfying and People-Serving Processp. 279
More Than Applied Sciencep. 279
Aspiring to Creativity and Innovationp. 280
The Words "Engineer" and "Create"p. 280
Closing Thoughts About Designp. 281
Cited Sourcesp. 281
Annotated Bibliographyp. 282
Exercisesp. 282
Building: Constructing and Manufacturingp. 283
The Engineer as Builderp. 283
Constructingp. 285
Importance of Constructingp. 285
What Gets Constructed and How?p. 286
Roles of Engineers in Constructingp. 287
Trends in Constructingp. 289
Manufacturingp. 290
Importance of Manufacturingp. 290
What Gets Manufactured and How?p. 291
Roles of Engineers in Manufacturingp. 292
Trends in Manufacturingp. 293
Differences between Constructing and Manufacturingp. 294
Closing Thoughts about Constructing and Manufacturingp. 294
Cited Sourcesp. 295
Annotated Bibliographyp. 295
Exercisesp. 296
Basic Accounting: Tracking the Past and Planning the Futurep. 299
Relevance of Accounting to the Engineerp. 299
The Balance Sheet: How Much Is It Worth?p. 300
Personal Balance Sheetp. 301
Business Balance Sheetp. 302
The Income Statement: Inflow and Outflowp. 304
Personal Income Statementp. 305
Business Income Statementp. 306
Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statementp. 308
Accounting for Your Futurep. 309
Estimating the Necessary Net Worth at the End of Your Earning Phasep. 309
Accumulating the Necessary Net Worth by the End of Your Earning Phasep. 312
Is This Overkill?p. 314
The Impact of Time Utilization Rate and Expense Ratio on Profitability in the Consulting Businessp. 314
Utilization Rate and Expense Ratiop. 314
Analysis of a Consulting Firm's Income Statementp. 315
Sensitivity of Profit to Time Utilization and Expense Ratiop. 316
The Multiplierp. 319
The Multiplier as an Indicator of Cost Competitiveness?p. 319
Reducing the Multiplierp. 320
Caveat about Cost and Consultant Selectionp. 320
The Income Statement as Part of the Business Plan for a Consulting Firmp. 320
Project Overruns: Implications for Profitability and Personnelp. 321
Concluding Thoughts about You and Accountingp. 324
Cited Sourcesp. 324
Annotated Bibliographyp. 325
Exercisesp. 325
Legal Frameworkp. 329
Why Law for Engineers?p. 329
Legal Terminologyp. 332
Changing Attitudes: Forewarned is Forearmedp. 334
Liability: Incurring Itp. 334
Liability: Failures and Learning from Themp. 336
Collapse of Hotel Walkwayp. 337
Other Failuresp. 338
Liability: Minimizing Itp. 339
Insurance: Financial Protectionp. 339
Organizational Preventive Practicesp. 339
Personal Preventive Practicesp. 340
Maintaining Perspective on Liability Minimizationp. 344
Legal Forms of Business Ownershipp. 344
Sole Proprietorshipp. 345
Partnershipp. 346
Corporationp. 346
Closurep. 347
Concluding Comments about the Legal Frameworkp. 347
Cited Sourcesp. 347
Annotated Bibliographyp. 349
Exercisesp. 349
Ethics: Dealing with Dilemmasp. 353
Inevitable Ethical Dilemmas and Decisionsp. 353
Defining Ethicsp. 355
Definitionsp. 355
Distilling the Definitionsp. 356
Teaching and Learning Ethicsp. 356
Legal and Ethical Domainp. 359
Codes of Ethicsp. 362
Introduction to Codes: What They Arep. 362
Engineering Society Codes of Ethicsp. 363
Ethics Codes for Other Professionsp. 365
Business Codes of Ethicsp. 366
Government Codes of Ethicsp. 367
University Codes of Ethicsp. 369
Codes Cannot Anticipate All Circumstancesp. 370
Dealing with Ethical Dilemmas: Using Codes and Other Resourcesp. 370
Ethics Codesp. 371
Advice of Experienced Personnelp. 371
A Nine-Step Individual or Group Processp. 371
A Systematic Group Processp. 372
Application of Moral Imaginationp. 373
Case Study: Discovering a Major Design Error after Construction Is Completep. 374
Design and Constructionp. 374
Post-Construction Discoveryp. 374
The Engineer's Actionsp. 375
What Happened to LeMessurier?p. 376
Concluding Thoughts: Seeing Sermonsp. 376
Cited Sourcesp. 377
Annotated Bibliographyp. 378
Exercisesp. 379
Role and Selection of Consultantsp. 381
Consultant Defined and Why You Should Carep. 381
The Meanings of Consultantp. 381
Why You Should Carep. 382
Why Retain a Consultant? Let's Do It Ourselves!p. 383
Characteristics of Successful Consultantsp. 385
Consultant Selection Processp. 387
Cost Versus Qualityp. 387
Price-Based Selectionp. 388
The Ideal Selection Processp. 389
Qualifications-Based Selectionp. 390
Steps in the Selection Processp. 391
Welcome Exceptionsp. 396
Summing Up the Consultant Selection Processp. 396
Price-Based Selection: Three Costs to the Consultantp. 397
Offering Less Than We Couldp. 397
Further Reduction in Profitp. 398
Damaged Reputationp. 398
Closing Thoughtsp. 399
Conclusions about the Role and Selection of Consultantsp. 400
Cited Sourcesp. 401
Annotated Bibliographyp. 401
Exercisesp. 402
Marketing: A Mutually-Beneficial Processp. 403
Consider Your View of Marketing: Are You Carrying Some Baggage?p. 403
Chapter's Scopep. 404
The Economic Motivation for Marketing Professional Servicesp. 405
Marketing and Selling: Different but Relatedp. 406
A Simple, Powerful Marketing Modelp. 409
The Modelp. 409
Applying the Modelp. 410
Caution: Respect the Order and Invest Time Wiselyp. 411
Marketing Techniques and Toolsp. 412
Create a Personal Marketing Planp. 412
Learn the Marketing Languagep. 414
Schedule Marketing Tasksp. 416
Find Common Groundp. 416
Earn Trustp. 418
Ask-Ask-Ask: The Power of Questionsp. 419
Talk to Strangersp. 422
Stress Benefits, Not Featuresp. 422
Focus on Existing Clients, Owners, and Customersp. 423
Help to Establish Multiple-Level Linksp. 424
Proactively Establish the Next Stepp. 425
Selectively Share Data, Information, and Knowledgep. 426
What Works and What Doesn't Workp. 426
Marketing Concluding Commentsp. 427
Cited Sourcesp. 428
Annotated Bibliographyp. 429
Exercisesp. 429
The Future and Youp. 431
What Does the Future Hold?p. 431
The World You Will Work In: Same Role but New Stagep. 432
After the Knowledge Age, the Conceptual Age?p. 433
After The Knowledge Age, the Opportunity Age?p. 434
After The Knowledge Age, the Solving Wicked Problems Age?p. 435
Additional Views of the World Stagep. 436
Implications for Youp. 437
How to Lead Changep. 438
Encounter a Leadership Gapp. 438
Move Beyond Being the Thermometer: Also be the Thermostatp. 439
Define the Situation: What, Why, Who, How, and When?p. 439
Recognize Widespread Resistance to Changep. 440
Practice Paradigm Pliancy: Prevent Paradigm Paralysisp. 442
Appreciate the Movers-Movables-Immovables Structurep. 446
Work Effectively With theMovers,Movables, and Immovablesp. 447
Expect the Awareness-Understanding-Commitment-Action Cascadep. 448
Test Drive Terminologyp. 449
Learn Why Change Efforts Failp. 450
Adopt Change Principles and a Change Processp. 451
Concluding Thoughts about You and the Futurep. 451
Cited Sourcesp. 452
Annotated Bibliographyp. 453
Exercisesp. 454
Engineering your Future Supports ABET Basic Level Criterion 3p. 455
Engineering Your Future Supports ABET Program Criteria for Civil and Similarly-Named Engineering Programsp. 457
Engineering Your Future Supports the Civil Engineering Body of Knowledgep. 459
Indexp. 461
About the Authorp. 469
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