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Environmental Chemistry : A Global Perspective,9780199274994
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Environmental Chemistry : A Global Perspective

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780199274994

ISBN10:
0199274991
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/7/2005
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $85.28
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Summary

Guiding us through the chemical composition of the three key environmental systems--the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and terrestrial environment--the authors explain the chemical processes which occur within and between each system. Focusing on general principles, we are introduced to the essential chemical concepts which underpin an understanding of the air, water, and soil and how they behave; careful explanations ensure that clarity is not sacrificed at the expense of thorough coverage of the underlying chemistry. We then see how human activity continues to affect the chemical behavior of these environmental systems, and what the consequences of these natural processes being disturbed can be. Environmental Chemistry: A Global Perspective takes chemistry out of the laboratory and shows us its importance in the world around us. With illuminating examples from around the globe, its rich pedagogy, and broad, carefully structured coverage, this book is the perfect resource for any environmental chemistry student wishing to develop a thorough understanding of their subject. Supplementary Resources «Companion website featuring downloadable illustrations ĚSolutions manual

Table of Contents

Preface to first edition v
Preface to second edition vii
Abbreviations xiv
Environmental chemistry in a global perspective
1(18)
Environmental chemistry
3(16)
The subject matter of this book
5(3)
Environmental composition
8(2)
Chemical processes
10(4)
Anthropogenic effects
14(5)
Additional reading
17(2)
PART A The Earth's atmosphere
19(176)
The Earth's atmosphere
21(21)
The Earth's atmosphere---the air we breathe
21(3)
Solar influence on the chemical composition of the atmosphere
24(3)
Reactions and calculations in atmospheric chemistry
27(15)
Additional reading
39(1)
Problems
39(3)
Stratospheric chemistry---ozone
42(29)
Concerns about stratospheric ozone
42(6)
Oxygen-only chemistry---formation and turnover of ozone
48(3)
Processes for catalytic decomposition of ozone
51(5)
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
56(7)
Other reactions involving stratospheric ozone
63(1)
Antarctic and Arctic `ozone hole' formation
64(7)
Additional reading
67(1)
Websites---Information on ozone monitoring
68(1)
Problems
68(3)
Tropospheric chemistry---smog
71(29)
What is smog?
72(2)
The chemistry of photochemical smog
74(11)
Exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine
85(15)
Additional reading
98(1)
Problems
98(2)
Tropospheric chemistry---precipitation
100(25)
The composition of rain
101(3)
Atmospheric production of nitric acid
104(2)
Atmospheric production of sulfuric acid
106(6)
Acidifying agents in precipitation
112(1)
Rain, snow, and fog chemistry---similarities and differences
113(3)
The global picture---sources and sinks
116(4)
Control of anthropogenic nitrogen and sulfur emissions
120(5)
Additional reading
123(1)
Problems
124(1)
Atmospheric aerosols
125(18)
Sources of aerosols---a closer look
128(8)
Aerosol concentrations and lifetimes
136(3)
Air pollution control for particulate emissions
139(4)
Additional reading
141(1)
Problems
141(2)
Chemistry of urban and indoor atmospheres
143(21)
Pollutants in the urban atmosphere
144(4)
Mexico City
148(3)
Indoor air quality
151(2)
Common indoor air contaminants
153(11)
Additional reading
162(1)
Problems
162(2)
The chemistry of global climate
164(31)
Composition of the Earth's atmosphere
164(2)
Energy balance
166(5)
The greenhouse gases and aerosols
171(8)
Relative importance of the changes in greenhouse gas concentrations
179(3)
Energy resources
182(1)
Greenhouse gases associated with the use of carbon-based fuels
183(12)
Additional reading
193(1)
Problems
193(2)
PART B The hydrosphere
195(192)
The hydrosphere
197(15)
Physical and chemical properties of water
201(7)
Concentration units used for aqueous solutions
208(4)
Additional reading
210(1)
Problems
210(2)
Distribution of species in aquatic systems
212(24)
Single-variable diagrams
213(6)
Two-variable diagrams---pE / pH diagrams
219(13)
Measurements of pE
232(4)
Additional reading
233(1)
Problems
233(3)
Gases in water
236(18)
Simple gases
237(4)
Gases that react with water
241(5)
Alkalinity
246(8)
Additional reading
252(1)
Problems
252(2)
Organic matter in water
254(19)
Origins of organic matter in water
255(2)
Environmental issues related to aqueous organic matter
257(1)
Humic material
258(15)
Additional reading
270(1)
Problems
270(3)
Metals and semi-metals in the hydrosphere
273(26)
Aquo complexes of metals
275(3)
Classification of metals
278(9)
Three metals---their behaviour in the hydrosphere
287(6)
Metal complexes of ligands of anthropogenic origin
293(3)
Suspended matter in the hydrosphere---metal associations
296(3)
Additional reading
297(1)
Problems
298(1)
Environmental chemistry of colloids and surfaces
299(36)
Surface properties of colloidal materials
302(6)
Quantitative descriptions of adsorption I
308(3)
Phosphorus environmental chemistry
311(6)
Quantitative descriptions of adsorption II
317(2)
Partitioning of small organic solutes between water and soil or sediment
319(8)
Colloidal material in the natural environment
327(8)
Additional reading
333(1)
Problems
333(2)
Microbiological processes
335(31)
Classification of microorganisms
336(5)
Microbiological processes---the carbon cycle
341(14)
Microbiological processes---the nitrogen cycle
355(6)
Microbiological processes---the sulfur cycle
361(5)
Additional reading
364(1)
Problems
364(2)
Water pollution and waste-water treatment chemistry
366(21)
Water quality guidelines
369(4)
Waste water and its treatment
373(9)
Advanced microbiological processes
382(2)
The final products after treatment of waste water
384(3)
Additional reading
385(1)
Problems
385(2)
PART C The terrestrial environment
387(120)
The terrestrial environment
389(13)
Soil formation
391(11)
Additional reading
400(1)
Problems
400(2)
Soil properties
402(31)
Physical properties
402(4)
Chemical properties
406(6)
Soil profiles
412(6)
Environmental issues associated with soils
418(15)
Additional reading
430(1)
Problems
430(3)
The chemistry of solid wastes
433(26)
Solid wastes from mining and metal production
435(5)
Organic wastes
440(8)
Mixed urban wastes
448(11)
Additional reading
456(1)
Problems
457(2)
Organic biocides
459(29)
What are biocides?
459(3)
Chemical stability
462(16)
Mobility of biocides
478(5)
Leachability
483(5)
Additional reading
485(1)
Problems
486(2)
The future Earth
488(6)
Appendices
494
A.1 Properties of the Earth
494(1)
A.2 Area, biomass, and productivity of ecosystem types
495(1)
A.3 Properties of air and water
495(1)
B.1 The elements
496(3)
B.2 Thermochemical properties of selected elements and compounds
499(2)
B.3 Mean bond enthalpies ΔH / kJ mol-1 at 298 K
501(1)
B.4 Dissociation constants for acids and bases in aqueous solution at 25°C
502(2)
B.5 Standard redox potentials in aqueous solutions
504(1)
C.1 Fundamental constants
505(1)
C.2 SI prefixes and fundamental geometric relations
505(2)
Index 507


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