Environmental Decision-Making in Context: A Toolbox

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-04-25
  • Publisher: Routledge

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There is a constant drive for greater specialization when it comes to environmental problems. This book provides stakeholders from various backgrounds with the ability to place environmental problems and solutions within a common framework from which decisions can be made. It focuses on considerations from three primary areas of influence on environmental decision making: science, economics, and values. It presents the questions, issues, and problems that need to be addressed by today's environmental specialists. The text also includes case studies to illustrate the analytical reasoning required to employ contextually sound environmental decision-making.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
About the Authorp. xi
Introductionp. 1
Science of Environmental Decision-Makingp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Natural Systemsp. 9
Ecosystem Principlesp. 17
Components: Biotic and Abioticp. 18
Services Provided: Provisioning, Regulating, Culturalp. 20
Biodiversityp. 23
Definitionsp. 24
Interactionsp. 25
Importancep. 27
Ecosystem-Based Managementp. 29
Definition and Purposep. 30
Role in Environmental Managementp. 31
Examples in Environmental Policy Management Techniquesp. 34
Systems Thinkingp. 39
Box Modeling: Wrapping Our Heads around the Problemp. 40
Underlying Scientific Principlesp. 43
E = mc2, or the Relationship between Energy and Matter (Mass-Energy Equivalence)p. 43
Equilibrium Theory, or dC/dT = 0p. 45
Parts of the Box in Context: Inflows, Outflows, and Feedback Mechanismsp. 49
Conclusionp. 59
Referencesp. 60
Economics of Environmental Decision-Makingp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Categories of Economics Relevant to Environmental Decision-Makingp. 65
Natural Resource Economicsp. 68
Ecological Economicsp. 72
The Role of Discounting, Substitution, and Trade-Offsp. 76
Defining Value: Linking Environment and Human Interactionsp. 81
Measurements of Well-Being and Progressp. 81
Gross Domestic Productp. 82
Alternativesp. 84
Total Valuation Technique (Tv = Dv + Iv + Nuv)p. 91
Direct Values (Dvs)p. 92
Indirect Values (Ivs)p. 95
Nonuse Values (Nuvs)p. 98
Benefit-Cost Analysisp. 101
Conclusionp. 106
Referencesp. 108
Values of Environmental Decision-Makingp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Objective Valuesp. 115
Risk Assessment and the Role of Sciencep. 115
Quantification Methodsp. 120
Subjective Valuesp. 129
Emotion and Public Outragep. 131
NIMBY and Other Perceived Valuesp. 138
Scaling Value Decisionsp. 146
Values and Individual Decision-Makingp. 148
Self-Interestp. 149
Learning Dynamicsp. 157
Values and Multiparty Decision-Makingp. 166
Consensus Building and Majority Votingp. 167
Other Collective Value System Considerationsp. 170
Conclusionp. 174
Referencesp. 176
Case Problemsp. 179
Introduction to Case Problemsp. 179
Case Problem 1. Watershed Management: Linking Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Problemsp. 179
Relevant Informationp. 180
Hints for Analysisp. 181
Case Problem 2. Fisheries Management: Managing Public Resources through a Mix of Private Incentivesp. 181
Current Government Fishery Policyp. 182
Alternative Policy 1p. 182
Alternative Policy 2p. 183
Alternative Policy 3p. 184
Hints for Analysisp. 184
Case Problem 3. Sustainability: Setting Priorities between Today and Tomorrow, a Total Valuation Applicationp. 185
Current Policyp. 185
Alternative 1p. 186
Alternative 2p. 186
Alternative 3p. 187
Hints for Analysisp. 187
Case Problem 4. Climate Change: Making Environmental Decisions in the Face of Uncertaintyp. 187
Hints for Analysisp. 189
Indexp. 191
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