9780865879850

Environmental Law Handbook

by ; ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780865879850

  • ISBN10:

    0865879850

  • Edition: 18th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-06-09
  • Publisher: Government Inst

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This Eighteenth Edition references all regulatory changes made in the last two years and provides legal insight into understanding the requirements of the environmental laws. It includes a completely rewritten chapter on enforcement and liability and examines all of the issues and changes that have arisen since the publication of the Seventeenth Edition, including reforms to the Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, revisions to the ISO standards, new court interpretations and definitions that impact the maritime community under the Oil Pollution Act, EPA's Resource Conservation Challenge and its current impact on the RCRA regulatory program, and more.

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
About the Authors xxix
Fundamentals of Environmental Law
Environmental Law as a System
1(2)
Defining the Subject Matter: What is Environmental Law?
3(3)
How a Federal or State Environmental Law Is Adopted
5(1)
How Environmental Regulations Are Issued
5(1)
Laws That Establish Compliance Obligations
6(5)
Major Environmental Laws
6(1)
State Statutes and Regulations Implementing the Federal Statutes
6(1)
State Laws Independent of the Federal Requirements
7(1)
Tax Laws
8(1)
Business Regulatory Laws
8(1)
Local and Municipal Laws
9(1)
Environmental Law and Judicial Decisions
10(1)
Common Law
10(1)
Common Law Environmental Requirements: Torts
11(13)
Nuisance
11(6)
Trespass
17(2)
Negligence
19(2)
Strict Liability and Dangerous Substances
21(3)
Laws That Enforce Permits, Prohibitions, and Penalties
24(3)
Permits
24(1)
Enforcement Provisions of the Federal and State Environmental Statutes
25(1)
General Purpose Criminal Laws
26(1)
Laws That Define the Environmental Law Framework
27(33)
The Organic Laws: Constitutions and Charters
27(5)
The Courts' Role
32(9)
Defining the Limits of Governmental Authority
41(12)
Administrative Law and Procedure
53(2)
Rules of Evidence
55(5)
Joint and Several Liability, Indemnity, and Contribution
60(1)
Environmental Compliance Principles
61(1)
Importance of Knowledge of Environmental Law
62(1)
Research Sources
63(2)
Enforcement and Liability
Introduction
65(1)
Enforcement Trends
65(9)
Civil vs. Criminal Enforcement
69(2)
Remedy Preferences
71(2)
Statute-by-Statute Enforcement
73(1)
General Concepts of Enforcement and Liability
74(5)
Enforcement Purposes
74(1)
Applicable Law
75(1)
Compliance Monitoring
76(1)
Enforcement Remedies
77(1)
Enforcement Authority
78(1)
Civil Enforcement and Liability
79(16)
Introduction
79(1)
Statute-Specific Principles of Liability and Defense
79(1)
Statutory Standard of Contact
80(1)
Statutory Defenses
81(3)
Agreed-Upon Principles of Enforcement and Defense
84(2)
Agency Principles and Policies
86(7)
Progression of a Civil Enforcement Proceeding
93(2)
Private Civil Enforcement by Citizen Suits
95(3)
Criminal Enforcement and Liability
98(16)
Approaches and Defenses to Criminal Liability
99(9)
Agency Principles and Policies
108(2)
Progression of an Enforcement Proceeding
110(4)
Avoidance and Mitigation of Environmental
Enforcement and Liability
114(1)
Corporate Systems for Environmental Assessment
115(2)
Corporate Systems for Environmental Management
117(2)
Corporate Transactions
119(3)
New Trends in Enforcement and Liability
122(7)
SEC Compliance and Investor Relations
122(1)
Natural Resrouce Damages
123(2)
New Source Review
125(1)
Compliance History Scoring
126(2)
State Attorneys General
128(1)
Final Thoughts
129(2)
Cyclical Environmental Law
129(1)
Science Matters
129(1)
Technology Brings Its Own Headaches
130(1)
Agency Discretion
130(1)
Cross-Border Issues
131(1)
Conclusion
131(1)
Research Sources
132(3)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Overview
135(4)
Policy Goals and Objectives of RCRA
139(1)
Definition of Solid and Hazardous Waste
139(1)
Subtitle C: Hazardous Waste Management Program
140(38)
Identification of Hazardous Wastes
140(11)
Notification of Hazardous Waste Management Activities
151(1)
Generators of Hazardous Waste
151(5)
Transporters of Hazardous Wastes
156(2)
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facilities
158(12)
Permits
170(3)
State Hazardous Waste Programs
173(1)
Inspection
174(1)
Civil and Criminal Enforcement Actions
175(1)
Citizen Suits
176(1)
Imminent Hazard Actions
177(1)
Enforcement and Compliance History On-line
177(1)
State Solid Waste Programs under Subtitle D
178(1)
Federal Facility Compliance
179(5)
Waiver of Sovereign Immunity
179(1)
Federal Employee Protection and Exposure
180(1)
EPA Administrative Orders
181(1)
EPA Annual Inspections of Federal Facilities
181(1)
Public Vessel Exemption
181(1)
Unserviceable Munitions
181(3)
Other Federal Responsibilities
184(1)
Research, Development, Demonstration, and Information
184(1)
Medical Waste
185(1)
Conclusion
185(1)
Research Sources
185(2)
Underground Storage Tanks
Overview
187(5)
Objectives of the UST Program
189(3)
Basic Terminology
192(4)
Underground Storage Tank Systems
192(3)
Regulated Substances
195(1)
Owners and Operators
195(1)
Implementation and Enforcement
196(2)
Implementation
196(1)
Enforcement
196(2)
Summary of Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements
198(3)
Reporting Requirements
198(1)
Recordkeeping Requirements
199(2)
New UST Systems
201(3)
Notification Requirements
201(1)
Performance Standards
202(2)
Existing UST Systems
204(2)
Notification Requirements
204(1)
Upgrading of Existing UST Systems
205(1)
General Operating Requirements
206(1)
Spill and Overfill Control
206(1)
Operation and Maintenance of Corrosion Protection Systems
206(1)
Substance Compatibility
207(1)
UST System Repairs
207(1)
Release Detection
207(3)
General Requirements and Schedule
207(1)
Methods of Release Detection for Tanks and Piping
208(1)
Specific Requirements for Petroleum USTs
208(1)
Specific Requirements for Hazardous Substance UST Systems
209(1)
Release Reporting, Investigation, and Response
210(9)
Overview
210(1)
Reporting of Suspected Releases
211(1)
Release Investigation and Confirmation
211(1)
Initial Release Response
212(1)
Initial Abatement Measures
212(1)
Initial Site Characterization
213(1)
Free Product Removal
214(1)
Investigations for Soil and Groundwater Cleanup
214(1)
Reporting and Cleanup of Spills and Overfills
214(1)
Corrective Action Plan
215(1)
Evolving Approach to Petroleum UST Cleanups
216(2)
USTfields Initiative and Recycling Abandoned Gas Stations
218(1)
Closure of UST Systems
219(1)
Temporary Closure
219(1)
Permanent Closure/Change-in-Service
220(1)
Financial Responsibility Requirements
220(3)
Applicability and Compliance Dates
220(1)
Amount and Scope of Financial Responsibility Required
221(1)
Allowable Financial Responsibility Mechanisms
222(1)
Available State UST Cleanup Funds
222(1)
Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements
223(1)
Conclusion
223(1)
Research Sources
224(3)
Clean Air Act
Overview
227(1)
Clean Air Act Regulatory Programs
228(52)
Air Quality Regulation
228(15)
New Source Control Programs
243(14)
Specific Pollution Problems
257(13)
Operating Permit Program
270(10)
Enforcement of the Clean Air Act
280(7)
Civil Enforcement
281(1)
Criminal Penalties
282(1)
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
283(1)
Compliance Audits
284(2)
Enforcement Priorities
286(1)
Clear Skies and Other Legislative Proposals
287(1)
Conclusion
288(1)
Research Sources
289(2)
Clean Water Act
Overview
291(1)
Brief History of the Clean Water Act
291(1)
Clean Water Act Goals and Policies
292(1)
Elements of the Clean Water Act
293(1)
The Discharge Prohibition
294(4)
Addition
294(1)
Pollutant
295(1)
Point Source
295(1)
Navigable Waters (``Waters of the United States'')
296(2)
The NPDES Permit Program
298(27)
What is an NPDES Permit?
298(1)
What Discharges Require an NPDES Permit?
299(1)
State and Federal Roles
299(1)
The Permit Process
300(3)
NPDES Permit Conditions
303(1)
Monitoring Requirements
304(1)
Effluent Limitations
305(14)
Storm Water Discharges
319(3)
Combined Sewer Overflows and Sanitary Sewer Overflows
322(1)
Thermal Discharges
323(1)
Ocean Discharges
324(1)
The Pretreatment Program
325(4)
General Prohibitions
326(1)
Specific Prohibitions
326(1)
National Categorical Standards
326(1)
Removal Credits
327(1)
Local Limits
328(1)
Pretreatment Program Enforcement
328(1)
Nonpoint Source Discharges
329(1)
The Section 319 Program
329(1)
Coastal Zone Management Program
330(1)
National Estuary Program
330(1)
Dredge and Fill Permits
330(6)
Waters within the Scope of the Program
331(1)
Covered Activities
331(1)
Individual Permits
332(2)
The Mitigation Policy
334(1)
Nationwide Permits
335(1)
Potential Liabilities under the Section 404 Program
335(1)
Preventing, Reporting, and Responding to Spills
336(6)
Spill Prevention
336(4)
Spill Notification
340(1)
Spill Response and Liability
341(1)
Enforcement
342(12)
Federal and State Roles
342(1)
Enforcement Theories
343(1)
Defenses
344(4)
Enforcement Options
348(1)
Administrative Order
348(1)
Civil Judicial Enforcement
349(1)
Criminal Enforcement
350(2)
Citizen Suits
352(2)
Research Sources
354(3)
Oil Pollution Act
Overview
357(3)
Background
360(1)
Title I: Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation
361(5)
Definitions
362(4)
Elements of Liability
366(4)
Standard of Liability
366(2)
Removal Costs
368(1)
Compensatory Damages
369(1)
Interest
370(1)
Natural Resources Damages
370(8)
NRDA Regulations
373(2)
Application of NRDA Regulations
375(3)
Defenses to Liability
378(1)
Third Party Liability
379(1)
Limits on Liability
379(2)
Standard for Limiting OPA Liability
380(1)
Specific Liability Limits
380(1)
Adjustment of Liability Limits
381(1)
Recovery by a Foreign Claimant
381(1)
Recovery by a Responsible Party
382(1)
Contribution and Indemnification
382(1)
Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund
383(2)
Principle Sections
383(1)
Preservation of State Funds
383(1)
Funding of the Fund
384(1)
Uses of the Fund
384(1)
Claims
385(2)
Designation of the Source and Advertisement
385(1)
Procedure
386(1)
Financial Responsibility
387(3)
Calculation of Financial Responsibility Amounts
387(1)
Methods of Demonstrating Financial Responsibility
388(1)
Role of the Guarantor
388(1)
Vessels
388(1)
Financial Responsibility Regulations for Vessels
388(2)
Financial Responsibility for Facilities
390(1)
Subrogation
390(1)
Litigation and Jurisdiction
391(1)
Jurisdiction
391(1)
Limitations
391(1)
Relationship to Other Laws
392(3)
Preservation of State Oil Spill Liability Law
392(1)
Preservation of Federal Laws
393(1)
Federal Preemption under the Locke Case
393(2)
Title II: Conforming Amendments
395(1)
Title III: International Oil Pollution Prevention and Removal
395(1)
Title IV: Prevention and Removal
396(1)
Subtitle A: Prevention
396(7)
Licensing Requirements and Drug and Alcohol Testing
396(1)
Foreign Tank Vessel Manning Standards
397(1)
Tank Vessel Manning
397(1)
Marine Casualty Reporting
398(1)
Pilotage and Tug Escort Requirements
398(1)
Studies and Regulations [Sections 4107--4113]
399(1)
Double Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels
400(3)
Subtitle B: Removal
403(12)
Federal Removal Authority
404(1)
State and Local Removal Authority
405(1)
Responder Immunity
405(1)
National Planning and Response System
406(2)
Vessel and Facility Response Plans
408(7)
Subtitle C: Penalties
415(5)
CWA Criminal Penalties
415(3)
Civil Penalties
418(2)
Research Sources
420(1)
Safe Drinking Water Act
Perspectives on Water
421(2)
Objectives of the SDWA
423(1)
Who Are the Regulators?
424(1)
Who Are the Regulated?
425(3)
The Basic Scheme of Regulation
428(14)
Radionuclides
433(1)
Sulfate
434(1)
Disinfectants and Byproducts Rule
435(1)
Surface Water Treatment Rule
436(1)
Ground Water Disinfection Rule
437(1)
Filter Backwash Recycling Rule
437(1)
Lead/Copper Rule
438(1)
Arsenic
439(1)
Judicial Review of MCLs
440(1)
Periodic Review of NPDWRs
441(1)
Enforcement of the SDWA
442(6)
Public Notice Requirements
442(1)
State Enforcement
442(1)
U.S. EPA Enforcement
443(2)
Citizens' Suits
445(1)
Preemption
446(1)
Criminal Matters
447(1)
Utility Enforcement
447(1)
Alternatives to Strict Compliance
448(4)
Variances
448(1)
Small System Variances
449(1)
Exemptions
449(1)
Monitoring Relief
450(2)
Litigation
452(1)
Information Collection Rule
452(2)
Consumer Confidence Reports
454(1)
Funding Opportunities
455(2)
Other Provisions
457(7)
Lead
457(1)
Operator Certification
458(1)
Capacity
458(1)
Underground Water Protection
459(2)
Tampering
461(1)
Coolers
461(1)
Bottled Water
462(1)
Monitoring of Unregulated Contaminants
462(1)
Conservation
463(1)
Records and Access
464(1)
Occurrence Data Base
464(1)
Source Water Quality Assessment
464(2)
Related Requirements
466(1)
Compliance and Claims
467(1)
Security Issues
467(1)
Conclusion
468(1)
Research Sources
469(4)
Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Introduction
473(3)
CERCLA's History and Objectives
473(2)
Overview of CERCLA's Provisions
475(1)
The Superfund
475(1)
Sources of CERCLA Law
476(1)
Important CERCLA Terms
476(6)
Hazardous Substance and Pollutant or Contaminant
476(3)
Release or Threat of Release
479(1)
Facility or Vessel
480(1)
Environment
481(1)
National Priorities List
481(1)
National Contingency Plan
482(1)
CERCLA's Remedial Provisions
482(12)
EPA's Authority to Act
483(1)
Categories of Response Actions
483(1)
Steps in the Remedial Process
484(10)
CERCLA's Liability Provisions
494(37)
Overview
494(1)
CERCLA's Operative Concepts
494(5)
EPA's Enforcement Policy
499(1)
Identifying Responsible Parties
500(1)
Response Cost Recovery Actions
501(13)
CERCLA Section 106 Abatement Actions
514(1)
CERCLA Section 106 Administrative Orders
515(4)
Defenses to Liability
519(5)
Citizen Suit Provisions
524(1)
Natural Resources Damages
525(4)
Contribution Actions
529(2)
Settlements with EPA
531(7)
Overview
531(1)
Controlling Authority
532(1)
Consent Decrees and Consent Orders
533(1)
Major Settlement Issues
534(4)
Release Reporting Requirements
538(2)
Federal Facilities
540(1)
Superfund's Future
541(1)
Research Sources
542(3)
National Environmental Policy Act
Overview
545(1)
NEPA's Development
546(3)
Legislative History
547(1)
Policy and Goals
547(1)
Council on Environmental Quality
548(1)
Requirements for Federal Agencies
549(8)
CEQ Regulations
550(3)
Relationship to Other Federal Laws
553(2)
Functional Equivalency
555(2)
Strategic Approaches to NEPA Compliance
557(6)
Non-Major Actions
557(1)
Formulating the Proposal
558(1)
Purpose and Need
559(1)
Integrating Long Range Planning and NEPA
560(1)
Tiering
561(1)
Environmental Assessments
562(1)
EIS Preparation
563(12)
Lead Agency
563(1)
Scoping and Early Coordination
564(1)
Use of the EA and Applicant's Information
565(1)
Delegation
566(1)
Content of EIS
567(3)
Commenting and Public Involvement
570(1)
Mitigation of Impacts
571(1)
Proposals for Legislation
572(1)
Cumulative Effects
573(2)
Supplemental Statements
575(1)
NEPA's Extraterritorial Application
575(2)
Environmental Justice
577(1)
EPA Review and Comment
578(2)
Judicial Review of NEPA
580(2)
CEQ Study of NEPA's Effectiveness
582(3)
NEPA Task Force
585(1)
Conclusion
586(1)
Research Sources
587(2)
Toxic Substances Control Act
Introduction
589(1)
Activities Subject to TSCA
590(3)
Manufacture
590(1)
Process
591(1)
Use
592(1)
Distribute
593(1)
Dispose
593(1)
The TSCA Inventory
593(6)
Initial Compilation of the Inventory
594(2)
Inventory Corrections
596(1)
Maintaining and Updating the Inventory Database
597(1)
How to Use the Inventory
597(2)
New Chemical Review
599(8)
PMN Requirements
599(1)
Exclusions from PMN Requirements
600(1)
Exemptions from PMN Requirements
601(6)
Preparing the PMN and Seeing It through EPA
607(3)
Manufacturer's PMN Selection Strategy
607(1)
Minimizing Delays
608(1)
Avoiding Unnecessary Regulation under TSCA § 5
609(1)
EPA's Review of the PMN and Use of Checklists
609(1)
Regulation of New Chemicals and Uses
610(8)
EPA Regulation under TSCA § 5(e)
610(3)
EPA Regulation under TSCA § 5(f)
613(1)
Significant New Use Rules
614(4)
Biotechnology
618(5)
1986 Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology Products
619(1)
Guidance Documents on PMN Submissions for Biotechnology Products
619(1)
The EPA Biotechnology PMN Review Process
619(1)
EPA's Biotechnology Policy: The Final Rule
620(3)
Testing under TSCA
623(9)
Selection of Chemicals for Testing
623(1)
Testing Triggers
624(2)
Tests and Studies under TSCA § 4
626(2)
Exemptions from Testing
628(1)
Reimbursement Procedures
629(1)
Judicial Review
630(1)
TSCA § 4(f) Findings of Significant Risk
631(1)
Reporting and Retention of Information
632(5)
TSCA § 8(a): Reports
632(2)
TSCA § 8(c): Records of Significant Adverse Reactions
634(1)
TSCA § 8(d): Health and Safety Studies
635(1)
TSCA § 8(e): Substantial Risk Information
636(1)
Existing Chemical Regulation
637(5)
Procedures and Standards for TSCA § 6 Regulation
637(1)
Chemical Specific Regulations
637(5)
Relationship between TSCA and Other Laws
642(3)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
643(1)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)
643(1)
TSCA's Relationship to Other Federal Laws
643(1)
TSCA Preemption of State and Local Laws
644(1)
TSCA Inspections and Enforcement
645(13)
Inspections
645(3)
Civil Penalties
648(7)
Settlement Procedures
655(1)
Administrative Hearings
655(1)
Criminal Liability
656(1)
Citizen Actions and Petitions
657(1)
Importation and Exportation
658(5)
Import Regulation: TSCA § 13
658(3)
Export Regulation: TSCA § 12
661(2)
Research Sources
663(2)
Pesticides
Background to the Federal Regulation of Pesticides
665(3)
Overview
666(1)
Early Efforts at Pesticide Regulations
666(2)
Pesticide Regulation Transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency
668(1)
Overview of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and Amendments
668(4)
Background to FIFRA and the 1972 FEPCA
669(1)
Subsequent FIFRA Amendments: An Overview
670(2)
Pesticide Registration
672(10)
Definition of Pesticides, Pests, and Devices
672(1)
Pesticide Registration Procedures
673(2)
Conditional Registration
675(1)
Streamlining of Reregistration
676(1)
Registration of ``Me-Too'' Pesticides
677(1)
Registration Fees
677(1)
Categorical Pesticide Review
677(1)
Efficacy
678(1)
Modifications and Transfers of Registrations
678(1)
Trade Secrets
678(2)
``Featherbedding'' or ``Me-Too'' Registrants
680(2)
Essentiality in Registration
682(1)
Control over Pesticide Usage
682(4)
Statutory Basis for Control over Pesticide Usage through Certification
683(1)
Self-Certification of Private Applicators
684(1)
Experimental Use Permits
685(1)
Two-House Congressional Veto over EPA Regulations
685(1)
Removal of Pesticides from the Market
686(10)
Cancellation
686(1)
Suspension
687(3)
Misbranding and Stop-Sale Orders
690(1)
International Effect of EPA Cancellations
691(1)
Disposal and Recall
691(1)
Compensation for Cancelled Pesticides
692(1)
Balancing Test in FIFRA
693(1)
Requirements of Consultation by EPA with USDA
694(1)
Economic Impact on Agriculture Statement
694(1)
Scientific Advisory Committees
695(1)
Administrative and Judicial Review
696(4)
Scope of the Administrator's Flexibility
696(2)
Standing for Registration, Appeals, and Subpoenas
698(1)
Judicial Appeals
699(1)
The Role of Public Hearings
700(1)
Role of States and Localities
700(4)
Intrastate Registrations
701(1)
Greater State Authority
701(1)
Federal Preemption and State Authority
702(2)
Litigation Issues
704(4)
Basic Cases
704(2)
Labels in Theory and Practice
706(1)
Fraudulent Registrations
707(1)
Exports and Imports
708(2)
Amendments to FIFRA
710(2)
Need for FIFRA Renewal
710(1)
Hogtie EPA: 1975 Amendments to FIFRA
711(1)
Data Compensation Changed: 1978 Amendments to FIFRA
711(1)
Two-House Veto: 1980 Amendments to FIFRA
711(1)
FIFRA Lite: 1988 Amendments to FIFRA
711(1)
Minor Pesticide Uses: 1990 Amendments to FIFRA
712(1)
Bye-Bye Delaney: 1996 Amendments to FIFRA
712(1)
Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
712(4)
Regulatory Dilemma under the Delaney Clause
713(1)
Demise of Delaney
713(1)
Public Health Pesticides
714(1)
Infants and Children
714(1)
Human Test Data
715(1)
Other Provisions of FQPA
715(1)
Pesticide Regulation under Other Federal Statutes
716(7)
Pesticides under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
716(3)
Clean Air Act of 1970 and Its Progeny
719(1)
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
719(2)
Solid Waste Disposal Acts
721(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Act
721(1)
Federal Hazardous Substances Act
721(1)
Federal Pesticide Monitoring Programs
722(1)
National Environmental Policy Act
722(1)
Biotechnology
723(3)
The Promise and Fear of Biotechnology
723(1)
The Initial Controversy over Regulating Biotechnology
724(2)
``Frankenfood'' Enforcement
726(1)
Research Sources
726(3)
Pollution Prevention Act
Overview
729(1)
Federal Pollution Prevention Strategy
730(17)
Background
730(1)
EPA's Pollution Prevention Strategy
731(1)
EPA's Pollution Prevention Programs in the 1990s
731(12)
EPA's Pollution Prevention Programs after 2000
743(4)
The Pollution Prevention Programs of Several States
747(4)
Mandatory Waste Reduction Programs
748(1)
Multimedia Permit Programs and Other Regulatory Innovations
749(1)
Voluntary Technical Assistance Programs
750(1)
Conclusion
751(1)
Research Sources
751(2)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
Background
753(2)
Emergency Planning and Notification
755(13)
State Commissions, Planning Districts, and Local Committees (Section 301)
755(1)
Substances and Facilities Covered and Notification (Section 302)
756(2)
Comprehensive Emergency Response Plans (Section 303)
758(2)
Emergency Notification in the Event of a Release (Section 304)
760(8)
Emergency Training and Review of Emergency Systems (Section 305)
768(22)
Reporting Requirements
768(1)
Material Safety Data Sheet Reporting Requirements (Section 311)
768(4)
Hazardous Chemical Inventory Form Reporting Requirements (Section 312)
772(3)
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Requirements (Section 313)
775(15)
Common EPCRA Compliance Errors
790(1)
Relationship to Other Laws (Section 321)
791(1)
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
791(1)
Trade Secrets (Sections 322 and 323)
792(1)
Public Access to Information (Section 324)
793(1)
Enforcement (Section 325)
793(2)
Emergency Planning Violations
793(1)
Emergency Notification Violations
793(1)
Section 311 Reporting Violations
794(1)
Section 312 and 313 Reporting Violations
794(1)
Sections 322 and 323 Trade Secrets Violations
794(1)
Civil Actions (Section 326)
795(3)
Citizen Suits
795(2)
State or Local Government Suits
797(1)
Costs
798(1)
Federal Acquisition and Community Right to Know
798(1)
Internet Developments and TRI Reporting
799(1)
Research Sources
800(3)
Occupational Safety and Health Act
Introduction
803(2)
Comparison of OSHA and EPA
804(1)
OSHA, the Organization
804(1)
Legislative Framework
805(4)
Purpose of the Act
805(1)
Coverage of the Act
806(1)
Exemptions from the Act
807(1)
Telecommuting and Home Workplaces
808(1)
Scope of OSHA Standards
809(4)
Areas Covered by the OSHA Standards
809(2)
Overview of Standards
811(1)
Overview of Health Standards
811(1)
Overview of Safety Standards
812(1)
Standard Setting
813(9)
Four Types of OSHA Standards
813(1)
Consensus Standards: Section 6(a)
814(1)
Standards Completion and Deletion Processes
815(1)
Permanent Standards: Section 6(b)
816(2)
Emergency Temporary Standards
818(1)
General Duty Clause, 5(a)(1)
818(1)
Feasibility and the Balancing Debate
819(3)
Current Standards in Development
822(1)
Variances
822(2)
Temporary Variances
823(1)
Permanent Variances
823(1)
Compliance and Inspections
824(8)
Field Structure
824(1)
Role of Inspections
824(1)
Training and Competence of Inspectors
825(1)
Citations and Proposed Fines
826(1)
Types of Penalties
826(1)
Willful Violations
827(1)
Repeat Violations
828(1)
Egregious Violations
829(1)
Communicating and Enforcing Company Rules
829(1)
OSHA Citation and Penalty Patterns
830(2)
Recordkeeping
832(3)
New 300-Series Recordkeeping Forms
832(1)
Accident Reports
832(1)
Monitoring and Medical Records
833(1)
Hazard Communication
834(1)
Access to Records
834(1)
Programmatic Standards
835(1)
Refusal to Work and Whistleblowing
835(2)
Refusal to Work
835(1)
Protection of Whistleblowing
836(1)
Federal and State Employees
837(1)
Federal Agencies
837(1)
State Employees
838(1)
State OSHA Programs
838(2)
Concept
838(1)
Critiques
839(1)
Role of Federal OSHA in State Plans
840(1)
Consultation
840(2)
Enforcement and Consultation
840(1)
Consultation
841(1)
Overlapping Jurisdiction
842(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission
843(2)
OSHRC Appeal Process
843(1)
Limitations of the Commission
844(1)
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
845(1)
Warrantless Inspections: The Barlow Case
846(1)
Hazard Communications Regulation
847(5)
Reason for the Regulation
847(1)
Scope and Components
848(1)
Hazard Evaluation
849(1)
Trade Secrets
850(1)
Federal Preemption Controversy
851(1)
Ergonomics Standard
852(3)
Overview
853(1)
Scope of the Standard
854(1)
The Required Ergonomics Program
855(1)
State Ergonomics Programs
855(1)
Legislation
855(2)
National Emergency Role
857(1)
Research Sources
857(2)
Environmental Management Systems and Environmental Law
Overview
859(3)
Legal Relevance of Environmental Management Systems
862(9)
Overview
862(1)
EMS, Enforcement Discretion, and Penalty Mitigation
863(3)
EMS and Regulatory Initiatives
866(2)
The Broader Legal Context
868(2)
International Considerations
870(1)
Environmental Management Systems
871(14)
Review of Selected Provisions of ISO 14001 from a Legal Perspective
873(12)
Conclusion
885(1)
Research Sources
886(3)
Index 889

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