9780865879553

Environmental Law Handbook

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780865879553

  • ISBN10:

    0865879559

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-05-01
  • Publisher: Government Inst
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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
About the Authors xxv
Fundamentals of Environmental Law
Environmental Law as a System
1(2)
Defining the Subject Matter: What is Environmental Law?
3(3)
How a Federal or State Environmental Law Is Adopted
5(1)
How Environmental Regulations Are Issued
5(1)
Laws That Establish Compliance Obligations
6(4)
Major Environmental Laws
6(1)
State Statutes and Regulations Implementing the Federal Statutes
6(1)
State Laws Independent of the Federal Requirements
7(1)
Tax Laws
8(1)
Business Regulatory Laws
8(1)
Local and Municipal Laws
9(1)
Environmental Law and Judicial Decisions
9(1)
Common Law
9(1)
Common Law Environmental Requirements: Torts
10(13)
Nuisance
11(6)
Trespass
17(2)
Negligence
19(1)
Strict Liability and Dangerous Substances
20(3)
Laws that Enforce Permits, Prohibitions, and Penalties
23(3)
Permits
23(1)
Enforcement Provisions of the Federal and State Environmental Statutes
24(1)
General Purpose Criminal Laws
25(1)
Laws that Define the Environmental Law Framework
26(33)
The Organic Laws: Constitutions and Chapters
27(4)
The Courts' Role
31(9)
Defining the Limits of Governmental Authority
40(12)
Administrative Law and Procedure
52(3)
Rules of Evidence
55(4)
Joint and Several Liability, Indemnity, and Contribution
59(1)
Environmental Compliance Principles
60(1)
Importance of Knowledge of Environmental Law
61(1)
Research Sources
62(3)
Enforcement and Liability
Introduction
65(3)
Formal Enforcement Mechanisms
68(25)
Civil Enforcement
68(9)
Criminal Enforcement
77(12)
Due Process Defenses: The ``Rule of Lenity'' and the ``Fair Notice'' Doctrine
89(4)
Alternative Dispute Resolution
93(1)
Transboundary Environmental Enforcement
94(1)
Enforcers of Environmental Law
94(20)
Federal
94(3)
States
97(5)
Local Government
102(1)
Tribal Government
102(5)
Citizen Enforcement
107(7)
Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Initiatives
114(7)
Environmental Enforcement Initiatives
114(1)
Compliance Incentive and Compliance Assurance Programs
114(2)
Auditing and Voluntary Disclosure
116(3)
Environmental Justice
119(2)
Conclusion
121(1)
Research Sources
121(2)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Overview
123(3)
Policy Goals and Objectives of RCRA
126(1)
Definition of Solid and Hazardous Waste
126(2)
Subtitle C: Hazardous Waste Management Program
128(35)
Identification of Hazardous Wastes
128(9)
Notification of Hazardous Waste Management Activities
137(1)
Generators of Hazardous Waste
138(4)
Transporters of Hazardous Wastes
142(2)
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facilities
144(12)
Permits
156(3)
State Hazardous Waste Programs
159(1)
Inspection
160(1)
Civil and Criminal Enforcement Actions
160(2)
Citizen Suits
162(1)
Imminent Hazard Actions
163(1)
State Solid Waste Programs under Subtitle D
163(1)
Federal Facility Compliance
164(5)
Waiver of Sovereign Immunity
164(1)
Federal Employee Protection and Exposure
165(2)
EPA Administrative Orders
167(1)
EPA Annual Inspections of Federal Facilities
167
Public Vessel Exemption
166(1)
Unserviceable Munitions
166(3)
Other Federal Responsibilities
169(1)
Research, Development, Demonstration, and Information
170(1)
Medical Waste
170(1)
Conclusion
170(1)
Research Sources
171(2)
Underground Storage Tanks
Overview
173(5)
Objectives of the UST Program
175(3)
Basic Terminology
178(4)
Underground Storage Tank Systems
178(3)
Regulated Substances
181(1)
Owners and Operators
181(1)
Implementation and Enforcement
182(2)
Implementation
182(1)
Enforcement
182(2)
Summary of Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements
184(3)
Reporting Requirements
184(2)
Recordkeeping Requirements
186(1)
New UST Systems
187(3)
Notification Requirements
187(1)
Performance Standards
188(2)
Existing UST Systems
190(2)
Notification Requirements
190(1)
Upgrading of Existing UST Systems
191(1)
General Operating Requirements
192(1)
Spill and Overfill Control
192(1)
Operation and Maintenance of Corrosion Protection Systems
192(1)
Substance Compatibility
193(1)
UST System Repairs
193(1)
Release Detection
193(3)
General Requirements and Schedule
193(1)
Methods of Release Detection for Tanks and Piping
194(1)
Specific Requirements for Petroleum USTs
194(1)
Specific Requirements for Hazardous Substance UST Systems
195(1)
Release Reporting, Investigation, and Response
196(9)
Overview
196(1)
Reporting of Suspected Releases
197(1)
Release Investigation and Confirmation
197(1)
Initial Release Response
198(1)
Initial Abatement Measures
199(1)
Initial Site Characterization
199(1)
Free Product Removal
200(1)
Investigations for Soil and Groundwater Cleanup
200(1)
Reporting and Cleanup of Spills and Overfills
201(1)
Corrective Action Plan
201(1)
Evolving Approach to Petroleum UST Cleanups
202(2)
USTfields Initiatives
204(1)
Closure of UST Systems
205(2)
Temporary Closure
205(1)
Permanent Closure/Change-in-Service
206(1)
Financial Responsibility Requirements
207(2)
Applicability and Compliance Dates
207(1)
Amount and Scope of Financial Responsibility Required
207(1)
Allowable Financial Responsibility Mechanisms
208(1)
Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements
209(1)
Conclusion
209(1)
Research Sources
210(3)
Clean Air Act
Overview
213(1)
Clean Air Act Regulatory Programs
214(46)
Air Quality Regulation
214(13)
New Source Control Programs
227(12)
Specific Pollution Problems
239(12)
Operating Permit Program
251(9)
Enforcement of the Clean Air Act
260(6)
Civil Enforcement
260(1)
Criminal Penalties
261(2)
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
263(1)
Compliance Audits
263(2)
Enforcement Priorities
265(1)
Clear Skies and Other Legislative Proposals
266(2)
Conclusion
268(1)
Research Sources
268(3)
Clean Water Act
Overview
271(1)
Brief History of U.S. Water Pollution Control Law
271(2)
Clean Water Act Goals and Policies
273(1)
Elements of the Clean Water Act
273(1)
The Discharge Prohibition
274(5)
Addition
274(1)
Pollutant
275(1)
Point Source
276(1)
Navigable Waters (``Waters of the United States'')
276(3)
The NPDES Permit Program
279(28)
What is an NPDES Permit?
279(1)
What Discharges Require an NPDES Permit?
279(1)
State and Federal Roles
279(2)
The Permit Process
281(3)
NPDES Permit Conditions
284(1)
Monitoring Requirements
285(1)
Effluent Limitations
286(14)
Storm Water Discharges
300(4)
Combined Sewer Overflows and Sanitary Sewer Overflows
304(1)
Thermal Discharges
305(1)
Ocean Discharges
305(2)
The Pretreatment Program
307(4)
General Prohibitions
307(1)
Specific Prohibitions
308(1)
National Categorical Standards
308(1)
Removal Credits
308(2)
Local Limits
310(1)
Pretreatment Program Enforcement
310(1)
Nonpoint Source Discharges
311(1)
The Section 319 Program
311(1)
Coastal Zone Management Program
312(1)
National Estuary Program
312(1)
Dredge and Fill Permits
312(7)
Waters Within the Scope of the Program
313(1)
Covered Activities
314(1)
Individual Permits
315(1)
The Mitigation Policy
316(1)
Nationwide Permits
317(1)
Potential Liabilities under the Section 404 Program
318(1)
Prevention, Reporting, and Responding to Spills
319(6)
Spill Prevention
319(4)
Spill Notification
323(1)
Spill Response and Liability
324(1)
Enforcement
325(13)
Federal and State Roles
325(1)
Enforcement Theories
326(2)
Defenses
328(3)
Enforcement Options
331(1)
Administrative Order
332(1)
Civil Judicial Enforcement
333(1)
Criminal Enforcement
334(2)
Citizen Suits
336(2)
Research Sources
338(3)
Oil Pollution Act
Overview
341(2)
Background
343(2)
Title I: Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation
345(5)
Definitions
346(4)
Elements of Liability
350(4)
Standard of Liability
350(1)
Removal Costs
351(1)
Compensatory Damages
352(2)
Interest
354(1)
Natural Resources Damages
354(7)
NRDA Regulations
356(2)
Application of NRDA Regulations
358(3)
Defenses to Liability
361(1)
Third Party Liability
361(1)
Limits on Liability
362(2)
Standard for Limiting OPA Liability
363(1)
Specific Liability Limits
363(1)
Adjustment of Liability Limits
364(1)
Recovery by a Foreign Claimant
364(1)
Recovery by a Responsible Party
365(1)
Contribution and Indemnification
365(1)
Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund
365(3)
Principle Sections
366(1)
Preservation of State Funds
366(1)
Funding of the Fund
367(1)
Uses of the Fund
367(1)
Claims
368(2)
Designation of the Source and Advertisement
368(1)
Procedure
369(1)
Financial Responsibility
370(3)
Calculation of Financial Responsibility Amounts
370(1)
Methods of Demonstrating Financial Responsibility
370(1)
Role of the Guarantor
371(1)
Vessels
371(1)
Financial Responsibility Regulations for Vessels
371(2)
Financial Responsibility for Facilities
373(1)
Subrogation
373(1)
Litigation and Jurisdiction
374(1)
Jurisdiction
374(1)
Limitations
374(1)
Relationship to Other Laws
375(3)
Preservation of State Oil Spill Liability Law
375(1)
Preservation of Federal Laws
375(1)
Federal Preemption under the Locke Case
376(2)
Title II: Conforming Amendments
378(1)
Title III: International Oil Pollution Prevention and Removal
378(1)
Title IV: Prevention and Removal
379(1)
Subtitle A: Prevention
379(8)
Licensing Requirements and Drug and Alcohol Testing
379(1)
Foreign Tank Vessel Manning Standards
380(1)
Tank Vessel Manning
380(1)
Marine Casualty Reporting
381(1)
Pilotage and Tug Escort Requirements
381(1)
Studies and Regulations [Sections 4107--4113]
382(1)
Double Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels
383(4)
Subtitle B: Removal
387(11)
Federal Removal Authority
387(1)
State and Local Removal Authority
388(1)
Responder Immunity
389(1)
National Planning and Response System
389(2)
Vessel and Facility Response Plans
391(7)
Subtitle C: Penalties
398(5)
Criminal Penalties
399(3)
Civil Penalties
402(1)
Research Sources
403(2)
Safe Drinking Water Act
Perspectives on Water
405(2)
Objectives of the SDWA
407(1)
Who Are the Regulators?
408(1)
Who Are the Regulated?
409(3)
The Basic Scheme of Regulation
412(14)
Radionuclides
417(1)
Sulfate
418(1)
Disinfectants and Byproducts Rule
419(1)
Surface Water Treatment Rule
420(1)
Ground Water Disinfection Rule
421(1)
Filter Backwash Recycling Rule
422(1)
Lead/Copper Rule
422(2)
Arsenic
424(1)
Judicial Review of MCLs
424(2)
Periodic Review of NPDWRs
426(1)
Enforcement of the SDWA
426(7)
Public Notice Requirements
426(1)
State Enforcement
427(1)
U.S. EPA Enforcement
427(3)
Citizens' Suits
430(1)
Preemption
430(1)
Criminal Matters
431(1)
Utility Enforcement
432(1)
Alternatives to Strict Compliance
433(4)
Variances
433(1)
Small System Variances
433(1)
Exemptions
434(1)
Monitoring Relief
435(1)
Litigation
436(1)
Information Collection Rule
437(1)
Consumer Confidence Reports
438(1)
Funding Opportunities
439(2)
Other Provisions
441(7)
Lead
441(1)
Operator Certification
442(1)
Capacity
443(1)
Underground Water Protection
443(3)
Tampering
446(1)
Coolers
446(1)
Bottled Water
446(1)
Monitoring of Unregulated Contaminants
447(1)
Conservation
448(1)
Records and Access
448(1)
Occurrence Data Base
449(1)
Source Water Quality Assessment
449(1)
Related Requirements
450(1)
Compliance and Claims
451(1)
Security Issues
452(1)
Conclusion
453(1)
Research Sources
454(3)
Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Introduction
457(3)
CERCLA's History and Objectives
457(1)
Overview of CERCLA's Provisions
458(1)
The Superfund
459(1)
Sources of CERCLA Law
460(1)
Important CERCLA Terms
460(6)
Hazardous Substance and Pollutant or Contaminant
460(3)
Release or Threat of Release
463(1)
Facility or Vessel
464(1)
Environment
464(1)
National Priorities List
465(1)
National Contingency Plan
465(1)
CERCLA's Remedial Provisions
466(12)
EPA's Authority to Act
466(1)
Categories of Response Actions
467(1)
Steps in the Remedial Process
468(10)
CERCLA's Liability Provisions
478(37)
Overview
478(1)
CERCLA's Operative Concepts
478(5)
EPA's Enforcement Policy
483(1)
Identifying Responsible Parties
484(1)
Response Cost Recovery Actions
485(12)
CERCLA Section 106 Abatement Actions
497(2)
CERCLA Section 106 Administrative Orders
499(4)
Defenses to Liability
503(4)
Citizen Suit Provisions
507(2)
Natural Resources Damages
509(4)
Contribution Actions
513(2)
Settlements with EPA
515(7)
Overview
515(1)
Controlling Authority
515(2)
Consent Decrees and Consent Orders
517(1)
Major Settlement Issues
517(5)
Release Reporting Requirements
522(1)
Federal Facilities
523(2)
Superfund's Future
525(1)
Research Sources
526(3)
National Environmental Policy Act
Overview
529(1)
NEPA's Development
530(3)
Legislative History
531(1)
Policy and Goals
531(1)
Council on Environmental Quality
532(1)
Requirements for Federal Agencies
533(8)
CEQ Regulations
534(3)
Relationship to Other Federal Laws
537(2)
Functional Equivalency
539(2)
Strategic Approaches to NEPA Compliance
541(4)
Non-Major Actions
541(1)
Formulating the Proposal
542(1)
Tiering
543(1)
Environmental Assessments
544(1)
EIS Preparation
545(12)
Lead Agency
545(1)
Scoping and Early Coordination
546(1)
Use of the EA and Applicant's Information
547(1)
Delegation
547(2)
Content of EIS
549(2)
Commenting and Public Involvement
551(2)
Mitigation of Impacts
553(1)
Proposals for Legislation
554(1)
Cumulative Effects
555(2)
Supplemental Statements
557(1)
EPA's Extraterritorial Application
557(1)
Environmental Justice
558(2)
EPA Review and Comment
560(1)
Judicial Review of NEPA
561(3)
CEQ Study of NEPA's Effectiveness
564(3)
Conclusion
567(1)
Research Sources
567(2)
Toxic Substances Control Act
Introduction
569(1)
Activities Subject to TSCA
570(4)
Manufacture
570(1)
Process
571(2)
Use
573(1)
Distribute
573(1)
Dispose
573(1)
TSCA Inventory
574(5)
Initial Compilation of the Inventory
574(2)
Inventory Corrections
576(1)
Maintaining and Updating the Inventory Data Base
577(1)
How to Use the Inventory
578(1)
New Chemical Review
579(8)
PMN Requirements
579(1)
Exclusions from PMN Requirements
580(1)
Exemptions from PMN Requirements
581(6)
Preparing the PMN and Seeing It through EPA
587(3)
Manufacturer's PMN Selection Strategy
587(1)
Minimizing Delays
588(1)
Avoiding Unnecessary Regulation under TSCA § 5
589(1)
EPA's Review of the PMN and Use of Check Lists
589(1)
Regulation of New Chemicals and Uses
590(8)
EPA Regulation under TSCA § 5(e)
590(3)
EPA Regulation under TSCA § 5(f)
593(1)
Significant New Use Rules
594(4)
Biotechnology
598(5)
1986 Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology Products
598(1)
Guidance Documents on PMN Submissions for Biotechnology Products
599(1)
EPA Biotechnology PMN Review Process
599(1)
EPA's Biotechnology Policy: The Final Rule
600(3)
Testing under TSCA
603(9)
Selection of Chemicals for Testing
603(1)
Testing Triggers
604(2)
Tests and Studies under TSCA § 4
606(2)
Exemptions from Testing
608(1)
Reimbursement Procedures
609(1)
Judicial Review
610(1)
TSCA § 4(f) Findings of Significant Risk
611(1)
Reporting and Retention of Information
612(5)
TSCA § 8(a): Reports
613(1)
TSCA § 8(c): Records of Significant Adverse Reactions
614(1)
TSCA § 8(d): Health and Safety Studies
615(1)
TSCA § 8(e): Substantial Risk Information
616(1)
Existing Chemical Regulation
617(6)
Procedures and Standards for TSCA § 6 Regulation
617(1)
Chemical Specific Regulations
618(5)
Relationship between TSCA and Other Laws
623(2)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
623(1)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)
624(1)
TSCA's Relationship to Other Federal Laws
624(1)
TSCA Preemption of State and Local Laws
625(1)
TSCA Inspections and Enforcement
625(13)
Inspections
625(3)
Civil Penalties
628(7)
Settlement Procedures
635(1)
Administrative Hearings
635(1)
Criminal Liability
636(1)
Citizen Actions and Petitions
637(1)
Importation and Exportation
638(5)
Import Regulation: TSCA § 13
638(3)
Export Regulation: TSCA § 12
641(2)
Research Sources
643(2)
Pesticides
Background to the Federal Regulation of Pesticides
645(4)
Overview
645(1)
Early Efforts at Pesticide Regulations
646(2)
Pesticide Regulation Transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency
648(1)
Overview of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and Amendments
649(2)
Background to FIFRA and the 1972 FEPCA
649(1)
Subsequent FIFRA Amendments: An Overview
650(1)
Pesticide Registration
651(11)
Definition of Pesticides, Pests, and Devices
651(1)
Pesticide Registration Procedures
652(2)
Conditional Registration
654(1)
Streamling of Reregistration
655(1)
Registration of ``Me-Too'' Pesticides
656(1)
Registration Fees
656(1)
Categorical Pesticide Review
657(1)
Efficacy
657(1)
Modifications and Transfers of Registrations
658(1)
Trade Secrets
658(2)
``Featherbedding'' or ``Me-Too'' Registrants
660(2)
Essentiality in Registration
662(1)
Control over Pesticide Usage
662(4)
Statutory Basis for Control over Pesticide Usage through Certification
663(1)
Self-Certification of Private Applicators
664(1)
Experimental Use Permits
665(1)
Two-House Congressional Veto over EPA Regulations
665(1)
Removal of Pesticides from the Market
666(10)
Cancellation
666(1)
Suspension
667(3)
Misbranding and Stop-Sale Orders
670(1)
International Effect of EPA Cancellations
671(1)
Disposal and Recall
671(1)
Compensation for Cancelled Pesticides
672(1)
Balancing Test in FIFRA
673(1)
Requirements of Consultation by EPA with USDA
674(1)
Economic Impact on Agriculture Statement
674(1)
Scientific Advisory Committees
675(1)
Administrative and Judicial Review
676(5)
Scope of the Administrator's Flexibility
676(2)
Standing for Registration, Appeals, and Subpoenas
678(1)
Judicial Appeals
679(1)
The Role of Public Hearings
680(1)
Role of States and Localities
681(3)
Intrastate Registrations
681(1)
Greater State Authority
682(1)
Federal Preemption and State Authority
682(2)
Litigation Issues
684(5)
Basic Cases
685(1)
Labels in Theory and Practice
686(2)
Fraudulent Registrations
688(1)
Exports and Imports
689(2)
Amendments to FIFRA
691(2)
Need for FIFRA Renewal
691(1)
Hogtie EPA: 1975 Amendments to FIFRA
691(1)
Data Compensation Changed: 1978 Amendments to FIFRA
692(1)
Two-House Veto: 1980 Amendments to FIFRA
692(1)
FIFRA Lite: 1988 Amendments to FIFRA
692(1)
Minor Pesticide Uses: 1990 Amendments to FIFRA
692(1)
Bye-Bye Delaney: 1996 Amendments to FIFRA
693(1)
Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
693(4)
Regulatory Dilemma under the Delaney Clause
693(1)
Demise of Delaney
694(1)
Public Health Pesticides
695(1)
Infants and Children
695(1)
Human Test Data
695(1)
Other Provisions of FQPA
696(1)
Pesticide Regulation under Other Federal Statutes
697(7)
Pesticides under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
697(2)
Clean Air Act of 1970 and Its Progeny
699(1)
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
700(1)
Solid Waste Disposal Acts
701(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Act
702(1)
Federal Hazardous Substances Act
702(1)
Federal Pesticide Monitoring Programs
702(1)
National Environmental Policy Act
703(1)
Biotechnology
704(3)
The Promise and Fear of Biotechnology
704(1)
The Initial Controversy over Regulating Biotechnology
705(1)
``Frankenfood'' Enforcement
706(1)
Research Sources
707(2)
Pollution Prevention Act
Overview
709(1)
Federal Pollution Prevention Strategy
710(17)
Background
710(1)
Pollution Prevention Strategy
711(1)
EPA's Pollution Prevention Programs in the 1990s
711(12)
EPA's Pollution Prevention Programs after 2000
723(4)
Pollution Prevention Programs of Several States
727(3)
Mandatory Waste Reduction Programs
727(1)
Multimedia Permit Programs and Other Regulatory Innovations
728(1)
Voluntary Technical Assistance Programs
729(1)
Conclusion
730(1)
Research Sources
730(3)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
Background to the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
733(2)
Emergency Planning and Notification
735(14)
State Commissions, Planning Districts, and Local Committees (Section 301)
735(1)
Substances and Facilities Covered and Notification (Section 302)
736(2)
Comprehensive Emergency Response Plans (Section 303)
738(3)
Emergency Notification in the Event of a Release (Section 304)
741(8)
Emergency Training and Review of Emergency Systems (Section 305)
749(1)
Reporting Requirements
749(22)
Material Safety Data Sheet Reporting Requirements (Section 311)
749(4)
Hazardous Chemical Inventory Form Reporting Requirements (Section 312)
753(3)
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Requirements (Section 313)
756(14)
Common EPCRA Compliance Errors
770(1)
Relationship to Other Law (Section 321)
771(1)
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
771(1)
Trade Secrets (Sections 322 and 323)
772(1)
Public Access to Information (Section 324)
773(1)
Enforcement (Section 325)
773(2)
Emergency Planning Violations
773(1)
Emergency Notification Violations
773(1)
Section 311 Reporting Violations
774(1)
Section 312 and 313 Reporting Violations
774(1)
Sections 322 and 323 Trade Secrets Violations
774(1)
Civil Actions (Section 326)
775(3)
Citizen Suits
775(3)
State or Local Government Suits
778(1)
Costs
778(1)
Federal Acquisition and Community Right-to-Know
778(1)
Internet Developments and TRI Reporting
779(1)
Research Sources
780(3)
Occupational Safety and Health Act
Introduction
783(2)
Comparison of OSHA and EPA
784(1)
OSHA, the Organization
784(1)
Legislative Framework
785(4)
Purpose of the Act
786(1)
Coverage of the Act
786(1)
Exemptions from the Act
787(1)
Telecommuting and Home Workplaces
788(1)
Scope of OSHA Standards
789(4)
Areas Covered by the OSHA Standards
789(1)
Overview of Standards
790(1)
Overview of Health Standards
791(1)
Overview of Safety Standards
792(1)
Standard Setting
793(9)
Four Types of OSHA Standards
793(1)
Consensus Standards: Section 6(a)
794(1)
Standards Completion and Deletion Processes
795(1)
Permanent Standards: Section 6(b)
795(2)
Emergency Temporary Standards
797(1)
General Duty Clause, 5(a)(1)
798(1)
Feasibility and the Balancing Debate
799(3)
Current Standards in Development
802(1)
Variances
802(1)
Temporary Variances
802(1)
Permanent Variances
803(1)
Compliance and Inspections
803(9)
Field Structure
804(1)
Role of Inspections
804(1)
Training and Competence of Inspectors
805(1)
Citations and Proposed Fines
806(1)
Types of Penalties
807(1)
Willful Violations
807(1)
Repeat Violations
808(1)
Egregious Violations
809(1)
Communicating and Enforcing Company Rules
809(1)
OSHA Citation and Penalty Patterns
810(2)
Recordkeeping
812(3)
New 300-Series Recordkeeping Forms
812(1)
Accident Reports
813(1)
Monitoring and Medical Records
813(1)
Hazard Communication
814(1)
Access to Records
815(1)
Programmatic Standards
815(1)
Refusal to Work and Whistleblowing
815(3)
Refusal to Work
816(1)
Protection of Whistleblowing
816(2)
Federal and State Employees
818(1)
Federal Agencies
818(1)
State Employees
818(1)
State OSHA Programs
819(2)
Concept
819(1)
Critiques
819(1)
Role of Federal OSHA in State Plans
820(1)
Consultation
821(2)
Enforcement and Consultation
821(1)
Consultation
822(1)
Overlapping Jurisdiction
823(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission
824(1)
OSHRC Appeal Process
824(1)
Limitations of the Commission
824(1)
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
825(1)
Warrantless Inspections: The Barlow Case
826(1)
Hazard Communications Regulation
827(6)
Reason for the Regulation
828(1)
Scope and Components
828(2)
Hazard Evaluation
830(1)
Trade Secrets
831(1)
Federal Preemption Controversy
832(1)
Ergonomics Standard
833(3)
Overview
834(1)
Scope of the Standard
835(1)
The Required Ergonomics Program
835(1)
State Ergonomics Programs
836(1)
Legislation
836(2)
National Emergency Role
838(1)
Research Sources
838(3)
ISO 14001 and Environmental Law
Overview
841(4)
Brief History
842(3)
Legal Relevance
845(1)
Environmental Management Systems
845(1)
ISO 14001
846(9)
Review of the Key Provisions from a Legal Perspective
846(8)
Compliance Assurance
854(1)
Potential Applications of ISO 14001
855(5)
Enforcement Discretion and Penalty Mitigation
856(1)
Alternative to the ``Command and Control'' Approach
857(3)
International Considerations
860(1)
Conclusion
861(1)
Research Sources
861(2)
Index 863

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