Envision in Depth : Reading, Writing, and Researching Arguments

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-10-28
  • Publisher: Longman
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Envision in Depth: Reading, Writing, and Researching Arguments 2/e,is a combined rhetoric and reader intended for composition courses focusing on argumentation and research-based writing. Taking contemporary culture as its central theme and context, Envision in Depthis concerned with the fundamentals of analyzing and writing powerful, effective arguments. #xA0;Students using Envision in Depthwill learn how to analyze and compose arguments, design and conduct research projects, and produce persuasive visual and oral presentations in response to over 100 contemporary arguments in a wide range of verbal and visual genres.

Author Biography

Christine Alfano has been a lecturer in the Program in Writing and Rhetoric since 1998.  She holds a BA from Brown University and PhD from Stanford and specializes in digital rhetoric.  In her recent PWR courses, “The Rhetoric of Gaming,” “Networked Rhetoric,” "Technologies of iDentity" and "Cultural Interfaces," Christine challenges students to explore how writing in different technological modes (from traditional Microsoft Word documents, to blogs, threaded discussions, social network profiles, video blogs and wikis) transforms the modern practice of communication and how we represent ourselves online and off.  In addition, Christine is the technology specialist for the Cross-Cultural Rhetoric Project, a project that allows Stanford PWR students to engage in intercultural collaboration with students from other universities around the world using video conferencing and other modes of communication technologies.


Dr. Alyssa J. O'Brien is a Lecturer in the Program and Writing and Rhetoric at Stanford University, where she directs the Cross-Cultural Rhetoric initiative and publishes scholarship and textbooks on visual rhetoric, writing pedagogy, and global learning. She has been an invited speaker in Asia and Europe on subjects such as global learning, communication for leadership, visual rhetoric, and “mapping a change in writing.”  In 2006, Alyssa won the Phi Beta Kappa Outstanding Teaching Award, and what she enjoys most is helping people discover their voices in writing of all kinds.  Her current first- and second-year writing courses focus on visual rhetoric, cross-cultural rhetoric, globalization, and communication for leadership.  Before coming to Stanford in 2001, she taught composition, creative writing, literature, and business writing at Cornell University, the Eastman School of Music, and the University of Rochester. 

Table of Contents

I.                    ANALYSIS AND ARGUMENT


1. Analyzing Texts

      Understanding Texts Rhetorically

      Understanding Rhetoric

                  Understanding Visual Rhetoric

      Strategies for Analyzing Texts Rhetorically

                  Analyzing a Comic Strip

                  Analyzing Editorial Cartoons

                  Reading: Doug Marlette, “I Was a Tool of Satan”

      Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

                  Practicing Rhetorical Analysis

                  Developing a Thesis Statement

                  Analyzing a Student’s Writing Sample

                  Student Writing:  Cyana Chilton, Drugs to Death in a Political Cartoon: An Oversimpliication?

                  Referring to Images in Your Writing

      The Writer's Process: Turning to Texts of Your Choice

      Prewriting Using the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


2. Understanding Strategies of Persuasion

      Analyzing Ads as Arguments

                  Reading:  Seth Stevenson, “You and Your Shadow: The iPod ads are mesmerizing, but does your iPod think it’s better than you?”

      Understanding the Rhetorical Appeals

                  Appeals to Reason: Logos

                              Logical Fallacies

                  Appeals to Emotion: Pathos

                              Exaggerated Uses of Pathos

                  Appeals to Character and Authority: Ethos

                              Misuses of Ethos

      Considering Context: Kairos

      The Writer's Process: Using Strategies of Persuasion in Your Own Writing

      Prewriting Using the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


3. Composing Arguments

      Understanding the Canons of Rhetoric

      Invention in Argument

      Arrangement in Argument

      Style in Argument

                  Constructing Persona

                  Choosing a Rhetorical Stance

                  Titles, Introductions, and Conclusions

      Crafting a Position Paper

                  Student Writing: Angela Rastegar, Academic Position Paper

                  Writing Multiple Sides of an Argument

                  Writing a Synthesis Paper

                  Reading :  Nora Ephron, “The Boston Photographs”

     The Writer's Process: Constructing Your Own Argument

      Prewriting Using the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


II.                 RESEARCH ARGUMENTS


4. Planning and Proposing Research Arguments

      Asking Research Questions

      Generating Research Questions

      Bringing Your Topic into Focus

                  Brainstorming Topics Visually

                  Narrowing Your Topic

      Planning Your Research through Writing

                  Freewriting about Your Research Topic

                  Student Writing: Bries Deerrose, Research Freewrite

                   Drafting the Research Hypothesis

      Drafting a Research Proposal

                  Student Writing: Susan Zhang, “Little Photoshop of Horrors,” Tommy Tsai, Working Hypothesis, Final Reflection Letter

      Best Research Practices

      The Writer's Process: Planning Your Own Research Project

      Prewriting Using the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


5. Finding and Evaluating Research Sources

      Visualizing Research

      Developing Search Terms

                  Narrowing Your Search

      Primary and Secondary Sources

                  Finding Primary Sources

                  Searching for Secondary Sources

                  Keeping a Research Log

      Evaluating Your Sources

                  Evaluating Websites

                  Evaluating Library and Database Sources

                  Student Writing: Sean Bruich, Field Research Inquiry Letter

                  Evaluating Field Research and Statistics

                  Evaluating Field Research Sources

      Creating a Dialogue with Your Sources

                  Student Writing: Amanda Johnson, Dialogue of Sources

      Writing an Annotated Bibliography

      The Writer's Process: Finding, Evaluating, and Recording Your Own Sources

      Prewriting with the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects



6. Organizing and Writing Research Arguments

      Organizing Your Draft in Visual Form

      Learning Outline Strategies

                  Outlines with Subheads and Transitions

                  Student Writing: Dexian Cai, Outline

      Spotlight on Your Argument

      Integrating Research Sources

                  Choosing Summary and Paraphrase

                  Using Direct Quotations

                  Integrating, Not Inserting, Quotations

                  Documentation during Integration

      Drafting Your Research Argument

                  Keeping Your Passion

                  Collaboration through Peer Review

                  Student Writring:  Sunthar Premakumar, Bollywood Sing-Along (draft)

      Revising Your Draft


                  Student Writing: Sunthar Premakumar, Bollywood Sing-Along (revised excerpt)

      The Writer's Process: Drafting and Revising Your Own Research Argument

      Prewriting with the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


7. Avoiding Plagiarism and Documenting Sources

      Rhetorical Imitation and Intellectual Property: Understanding Plagiarism

                  Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism

                  Citing Sources for Downloaded Images and Multimedia

      Understanding Documentation Style

                  In-text Citations: Documentation as Cross-Referencing

                  Using Notes for Documentation

      MLA-Style Works Cited Lists

                  Documentation for Print and Online Sources

                  Documentation for Visual, Audio, and Multimedia Sources

                  Student Paper in MLA Style: Tanner Gardner, Show Me the Money: The Globalization of the NBA

     The Writer's Process: Reviewing Your Own Writing

      Prewriting with the Envision Website

      Writing Projects




8. Designing Arguments

      Understanding Document Design and Decorum

      Understanding Academic Writing Conventions

      Integrating Images in Academic Writing

                  Design of Academic Papers

                  Student Writing: Allison Woo, “Slaying the Dragon” (excerpt)

      Tools of Design for Academic Audiences

                  Composing an Abstract

                  Shaping Your Bio

      Combining Visual and Verbal Design Elements

                  Student Writing: Ashley Mullen, Newsletter

                  Designing Arguments for Public Audiences

                  Student Writing: Chris Couvelier and Gene Ma, Newsletter and Website

                  Formatting Writing for Audiences

                  Reading: What’s Wrong with the Body Shop?

      Designing Visual Arguments

                  Crafting an Op-Ad

                  Student Writing: Carrie Tsosie, “Alternative Energy for Whom?”

                  Producing a Photo Essay

                  Student Writing: Ye Yuan, “Looking through the Lens”

                  Composing a Website

                  Student Writing: Sarah Douglas, Website

                  Making a Multimedia Montage

                  Student Writing: Yang Shi, Photo Montage

      The Writer's Process: Designing Your Own Arguments

      Prewriting with the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects


9. Delivering Presentations

      Understanding the Branches of Oratory

      Audience, Purpose, and Persona

      Transforming Research into a Presentation



                  Student Writing: Tommy Tsai, Presentation Outline


                  Transformation into Action

                  Student Writing:  Susan Zhang, Presentation

      Considering Strategies of Design

      Using Visuals Rhetorically

                  Writing for Poster Sessions

                  Student Writing: Tanja Haj-Hassan, Carlos Ortiz, and Jonathan Hwang, Research Posters

                   Writing for PowerPoint or Slide-based Presentations

                  Student Writing: Natalie Farrell, Slides

                  Possibilities for PowerPoint

                  Student Writing: Tracy Hadnott, Sarah Trube, Morgan Springer, Kavi Vyas, Presentations

      Choosing Methods of Delivery

                  Embodied Rhetoric

      Practicing Your Presentation

                  Anticipating Problems and the Question-and-Answer Session

      Documenting Your Presentation           

      The Writer's Process: Creating Your Own Presentation

      Prewriting with the Envision Website

      Prewriting Checklist

      Writing Projects





You Are What You Eat

    Kate Murphy, “First Camera, Then Fork”

    Facebook: Documenting What We Eat (photographs)

    Jeffrey Kluger, “How America’s Children Packed on the Pound”

    Michelle Obama, Remarks Prepared for the Let’s Move Launch, 2/9/2010

    United States Department of Agriculture Food Pyramids

    Michael Pollan, “When a Crop Becomes King”

    Corn Refiners Association ad campaign: “Changing the Conversation about High Fructose Corn Syrup”

    John Cloud, “Eating Better then Organic”

    Peter Menzel and Faith d’Aluisio, photographs from Hungry Planet

    “Can Biotech Food Cure World Hunger?” A Room for Debate from the New York Times

Greening Culture

    Al Gore, images from An Inconvenient Truth

    Bjorn Lomborg, “Inconvenient Truths for Al Gore”

    Elizabeth Kolbert, “Can American Go Green?”

    American Public Transportation Association ad campaign: “Go Green. Go Public”

    Toyota Prius ad campaign

    Terrachoice Environmental Marketing, “The Seven Sins of Greenwashing”

    Alex Steffen, “On Earth Day”

    British Petroleum ad campaign: “Beyond Petroleum”

    Geoffrey Johnson, “Marking Earth Day Inc.”

    Jared Diamond, “Will Big Business Save the Earth?”

    Al Gore, Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, 12/10/2007

    Mark Jacobson and Mark A. DeIucchi, “A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030”


11.  CULTURE 2.0

Social Lives and Social Media

    Pew Research Center, Summary of Findings: Social Media and Young Adults

    danah boyd, “Social Network Site Taste Test: MySpace or Facebook?

    Clive Thompson, “I’m So Digitally Close to You”

    “MySpace Outage Leaves Millions Friendless” from The Onion

    Steven Johnson, “How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live”

    Art Silverblatt, “Twitter as Newspeak”

    Randall Munroe, “XKCD Seismic Waves” (cartoon)

    Evgeny Morozov, “From slactivism to activism” (blog post)

    Mir Hossein Mousavi, Twitter messages from Iran, June 2009

Virtual Worlds and Gaming Life

    Mark Stephen Meadows, from I, Avatar

    Robbie Cooper, from Alter Ego: Avatars and Their Creators (photographs and text)

    Ads from Game Informer

    Sheri Graner Ray, “But What If the Player Is Female?”

    Zoe Flower, “Getting the Girl: The Myths, Misconceptions, and Misdemeanors of Females in Games”

    Gerard Jones, “Shooters” from Killing Monsters

    Daniel Terdiman, “Playing Games with a Conscience”

    Screenshots from Ayiti: The Cost of Life, Homeland Guatanamos, and Energyville

Who Owns Popular Culture?

    Keith Aoki, James Boyle, and Jennifer Jenkins, from Bound by Law (graphic novel)

    Michael Eisner, Address before Members of the United States Congress

    Bret Dawson, “The Privatization of Our Culture”

    Movie poster: Revelations

    Lawrence Lessig, “Remixed Media” from Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy

    Laura Miller, “Plagiarism: The Next Generation”

    DJ Danger Mouse, The Grey Album (album cover) and Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (book cover)

    Bill Werde, “Hijacking Harry Potter, Quidditch Broom and All”



Imagining the Ideal Body

      Susie Orbach, “Fat Is an Advertising Issue”

      John Riviello, “What If Barbie Was an Actual Person?” (images)

      Mim Udovitch, “A Secret Society of the Starving”

      National Eating Disorders Association 2004 Get Real ad campaign

      Susan McClelland, “Distorted Images: Western Cultures Are Exporting Their Dangerous Obsession with Thinness”

      Charles Atlas ad

      Harrison G. Pope, Jr., Robert Olivardia, Amanda Gruber, and John Borowieki, “Evolving Ideals of Male Body Image as Seen through Action Toys”

      Kim Franke-Folstad, “G.I. Joe’s Biceps Are Not a Big Deal”

Fashion Statements

    Pamela Abbott and Francesca Sapsford, “Clothing the Young Female Body”

    “Dress for Success” (images)

    Rob Dobi, “Emo for Girls,” “Emo for Boys” (images and text)

    Ruth La Ferla, “Wearing Their Beliefs on Their Chests”

    “Mary Is My Homegirl” T-shirt

    Paul Mitchell, “Faith and Fashion: The Power of T-shirt Evangelism

    Marjan Satrapi, “The Veil” from Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood (graphic novel)

    Shirin Neshat, “Women of Allah: Rebellious Silence” (photograph)

    bell hooks, “Straightening Our Hair”

    Chris Rainer, “Tattoos, Piercings, and Body Markings” (photographs and text)

    Josie Appleton, “The Body Piercing Project”



Engineering a Better Athlete

    Bigger, Stronger, Faster (movie posters and text)

    Steroids and Baseball (cartoons)

    Steven Shapin, “Clean Up Hitters: The Steroid Wars and the Nature of What’s Natural”

    Mike Sokolove, “Drug in Sport: The Shape to Come”

    Margaret Munro, “Dressing for Success at the Olympics: Is It ‘Doping on a Hanger’ or Is It Just a Swimsuit?”

    Speedo LZR Racer ad

    Kieron Murphy, “Engineering a Better Olympic Athlete”

    Andrew Tilin, “Ready, Set, Mutate!”

Playing Against Stereotypes

    Carlos Serrao, “Anything You Can Do” (photograph)

    Thad Mumford, “The New Minstrel Show: Black Vaudeville with Statistics”

    Todd Boyd, “Doin’ Me” from Young, Black, Rich, and Famous

    Ellis Cashmore, “Tiger Woods and the New Racial Order”

    Dave Zirin, “Say It Ain’t So, Big Leagues”

    Sports Illustrated covers: Anna Kournikova and Serena Williams

    The Media Education Foundation, “Playing Unfair” (transcript)

    Shannon Ryan, “Banking on Beauty”

    WNBA “Expect Great” ad campaign (image and transcript)



Snapshots of the Ordinary

    Lenore Skenazy, “Don’t Smile for the Camera”

    Michael Williams, Richard Cahan, and Nicholas Osborn, “Who We Were: A Snapshot History of America”

    Patrick Cox, “America 24/7: A Family Photograph Album” (text and photographs)

    Philippe Kahn, “Photography Changes the Way We Communicate”:

    David Pogue, “Photo Sharing Even the Folks Can Handle”

    Michael Strangelove, “There Is No Shame in Watching YouTube”

Images of Crisis

    Daniel Okrent, “The Public Editor: No Picture Tells the Truth—the Best Do Better than That”

    Bruce Jackson, “Letters to the Public Editor:  Some Words about Those Pictures”

    James Nachtwey, “Haiti: Out of the Ruins” (photo essay)

    Charles Porter, “Tragedy in Oklahoma”

     Joe Strupp, “The Photo Felt Around the World”

    Mark Glaser, “Did London Bombings Turn Citizen Journalists into Citizen Paparazzi?” (text and photographs)

    “Citizen Journalist Sets the World a Twitter after Denver Plane Crash”

    “War, Live” (interview transcript)

    David Leeson, “Photographs and Stories” (text and photographs)

    Newshour Extra with Jim Lehrer, “Pros and Cons of Embedded Journalism”




    Alex Webb, “Life on the Border” (photographs)

    Hilary Hylton, “Calls to Shut U.S.-Mexico Border Grow in Flu Scare”

    Teresa Hayter, “The New Common Sense”

    Cynthia Gorney, “Mexico’s Other Border” (text and photographs)

    Ted Robbins, “’America’s Toughest Sheriff’ Takes on Immigration” (interview transcript)

    James Nachtwey, “Caught Crossing” (photo essay)

    Michel Martin, “With Immigration, Racism Knows No Borders”

    Thomas L. Friedman, “America’s Real Dream Team”

    Stephen Steinlight, “Thomas L. Friedman: For of Open-Borders and ‘Comprehensive Immigration Reform’?”

    Lexington, “The Hub Nation”

    Ezra Klein, “Nativism Doesn’t Appear To Be on Much of a Rise” (blog post)

    Frank James, “Phoenix (Los) Suns Wade into Immigration Fight” (blog post)


    Mark Rice-Oxley, “In 2000 Years, Will the World Remember Disney or Plato?”

    Qui Jianghong, “KFC and McDonald’s: A Model of Blended Culture”

     Joseph Davicsin and Jerome Sklarsky, “The Daily Targum: Two Opinions on McDonaldization”

    Interview with George Ritzer

    Paul Feine, “McBastards: McDonald’s and Globalization”

    Randy James, “A Brief History of McDonald’s Abroad”

    Stephanie Clifford, “Burnishing a Brand by Selecting an ‘Idol’”


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