Essential Evidence-based Medicine with CD-ROM

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback w/CD
  • Copyright: 2009-12-21
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Essential Evidence-Based Medicine teaches the principles of research study methodology and design so that the reader can become better at critically analysing scientific and clinical studies. It describes the basic elements needed to understand biostatistics and epidemiology as applied to health care studies, and how to become a more discriminating reader of the medical literature by adopting the skills of critical appraisal. This new edition is extensively edited and updated, and includes two entirely new chapters on critical appraisal of qualitative research and communicating risks and evidence to patients. The text is geared towards the new learner, and assumes little clinical experience, starting with the basic principles of critical appraisal. A CD-ROM accompanies the book to enable students to test their learning through a series of questions, with answers provided. This is an ideal introductory text for medical students, health sciences students and a wide range of other healthcare professionals.

Author Biography

Dan Mayer is Professor of Emergency Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA.

Table of Contents

List of contributorsp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
A brief history of medicine and statisticsp. l
What is evidence-based medicine?p. 9
Causationp. 19
The medical literature: an overviewp. 24
Sarching the medical literaturep. 33
Study design and strength of evidencep. 56
Instruments and measurements: precision and validityp. 67
Sources of biasp. 80
Review of basic statisticsp. 93
Hypothesis testingp. 109
Type I errors and number needed to treatp. 120
Negative studies and Type II errorsp. 130
Risk assessmentp. 141
Adjustment and multivariate analysisp. 156
Randomized clinical trialsp. 164
Scientific integrity and the responsible conduct of researchp. 179
Applicability and strength of evidencep. 187
Communicating evidence to patientsp. 199
Critical appraisal of qualitative research studiesp. 208
An overview of decision making in medicinep. 215
Sources of error in the clinical encounterp. 233
The use of diagnostic testsp. 244
Utility and characteristics of diagnostic tests: likelihood ratios, sensitivity, and specificityp. 249
Bayes' theorem, predictive values, post-test probabilities, and interval likelihood ratiosp. 261
Comparing tests and using ROC curvesp. 276
Incremental gain and the threshold approach to diagnostic testingp. 282
Sources of bias and critical appraisal of studies of diagnostic testsp. 295
Screening testsp. 310
Practice guidelines and clinical prediction rulesp. 320
Decision analysis and quantifying patient valuesp. 333
Cost-effectiveness analysisp. 350
Survival analysis and studies of prognosisp. 359
Meta-analysis and systematic reviewsp. 367
Levels of evidence and grades of recommendationsp. 378
Overview of critical appraisalp. 384
Commonly used statistical testsp. 387
Formulasp. 389
Proof of Bayes' theoremp. 392
Using balance sheets to calculate thresholdsp. 394
Glossaryp. 396
Bibliographyp. 411
Indexp. 425
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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