Essential Forensic Biology

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  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2006-10-01
  • Publisher: WILEY
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Essential Forensic Biology is an introduction to the application of the science of biology in legal investigations. Focusing on the legal system in the UK, the book provides a detailed description of the decay process, and discusses the role of forensic indicators - human fluids and tissues, including blood cells, bloodstain pattern analysis, hair, teeth, bones and wounds. It also considers the role microorganisms, invertebrates and plants play within forensic investigations before considering future directions in forensic science. The book examines the study of forensic biology in cases of suspicious death, and also explores the organisms used in a range of legal investigations; from human and animal neglect to food spoilage, structural damage, the illegal collection/trade of protected species and bioterrorism. Essential Forensic Biology fills the gap for a resource, which provides information on the range of biological organisms; animals, plants and microbes used in forensic studies. An invaluable introductory text for all students taking forensic science courses, the book features a fully integrated website that covers forensic entomology with additional material and figures from the text to enhance student understanding. An introduction covering the essentials of forensic biology Features a fully integrated website covering forensic entomology with additional material and self-test questions to reinforce student understanding Each chapter includes a series of questions and topics for further study Focuses on the UK legal system From the reviews: "...the numerous black and white photographs, drawings and tables within the book are clear and well deployed." TIMES HIGHER EDUCATION SUPPLEMENT, 23rd February 2007

Table of Contents

Introduction. 1 The Decay Process. Chapter outline. Objectives. The stages of decomposition. Fresh. Bloat. Putrefaction. Putrid dry remains. Factors affecting the speed of decay. Burial underground. Burial underwater. Time of year and temperature. Exposure to sunlight. Burning. Geographical location. Quick quiz. Project work. 2 Human Fluids and Molecular Biological Techniques as Forensic Indicators. Chapter outline. Objectives. Body fluids and waste products. Blood cells and blood typing. Confirming the presence of blood. Bloodstain pattern analysis. The Sam Sheppard case. The Sion Jenkins case. Saliva and semen as forensic indicators. Faeces and urine as forensic indicators. Molecular biology. The structure of DNA. DNA profiling. The Colin Pitchfork case. Forensic applications of DNA profiling. Evaluation of DNA evidence. Polymerase chain reaction. Short tandem repeat markers. Y-Short tandem repeat markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Mobile element insertion polymorphisms. Mitochondrial DNA. The Tsar Nicholas II case. Quick quiz. Project work. 3 Human Tissues and Wounds as Forensic Indicators. Chapter outline. Objectives. The outer body surface. Skin. Fingerprints. Lip prints and ear prints. Retinal and iris scans. Tattoos. Hair. Characteristics. Assimilation of poisons, drugs and explosives. Bones. Characteristics. Determination of gender. Determination of ethnic origin. Determination of stature. Determination of age. Facial reconstruction. Determination of age of remains. Teeth. Characteristics. Determination of age. Determination of gender and ethnic origin. Identification based on dental characteristics. Effects of drug abuse on dental characteristics. Wounds. Definitions. Bruises. Abrasions. Lacerations. Incised wounds. Stab wounds. Bone damage. Gunshot wounds. Bite marks. Burns and scalds. Postmortem injuries. Quick quiz. Project work. 4 Bacteria and Viruses in Forensic Science. Chapter outline. Objectives. Introduction. The role of microorganisms in the decomposition process. Microbial profiles as identification tools. How microbial infections can predispose people to crime and simulate the occurrence of a criminal act. The use of microorganisms in bioterrorism. Anthrax. Plague. Smallpox. The transmission of HIV as a criminal act. The role of microbes in food poisoning. Quick quiz. Project work. 5 Protists, Fungi and Plants in Forensic Science. Chapter outline. Objectives. Introduction. Protists as forensic indicators. Fungi as forensic indicators. Plants as forensic indicators. Wood. Pollen and spores. Fruits, seeds and leaves. Plant secondary metabolites as sources of drugs and poisons. Illegal trade in protected plant species. Quick quiz. Project work. 6 Invertebrates in Forensic Science. Chapter outline. Objectives. Introduction. Invertebrates as forensic indicators in cases of murder or suspicious death. Invertebrates attracted to dead bodies. Detritivores. Carnivores and parasitoids. P

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