Essential Math and Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2003-09-26
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Accurately calculating medication dosages is a critical element in pharmaceutical care that directly affects optimal patient outcomes. Unfortunately, medication dosage errors happen in pharmacies, in hospitals, or even at home or in homecare settings everyday. In extreme cases, even minor dosage errors can have dire consequences. Careful calculations are essential to providing optimal medical and pharmaceutical care.Essential Math and Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians fills the need for a basic reference that students and professionals can use to help them understand and perform accurate calculations. Organized in a natural progression from the basic to the complex, the book includes:· Roman and Arabic Numerals· Fractions and decimals· Ratios, proportions, and percentages· Systems of measurement including household conversions· Interpretation of medication orders· Isotonicity, pH, buffers, and reconstitutions· Intravenous flow rates· Insulin and Heparin products· Pediatric dosage· Business mathPacked with numerous solved examples and practice problems, the book presents the math in a step-by-step style that allows readers to quickly grasp concepts. The authors explain the fundamentals simply and clearly and include ample practice problems that help readers become proficient. The focus on critical thinking, real-life problem scenarios, and the self-test format make Essential Math and Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians an indispensable learning tool.

Table of Contents

Working with Roman and Arabic Numeralsp. 1
Roman Numeralsp. 1
Rulesp. 1
Arabic Numeralsp. 2
Practice Problemsp. 4
Answersp. 5
Using Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy Mathp. 7
Fractionsp. 7
Addition of Fractionsp. 9
Subtraction of Fractionsp. 13
Multiplication of Fractionsp. 14
Division of Fractionsp. 17
Decimalsp. 19
Addition and Subtractionp. 19
Multiplicationp. 20
Divisionp. 21
Practice Problemsp. 22
Answersp. 25
Using Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages in Dosage Calculationsp. 27
Ratiosp. 27
Definitions at a Glancep. 27
Proportionsp. 27
Practice Problemsp. 33
Ratios and Proportionsp. 33
Percentagep. 36
Converting a Fraction to a Percentp. 37
Converting a Percent to a Fractionp. 37
Converting a Decimal to a Percentp. 37
Converting a Percent to a Decimalp. 37
Determining Percentagep. 38
Fractions and Equivalent Decimalsp. 38
Converting a Fraction to a Decimalp. 38
Percent Concentration Expressionsp. 39
Percent Weight-in-Volume (% w/v)p. 39
Percent Weight-in-Weight (Percent by Weight), (% w/w)p. 39
Percent Volume-in-Volume (Percent by Volume), (% v/v)p. 39
Milligram Percent, (mg%)p. 39
Practice Problemsp. 41
Percentage and Strengthp. 41
Answersp. 43
Ratios and Proportionsp. 43
Percentage Strengthp. 43
Applying Systems of Measurementsp. 45
Metric Systemp. 45
Practice Problemsp. 48
Metric Systemp. 48
Apothecaries' Systemp. 50
Practice Problemsp. 51
Apothecaries' Systemp. 51
Household Conversionsp. 53
Calibration of the Medicinal Dropperp. 54
Interconversionsp. 54
Practice Problemsp. 57
Household Conversionsp. 57
Answersp. 58
Metric Systemp. 58
Apothecaries' Systemp. 59
Household Conversionsp. 59
Interpreting Medication Ordersp. 61
Types of Prescriptionsp. 61
Parts of a Prescriptionp. 62
Sample Prescriptionp. 63
Label Requirementsp. 63
Medication Orderp. 63
Common Latin Terms and Abbreviationsp. 64
Examplesp. 68
Practice Problemsp. 69
Answersp. 71
Identifying Prescription Errors and Omissionsp. 73
Verification of the DEA Numberp. 73
p. 74
Errors in Example 1p. 74
p. 75
Errors in Example 2p. 75
p. 75
Errors in Example 3p. 76
Practice Prescriptions for Errors and Omissionsp. 76
Answersp. 91
Working with Liquid Dosage Formsp. 95
Liquid Calculations Involving Proportionsp. 95
Practice Problemsp. 96
Liquid Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentrationsp. 103
Practice Problemsp. 104
Methods of Alligationp. 106
Alligation Medialp. 106
Alligation Alternatep. 107
Practice Problemsp. 110
Answersp. 112
Liquid Calculations Involving Proportionsp. 112
Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentrationp. 113
Alligationp. 113
Working with Solid Dosage Formsp. 115
Practice Problemsp. 116
Answersp. 118
Adjusting Isotonicityp. 121
Dissociation (i) Factor Calculationsp. 121
Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substancesp. 123
Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Methodp. 125
Practice Problemsp. 130
Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Methodp. 133
Practice Problemsp. 136
Answersp. 139
Working with pH and Buffersp. 141
pH Calculationsp. 141
Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pHp. 141
Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentrationp. 142
Practice Problemsp. 143
Buffer Calculationsp. 144
pH Value of a Bufferp. 145
Molar Ratio of Buffer Componentsp. 146
Practice Problemsp. 148
Answersp. 150
Dealing with Reconstitutionsp. 151
Practice Problemsp. 153
Answersp. 159
Determining Milliequivalent Strengthsp. 161
Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalentsp. 161
Practice Problemsp. 165
Answersp. 167
Dealing with Caloriesp. 169
Practice Problemsp. 171
Calculations Involving Nitrogen, Calorie:Nitrogen Ratio, and Protein-Calorie Percentage of TPN Productsp. 172
Nitrogenp. 172
Calorie:Nitrogen Ratiop. 173
Protein-Calorie Percentagep. 173
Practice Problemsp. 174
Answersp. 176
Determining Intravenous Flow Ratesp. 179
Practice Problemsp. 182
Answersp. 184
Working with Insulin and Heparin Productsp. 187
Insulinp. 187
Working with Insulin Strengthp. 187
Practice Problemsp. 189
Heparin Dosagep. 193
Practice Problemsp. 195
Answersp. 200
Insulinp. 200
Heparinp. 201
Working with Temperature Conversionsp. 203
Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]Cp. 203
Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]Fp. 204
Practice Problemsp. 205
Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]Cp. 205
Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]Fp. 205
Answersp. 206
Working with Capsule Dosage Formsp. 207
Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Capsulesp. 207
Practice Problemsp. 210
Dealing with Pediatric Dosagesp. 217
Based on Body Weightp. 217
Based on Heightp. 217
Based on Body Surface Area (BSA)p. 217
Based on Agep. 218
Other Formulas Usedp. 218
Practice Problemsp. 218
Answersp. 219
Pharmacy Business Mathp. 221
Practice Problemsp. 223
Answersp. 223
Indexp. 225
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