Essentials of Argument

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-11-11
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This concise argument text presents a broad range of rhetorical theory while providing the clear explanations and examples to make it accessible to an exceptionally wide range of students. Essentials of Argument, 3e, contains ten chapters, each accompanied by class exercises and writing assignments. Students using this text will learn to identify topics of personal and social consequence, to read and form opinions of their own, to analyze a potential audience, and to write persuasive argument papers. Research methods are introduced early, instructing students how to locate, print, and evaluate online materials and avoid plagiarism. Appendices teach MLA and APA styles, and provide a synopsis of the major ideas about argument in unique Summary Charts.

Table of Contents

PART I: Understanding Argument and Conducting Research


1 Recognizing Argument and Finding Issues

    A Definition of Argument

    Why Study Argument?

    Recognizing Traditional and Consensual Argument

    Evaluating Traditional and Consensual Argument

    Distinguish between Ethical and Unethical Argument

    What Is Your Personal Style of Argument?

    Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best?   

    Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail?

    Engaging with Issues

    Review Questions


        Chris Piper, "'A' is for 'Absent'"

            A student argues against attendance policies in college that penalize students by lowering their grades for excessive absences.


2  The Rhetorical Situation: Understanding Audience and Context

    Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument

    Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write an Argument

    Conducting An Audience Analysis

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 1: Rhetorical Situation

        Worksheet 2: Audience Analysis


        Charles M. Blow, "Welcome to the Club"

            The author examines the issue of racial profiling, using facts and personal narrative

        Prisna Virasin, "The Barbie Controversy"

            This student issue proposal examines the controversy associated with Barbie dolls.


3  Learning More about Issues: Conducting Research

    Begin with What You Know

    Locating Sources for Research

    Evaluate Sources and Select the Best

    Create a Bibliography

    Survey, Read, and Add Annotations to Your Bibliography

    Develop a System for Taking and Organizing Your Notes

    Avoid Plagarism

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 3: Research Plan

        Worksheet 4: Research Evaluation


        Angela A. Boatwright, "Human Cloaning: An Annotated Bibliography"

            This is a student-written annotated bibliography about human cloning


4  Writing the Exploratory Paper

    What Is an Exploratory Paper?

    How Do You Write Now?

    Prewriting Strategies

    Writing the First Draft

    Break through Writer's Block

    Revise the Draft

    How to Write an Exploratory Paper

    Submitting Your Paper for Peer Review

    Review Questions    

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 5: Exploratory Paper


        Jeff D. Opdyke, "Kids and Chores: All Work and No Pay?"

            This author considers different perspectives on how to pay children for doing the chores

        Prisna Virasin, "The Controversy behind Barbie"

            This student-written exploratory paper explains different perspecitves on the Barbie doll controversy


PART II: Using Argument Theory for Reading and Writing


5  The Toulmin Model of Argument: Understanding the Parts

   The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model

    Value of the Toulmin model for Reading and Writing Argument

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments


       Military Advertisement

        Practice finding the claim, support, and warrants in an advertisement for joining the military.

    Cartoon: The Price of Oranges

        Use the Toulmin model to analyze a cartoon

    Editorial: Brother, Can You Spare a Word?

        This author argues that words and their connotations are important.

    Use the Toulmin model to write an analysis

        Mohamed T. Diaby Jr., "Toulmin Analysis of the Price of Oranges Cartoon"

            This represents a student example of a Toulmin analysis of a cartoon

        Richard D. Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars, "American Value System"

            The authors argue that individuals have value systems that can be categorized and, thus, help with an understanding of value warrants.


6  The Types of Claims: Establishing Purpose and Organization

    Five Types of Claims

    Mixed Claims

    Claims and Argument in Real Life Situations

    Value of the Claims and the Claim Questions for Reading and Writing Argument

    Some Other Preliminary Questions to Help You Develop Your Claim

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 6: Claim Development


        Peg Tyre, "Bringing Up Adolescents"

            This author asks, When should adult children start paying their own way?


7 The Types of Proof: Supporting the Claim

    The Traditional Categories of Proof

    Types of Logical Proofs: Logos

    Proofs that Build Credibility: Ethos

    Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos

    Value of the Proofs for Reading and Writing Argument

    Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style

    How to Recognize Fallacies

    Ethics and Morality in Argument

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 7: Proof and Language Development


        Anna Quindlen, "Undocumented, Indispensable"

            This essay addresses the state of illegal immigration and undocumented workers in the United States

        Rush Limbaugh, "Sexual Harassment and the Feminist 'Front'"

            This author gives his views on feminism and sexual harassment


8  Writing the Argument Analysis Paper: Review and Synthesis

    Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper

    Writing the Argument Analysis Paper

    Rhetorical Situation for "A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen" and Martin Luther King Jr's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

    Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters


        A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen

            This letter, written by eight white clergymen in Alabama, prompted Martin Luther King Jr's famouse response

        Martin Luther King Jr, "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

            This is the letter King wrote in jail, justifying his participation in the civil rights movement. It is a classical argument.

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments


PART III: Writing and Presenting Arguments


9  Analyzing and Creating Visual Argument

    Recognizing Visual Argument

     Why Visual Argument is Convincing: Eight Special Features

     Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual Argument

     Bias in Visual Argument

     Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument

     Add Visual Argument to Support Written Argument

     Create Visual Arguments that Stand Alone

     Class Activities and Writing Assignments

         Worksheet 8: Visual Argument Development


        Cartoon: Get Out!

            A visual argument for analysis

        Karen Hernandez, "Never Again"

            A student explains and analyzes her visual argument.


Color Portfolio of Visual Arguments and Questions for Dicussion and Writing

    Plate 1: Mexican Immigrants Crossing into the United States

    Plate 2: Exploring an Issue Through Images: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View, 4 Images

    Plate 3: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View, cont'd; 2 images

    Plate 4: The Creation of Adam; Play Ball

    Plate 5: Robot with Grappler Holding a Wounded Palestinian; Hands

    Plate 6: American Soldiers; 2 images

    Plate 7: People and Guns; 2 images

    Plate 8: Two Student Examples of Visual Argument: Colalge and Installation


10  Writing the Rogerian Argument Paper

    Achiviecing Common Ground in Rogerian Argument

    Rogerian Argument as Strategy

    Writing Rogerian Argument

    Variations of Rogerian Argument

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rogerian Argument

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments


        Edward O. Wilson, "The Future of LIfe"

            The author describes how to find common ground between two groups who usually disagree

        Eric Hartman, "Let Those Who Ride Decide!"

            This student Rogerian argument explains the tensions between those who advocate wearing motorcycle helmets and those who resist such a ruling

        Elizabeth Nabhan, "Dear Boss"

            A student Rogerian argument written in letter form to her boss to try to improve her job-related duties and responsibilities


11  Writing the Researched Position Paper

    Classical Organization of Arguments

    Classical and Modern Organization

    Use Organizational Patterns to Help You Think and Organize

    Incorporate Ideas from your Exploratory Paper   

    How to Match Patterns and Cross-Reference Your Notes

    Incorporating Research into Your First Draft

    Make Revisions and Prepare the Final Copy

    Review Questions

    Class Activities and Writing Assignments

        Worksheet 9: Invention


Appendix 1:  How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles  

How to Document Sources Using MLA Style   

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text   

MLA: How to Cite Sources in the Works Cited Page 

Student Researched Position Paper in MLA Style 

    Prisna Virasin, "The Big Barbie Controversy"

        A researched position paper in MLA style that claims Barbie is neither good nor bad, only a scapegoat.

How to Document Sources Using APA Style   

APA: How to Cite Sources in the Body of the Text   

APA: How to Cite Sources in the References Page  

Student Researched Position Paper in APA Style   

    Darrell D. Greer, "Alaskan Wolf Management"


Appendix 2:  Summary Charts  

Trace: The Rhetorical Situation  

The Toulmin Model  

Types of Claims  

Types of Proof and Tests of Validity 


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