Essentials of Psychology

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-12-18
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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In a concise and accessible 14-chapter format,Essentials of Psychology,4/e, retains key features of Bernstein's,Psychology,7/e, includingThinking Critically, Focus on Research,andLinkages.Combining extensive pedagogical support and emphasis on active learning, the text challenges students to "learn by doing"--to actively participate using materials from the text and to think about what they're learning as opposed to passively receiving written information. The Fourth Edition includes the latest information on research in the field. The text's integrated pedagogical system helps students master the material by supporting the elements of the PQ4R (Preview, Question, Read, Recite, Review, and Reflect) Study System. Chapter Outlines,along withPreview Questions(found at the beginning of each chapter and section and in the chapter summary), include page references to the relevant section of the chapter. Marginal Glossary,with definitions of terms and a pronunciation key, enable students to access new words without interrupting their reading. Instructional captions for all figures, tables, and photos prompt students to engage in various active learning activities. In Reviewstudy charts appear periodically throughout the chapter accompanied by self-test questions to encourage students to recite and review material. Active Reviewis a built-in study guide at the end of each chapter that includes aLinkagesdiagram with questions that illustrate three of the ways in which material in each chapter is connected to other chapters in the book; aChapter Summary,organized around major topic headings and the related preview questions from the beginning of the chapter;Learn by Doingsection that promotes active learning and reflection throughPut It in Writingexercises andPersonal Learning Projects; Step into Actionsections that recommend courses, books, and movies for further exploration of chapter topics and links to the Online Study Center;Review of Key Terms;and aMultiple-Choice Self-Test,designed to help students assess their understanding of the chapter's key points. (Answers are provided in the back of the book with explanations and page references to discussion of material in the text.) Thinking Criticallysections apply a five-question approach to one topic per chapter: "What am I being asked to believe or accept?" "Is there evidence available to support the claim?" "Can that evidence be interpreted another way?" "What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives?" "What conclusions are most reasonable?" Focus on Researchsections, organized around five questions to help readers think about research questions and results, make the method of scientific research more accessible to students and highlight the discipline's scientific basis: "What was the researcher's question?" "How did the researcher answer the question?" "What did the researcher find?" "What do the results mean?" "What do we still need to know?" TheLinkagesfeatures help students understand the relationships and interdependency among different subfields of psychology and the scope of the discipline. This hallmark program consists of three features:Linkages Diagram,which presents a set of questions that illustrate three ways in which material in the chapter is related to other chapters in the book;Linkages Cross-references,which appear as marginal icons whenever a Linkage is covered in the text; and oneLinkages Sectionwithin each chapter, which discusses a chapter topic that relates to other subfields of psychology. New!Neuropsychologychapter, written by Joel Shenker and available through Houghton Mi

Table of Contents

Note: Each chapter concludes with an Active Review
Introduction to the Science of Psychology
The World of Psychology: An Overview
Approaches to the Science of Psychology
Human Diversity and Psychology
Thinking Critically About Psychology (or Anything Else)
Research Methods in Psychology
Focus on Research: Studying EMDR
Linkages: Psychological Research and Behavioral
Genetics Statistical Analysis of Research Results
Ethical Guidelines for Psychologists
Biology and Behavior Cells of the Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System: Keeping in Touch with the World
The Central Nervous System: Making Sense of the World
Thinking Critically: What Can fMRI Tell Us about Behavior and Mental Processes?
Focus on Research: The Case of the Disembodied Woman
Linkages: Human Development and the Changing Brain
The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters
The Endocrine System: Coordinating the Internal World
Sensation and Perception
Sensing and Perceiving the World Sensory Systems
Seeing Hearing The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
Sensing Your Body Thinking Critically: Does Acupuncture Relieve Pain?
Perception Organizing the Perceptual World
Recognizing the Perceptual World
Linkages: Perception and Human Development Attention
Focus on Research: Attention and the Brain
The Scope of Consciousness Thinking Critically: Can Subliminal Messages Change Your Behavior?
Focus on Research: Subliminal Messages in Rock Music
Sleeping and Dreaming Hypnosis
Linkages: Meditation, Health, and Stress Psychoactive Drugs
Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Signals and Associations
Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: Learning the Consequences of Behavior
Linkages: Networks of Learning Cognitive Processes in Learning
Focus on Research: The "I Can't Do It" Attitude Thinking Critically: Does Watching Violence on Television Make People More Violent?
Using Research on Learning to Help People Learn
The Nature of Memory Storing New Memories
Retrieving Memories
Constructing Memories
Focus on Research: I Could Swear I Heard It!
Linkages: Memory and Perception in the Courtroom Forgetting Thinking Critically: Can Traumatic Memories Be Repressed, Then Recovered?
Biological Bases of Memory Improving Your Memory
Thought, Language, and Intelligence
Basic Functions of Thought
Mental Representations: The Ingredients of Thought
Thinking Strategies Problem Solving
Focus on Research: Problem-Solving Strategies in the Real World
Decision Making
Linkages: Group Processes in Problem Solving and Decision Making
Language Testing Intelligence
Evaluating Intelligence Tests
Thinking Critically: Are Intelligence Tests Unfairly Biased Against Certain Groups?
Diversity in Intelligence
Motivation and Emotion
Concepts and Theories of Motivation
Eating Sexual Behavior
Focus on Research: Tell Me About Your Sex Life
Thinking Critically: What Shapes Sexual Orientation?
Achievement Motivation Relations and Conflicts Among
Motives Linkages: Conflicting Motives and Stress
The Nature of Emotion
Theories of Emotion
Communicating Emotion
Human Development
Exploring Human Development Beginnings
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Focus on Research: What Do Infants Know About Physics?
Linkages: Development and Memory
Infancy and Childhood: Social and Emotional Development
Thinking Critically: Does Day Care Harm the Emotional Development of Infants?
Adolescence Adu
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