9780534626761

Essentials of Sociology (with InfoTrac)

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780534626761

  • ISBN10:

    0534626769

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-07-19
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

1. The Study of Society. 2. Culture. 3. Socialization. 4. Social Structure and Social Interaction. 5. Groups, Networks, and Organizations. 6. Deviance, Crime and Social Control. 7. Stratification. 8. Global Inequality and Globalization. 9. Racial and Ethnic Inequality. 10. Sex, Gender, and Sexuality. 11. Age Inequality and Health. 12. Family. 13. Education and Religion. 14. Politics and the Economy. 15. Population and Urban Life. 16. Social Movements, Technology, and Social Change. Glossary. References. Author Index. Subject Index. Photo Credits.

Table of Contents

The Study of Society
1(32)
What Is Sociology?
2(2)
The Sociological Imagination
2(2)
Sociology as a Social Science
4(1)
The Emergence of Sociology
4(7)
The Founders: Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, and Weber
5(4)
Sociology in the United States
9(2)
Current Perspectives in Sociology
11(1)
Structural-Functional Theory
11(1)
Concept Summary: Major Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology
12(6)
Conflict Theory
14(1)
Symbolic Interaction Theory
15(1)
Interchangeable Lenses
16(2)
The Science of Society
18(4)
Defining Science
18(1)
The Research Process
18(4)
Strategies for Gathering Data
22(2)
The Experiment
22(1)
The Survey
23(1)
A Global Perspective: Survey Research in Nigeria
24(2)
Participant Observation
25(1)
Concept Summary: Research Methods
26(2)
Alternative Strategies
28(1)
Sociologists: What Do They Do?
28(2)
Working in Colleges and Universities
28(1)
Working in Government
28(1)
Working in Business
29(1)
Working in Nonprofit Organizations
29(1)
Working to Serve the Public
29(1)
Where This Leaves Us
30(1)
Summary
30(1)
Thinking Critically
31(1)
Sociology on the Net
31(1)
Suggested Readings
32(1)
Culture
33(21)
Introduction to Culture
34(1)
Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
34(1)
Bases of Human Behavior: Culture and Biology
35(3)
Cultural Perspective
35(2)
Biological Perspective
37(1)
The Carriers of Culture
38(4)
Language
38(2)
Values
40(1)
Norms
40(2)
American Diversity: How Feminists Research Culture
42(1)
Social Control
42(1)
Concept Summary: Values, Norms, and Laws
43(1)
Cultural Diversity and Change
43(2)
Subcultures and Countercultures
43(2)
Acculturation or Multiculturalism?
45(1)
Sources of Cultural Diversity and Change
45(3)
Environment
46(1)
Isolation
46(1)
Cultural Diffusion
46(1)
Technology
46(1)
Dominant Cultural Themes
46(1)
A Case Study: American Consumer Culture
47(1)
Consequences of Cultural Diversity and Change
48(1)
Culture Shock
48(1)
Cultural Lag
48(1)
Uses of Culture
49(1)
Symbolic Boundaries
49(1)
Collective Memory
49(1)
Technology: Models, Magazines, and Self-Esteem
50(1)
Mass Media and Audiences
51(1)
Where This Leaves Us
51(1)
Summary
52(1)
Thinking Critically
52(1)
Sociology on the Net
53(1)
Suggested Readings
53(1)
Socialization
54(20)
What Is Socialization?
55(1)
The Self and Self-Concept
55(1)
Learning to Be Human
55(2)
The Necessity of Nurture
56(1)
Monkeying with Isolation and Deprivation
56(1)
Theories of Socialization
57(1)
Freudian Theory
57(1)
American Diversity: Gender Differences in Mathematics
58(2)
Piaget and Cognitive Development
58(2)
Symbolic Interaction Theory
60(1)
Concept Summary: The Two Schools of Symbolic Interaction
60(3)
Socialization Through the Life Course
63(2)
Childhood
63(1)
Adolescence
63(1)
Adulthood
64(1)
Age 65 and Beyond
64(1)
Resocialization
65(2)
Total Institutions
65(1)
A Case Study: Prison Boot Camps and Resocialization
66(1)
Agents of Socialization
67(4)
Family
68(1)
Schools
68(1)
Peers
69(1)
Mass Media
70(1)
Religion
70(1)
Workplace
70(1)
Where This Leaves Us
71(1)
Summary
71(1)
Thinking Critically
72(1)
Sociology on the Net
72(1)
Suggested Readings
73(1)
Social Structure and Social Interaction
74(25)
Intertwining Forces: Social Structure and Social Interaction
75(1)
Social Structures
75(4)
Status
75(2)
Roles
77(1)
Institutions
77(2)
Types of Societies
79(2)
Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering Societies
80(1)
Horticultural Societies
80(1)
Agricultural Societies
81(1)
Industrial Societies
81(1)
A Case Study: When Institutions Die
81(4)
A Broken Society
82(1)
Ojibwa Society Before 1963
83(1)
The Change
83(1)
The Future of the Ojibwa
84(1)
A Sociological Response
84(1)
Social Interaction and Everyday Life
85(5)
Assumptions about Everyday Life
86(1)
Managing Everyday Life
87(1)
Dramaturgy
88(1)
Whose Definition? The Ex-Wife at the Funeral
89(1)
Identity Work
90(2)
Avoiding Blame
90(2)
A Global Perspective: Identity Work Among Australian Aborigines
92(2)
Gaining Credit
92(1)
A Case Study: Identity Work Among the Homeless
93(1)
Where This Leaves Us
94(1)
Summary
95(1)
Thinking Critically
95(1)
Sociology on the Net
96(1)
Suggested Readings
96(1)
Intersections: Culture, Social Structure, and Everyday Life
97(2)
Groups, Networks, and Organizations
99(24)
Human Relationships
100(1)
Social Processes
100(2)
Exchange
100(1)
Cooperation
101(1)
Competition
101(1)
Conflict
102(1)
Social Processes in Everyday Life
102(1)
Groups
102(6)
How Groups Affect Individuals
103(1)
Interaction in Small Groups
104(2)
Decision Making in Small Groups
106(1)
Types of Groups
107(1)
Concept Summary: Differences Between Primary and Secondary Groups
108(2)
Social Networks
110(2)
Strong and Weak Ties
110(2)
A Global Perspective: Finding Jobs, Changing Jobs in Singapore and China
112(4)
Voluntary Associations
112(3)
Community
115(1)
Complex Organizations
116(4)
Classic Bureaucracies
116(3)
Japanese Bureaucracies
119(1)
Where This Leaves Us
120(1)
Summary
121(1)
Thinking Critically
121(1)
Sociology on the Net
122(1)
Suggested Readings
122(1)
Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
123(28)
Conformity and Deviance
124(1)
Understanding Conformity
124(1)
Defining Deviance
125(1)
Sociological Theories About Deviance
125(1)
Structural-Functional Theories
125(1)
Concept Summary: Theories of Deviance
126(1)
Concept Summary: Merton's Types of Deviance
127(5)
Conflict Theory
128(1)
Symbolic Interaction Theories
129(3)
Crime
132(2)
Major Crimes Involving Violence or Property
132(1)
Victimless Crimes
133(1)
The Environment: Crimes Against the Environment
134(6)
White-Collar Crimes
135(1)
Correlates of Crime: Age, Sex, Class, and Race
136(4)
Mental Illness
140(1)
Defining Mental Illness: Labeling and the Medical Model
140(1)
Correlates of Mental Illness
140(1)
The Sociology of Law
141(2)
Theories of Law
142(1)
What Is Justice?
142(1)
Why Punish?
143(1)
The Criminal Justice System
143(1)
The Police
143(1)
Technology: Does It Take A Rocket Scientist to Do Police Work?
144(3)
The Courts
144(1)
Prisons
145(2)
American Diversity: Is Capital Punishment Racist?
147(1)
Where This Leaves Us
148(1)
Summary
148(1)
Thinking Critically
149(1)
Sociology on the Net
149(1)
Suggested Readings
150(1)
Stratification
151(30)
Structures of Inequality
152(3)
Types of Stratification Structures
152(1)
Classes---How Many?
153(2)
Inequality in the United States
155(5)
Measuring Social Class
155(1)
Economic Inequality
156(2)
The Consequences of Social Class
158(2)
Explanations of Inequality
160(3)
Structural-Functional Theory
160(1)
The Conflict Perspective
161(2)
Concept Summary: A Comparison of Two Models of Stratification
163(1)
Symbolic Interaction Theory
163(1)
The Determinants of Social-Class Position
164(3)
Microstructure: Status Attainment
164(1)
Macrostructure: The Labor Market
165(2)
The American Dream: Ideology and Reality
167(1)
Social Class and Social Life
167(8)
The Upper Class
168(1)
The Middle Class
169(1)
The Working Class
170(1)
The Poor
170(5)
Social Class and Public Policy: Fighting Poverty
175(1)
American Diversity: Subsidies, Incentives, and Welfare: Who Benefits?
176(2)
Income Redistribution
176(1)
Outlawing Discrimination
177(1)
Increasing Educational Opportunities
177(1)
Where This Leaves Us
178(1)
Summary
178(1)
Thinking Critically
179(1)
Sociology on the Net
179(1)
Suggested Readings
179(2)
Global Inequality and Globalization
181(27)
Inequality and Development
182(3)
Three Worlds: Most- to Least-Developed Countries
182(3)
A Global Perspective: Women and Development
185(3)
Structural-Functional Analysis: Modernization Theory
186(1)
Conflict Analysis: World-Systems Theory
187(1)
Economic Development and the Environment
188(2)
The Threat to the Environment
188(1)
The Need for Sustainable Development
189(1)
Technology: Information Technology and the Global Culture
190(2)
A Case Study: Economic Development and the Environment in Eastern Europe
191(1)
Forms and Consequences of Economic Dependence
192(2)
The Forms of Economic Dependence
192(1)
The Consequences of Economic Dependence
193(1)
Competition, Change, and International Relationships
194(5)
Challenges to the Status Quo
194(1)
The Developed World's Response
195(1)
Haiti: A Case Study
196(3)
Globalization
199(4)
The Sources of Globalization
199(1)
Cultural Impact
199(1)
Economic Impact
200(1)
Political Impact
201(1)
World Opinion
201(1)
A Case Study: Globalization, Global Inequality, and 9/11
201(2)
Where This Leaves Us
203(1)
Summary
203(1)
Thinking Critically
204(1)
Sociology on the Net
204(1)
Suggested Readings
205(1)
Intersections: Are Economic Development and Traditional Cultural Values Incompatible?
206(2)
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
208(24)
Race and Ethnicity
209(1)
A Framework for Studying Racial and Ethnic Inequality
209(3)
The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity
209(1)
The Semi-Caste Model
210(1)
Majority and Minority Groups
211(1)
The Maintenance of Inequality: Basic Processes
212(4)
Prejudice
212(2)
Discrimination
214(1)
Segregation
215(1)
Race and Ethnic Inequalities in the United States
216(8)
White Ethnic Groups
216(1)
African Americans
217(2)
Hispanic Americans
219(2)
Asian Americans
221(1)
Native Americans
222(1)
Arab Americans
223(1)
The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the United States
224(1)
The Persistence of Inequality
224(1)
The Environment: Environmental Racism
225(1)
Combating Inequality: Race versus Class
226(1)
Ethnic Relations in Comparative Perspectives
226(2)
A Case Study: Bosnia
227(1)
Where This Leaves Us
228(1)
Summary
229(1)
Thinking Critically
230(1)
Sociology on the Net
230(1)
Suggested Readings
231(1)
Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
232(24)
Sexual Differentiation
233(2)
Sex versus Gender
233(1)
Gender Roles Across Cultures
233(2)
Perspectives on Gender Inequality
235(1)
Structural-Functional Theory: Division of Labor
235(1)
Conflict Theory: Segmented Labor Markets and Sexism
235(1)
The Environment: Ecofeminism
236(3)
Symbolic Interactionism: Gender Inequality in Everyday Life
238(1)
Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure
239(2)
Developing Gendered Identities
239(1)
Reinforcing Biological Differences
239(1)
``Doing Gender''
240(1)
Gender as Social Structure
240(1)
Differences in Life Chances by Sex
241(5)
Health
241(1)
Education
241(2)
Work and Income
243(3)
Technology: How Is Technology an Equity Issue?
246(1)
Gender and Power
247(3)
Unequal Power in Social Institutions
248(1)
Unequal Power in Interaction
248(1)
A Case Study: Sexual Harassment
248(1)
Fighting Back: The Feminist Movement
249(1)
The Sociology of Sexuality
250(3)
Premarital Sexuality
250(1)
Marital Sexuality
251(1)
Sexual Minorities
251(2)
Where This Leaves Us
253(1)
Summary
253(1)
Thinking Critically
254(1)
Sociology on the Net
254(1)
Suggested Readings
255(1)
Age and Health Inequalities
256(28)
The Structures of Aging and Health Care
257(1)
Age Differentiation and Inequality
257(2)
The Status of Young People
257(2)
American Diversity: The ``Graying'' and ``Browning'' of America
259(5)
The Status of People 65 and over
259(3)
Youth versus Age: The Battle over the Public Purse
262(2)
Explanations for Age Stratification
264(1)
Structural-Functional Perspective
264(1)
Concept Summary: A Comparison of Three Explanations of Age Stratification
264(3)
Conflict Perspective
265(1)
Modernization Theory of Aging
265(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Theory
266(1)
Evaluating the Theories
266(1)
Health and Health Care
267(4)
Social Epidemiology
268(1)
A Case Study: Declining Life Expectancy in Eastern Europe
269(2)
The U.S. Health-Care System
271(7)
Physicians
271(2)
Nurses
273(1)
The High Cost of Medical Care: Who Pays?
274(4)
Technology: Technology and the Meaning of Life
278(1)
Where This Leaves Us
279(1)
Summary
280(1)
Thinking Critically
280(1)
Sociology on the Net
281(1)
Suggested Readings
281(1)
Intersections: Cross-Cutting Statuses: Race, Sex, and Age
282(2)
Family
284(26)
Marriage and Family: Basic Institutions of Society
285(2)
Universal Aspects
285(1)
Cross-Cultural Variations
286(1)
The U. S. Family over the Life Course
287(7)
Childhood
288(1)
Adolescence
289(1)
The Transition to Adulthood
289(1)
Early Adulthood: Dating and Mate Selection
290(2)
Middle Age
292(1)
Age 65 and Beyond
293(1)
Roles and Relationships in Marriage
294(2)
Gender Roles in Marriage
294(1)
The Parental Role: A Leap of Faith
294(1)
Marital Happiness
295(1)
Technology: Kinkeeping, Gender Roles, and The Internet
296(1)
Contemporary Family Choices
296(3)
Marriage or Cohabitation
297(1)
Having Children. . . or Not
297(2)
American Diversity: Is the Gay Family a Contradiction in Terms?
299(2)
Work versus Family
300(1)
Problems in the American Family
301(6)
Violence
301(1)
Divorce
302(3)
How Serious Are These Problems?
305(2)
Where This Leaves Us
307(1)
Summary
307(1)
Thinking Critically
308(1)
Sociology on the Net
308(1)
Suggested Readings
309(1)
Education and Religion
310(31)
Educational and Religious Institutions
311(1)
The Sociological Study of Education: Theoretical Views
311(3)
Structural-Functional Theory: Functions of Education
311(1)
Conflict Theory: Education and the Perpetuation of Inequality
312(2)
Education, Symbolic Interactionism, and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
314(2)
Interactions with Teachers
314(1)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
315(1)
Current Controversies in American Education
316(2)
Tracking
316(1)
High-Stakes Testing
317(1)
American Diversity: What Do IQ Tests Measure?
318(3)
School Choice
318(3)
College: Who Goes and What Does It Do for Them?
321(2)
Who Goes?
321(1)
The Bottom Line---What Will College Do for Me?
322(1)
The Sociological Study of Religion: Theoretical Views
323(4)
What Is Religion?
323(1)
Why Religion?
324(1)
Durkheim: Structural-Functional Theory of Religion
325(1)
Conflict Theory: Marx and Beyond
326(1)
Weber: Religion as an Independent Force
326(1)
Tension between Religion and Society
327(2)
Concept Summary: Distinctions Between Churches and Sects
329(4)
Churchlike Religions
329(1)
Sectlike Religions
330(1)
A Case Study: Islam
331(2)
Religion in the United States
333(5)
U.S. Civil Religion
333(2)
Trends and Differentials in Religiosity
335(1)
Consequences of Religiosity
336(1)
The Religious Right
337(1)
Technology: The Electronic Church
338(1)
Where This Leaves Us
338(1)
Summary
339(1)
Thinking Critically
339(1)
Sociology on the Net
340(1)
Suggested Readings
340(1)
Politics and the Economy
341(33)
Political and Economic Institutions
342(1)
Power and Political Institutions
342(2)
Coercion
342(1)
Authority
342(2)
Concept Summary: Power
344(1)
Political Institutions
344(1)
Power and the State
344(3)
Jurisdiction
344(1)
State Coercion
345(1)
Authoritarian Systems
345(1)
Democracies
346(1)
Who Governs? Models of U.S. Democracy
347(1)
Structural-Functional Theory: The Pluralist Model
347(1)
Concept Summary: Comparison of Three Models of American Political Power
347(2)
Conflict Theory: The Power-Elite Model
348(1)
A Third Perspective: The State Autonomy Model
349(1)
Individual Participation in U.S. Government
349(4)
Who Votes?
349(2)
Which Party?
351(1)
Why So Few Voters?
352(1)
A Case Study: Felon Disenfranchisement
352(1)
Modern Economic Systems
353(1)
Capitalism
353(1)
A Global Perspective: Democratic Socialism in Sweden
354(2)
Socialism
354(1)
The Political Economy
355(1)
Mixed Economies
356(1)
The U.S. Economic System
356(5)
The Postindustrial Economy
356(1)
The Dual Economy
357(3)
The Segmented Labor Market
360(1)
Work in the United States
361(6)
Occupations
361(3)
The Meaning of Work
364(1)
Technology and the Future of Work
365(1)
Globalization and the Future of Work
366(1)
Technology: The Luddites: Down With Machines
367(1)
Where This Leaves Us
368(1)
Summary
369(1)
Thinking Critically
370(1)
Sociology on the Net
370(1)
Suggested Readings
371(1)
Intersections: Politics, Religion, and the Culture War
372(2)
Population and Urban Life
374(32)
Populations, Large and Small
375(1)
Understanding Population Growth
375(3)
Population in Former Times
376(1)
The Demographic Transition in the West
377(1)
The Demographic Transition in the Non-West
378(1)
Population and Social Structure: Two Examples
378(4)
Ghana: Is Fertility Too High?
378(1)
Europe: Is Fertility Too Low?
379(3)
Population and Social Problems: Two Examples
382(2)
Environmental Devastation: A Population Problem?
382(1)
Poverty in the Least-Developed World
383(1)
A Global Perspective: International Migration
384(2)
Population in the United States
386(3)
Fertility
386(1)
Mortality
386(1)
Migration
386(3)
Urbanization
389(5)
Theories of Urban Growth and Decline
390(1)
The Nature of Modern Cities
391(1)
Urbanization in the United States
392(1)
Urbanization in the Less-Developed World
393(1)
Place of Residence and Social Relationships
394(5)
Urban Living
394(2)
Suburban Living
396(2)
Small-Town and Rural Living
398(1)
Where This Leaves Us
399(1)
Summary
400(1)
Thinking Critically
401(1)
Sociology on the Net
401(1)
Suggested Readings
402(1)
Intersections: Fertility, Mortality, and Social Structure
403(3)
Social Movements, Technology, and Social Change
406(27)
How Societies Change
407(1)
Social Movements
407(3)
Theories of Social Movements
409(1)
Concept Summary: Theories of Social Movements
410(6)
How Do Social Movements Operate?
411(3)
Factors Associated with Movement Success
414(1)
The Role of the Mass Media
415(1)
The Environment: Lynx, Minks, and Suburbia: How the Environmental Movement Works
416(5)
Countermovements
417(2)
A Case Study: The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
419(2)
Technology
421(4)
Two Theories of Technologically Induced Social Change
421(1)
The Costs and Benefits of New Technologies
422(3)
Technology: Biotechnology's Power, Promise, and Peril
425(4)
Where This Leaves Us
429(1)
Summary
430(1)
Thinking Critically
431(1)
Sociology on the Net
431(1)
Suggested Readings
432(1)
Glossary 433(7)
References 440(23)
Photo Credits 463(1)
Author Index 464(16)
Subject Index 480

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