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Offering a twenty-first century perspective on twentieth-century Europe, pre-eminent scholar Bonnie Smith's engaging new synthesis is the first text to provide both a thorough integration of social and cultural material with political history and substantive treatment of Europe's broader global context. Each of the twelve chapters combines compelling narrative with a wonderfully rich set of primary texts and picture essays, reinforcing for students the importance of primary sources to the study of history. Neither overtly triumphalist nor disparaging, this even-handed and thoughtful account takes the full measure of Europe's negative and positive legacies at home and its impact on and interactions with the world at large.
BONNIE G. SMITH is the Board of Governors Professor of History at Rutgers University. She is the author of Confessions of a Concierge: Madame Lucie's History of Twentieth-Century France (1985); Changing Lives: Women in European History Since 1700 (1989); The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice (1998); Imperialism (2000); and The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. She is the editor of Global Feminisms since 1945 (2000) and coeditor of Objects of Modernity: Selected Writings of Lucy Maynard Salmon, Gendering Disability (2004) and the forthcoming Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Smith has received fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Humanities Center, and the American Council of Learned Societies. Currently she is studying the globalization of European culture since the seventeenth century.
Table of Contents
Preface for Instructors Introduction for Students
1. IMPERIAL EUROPE AT THE DAWN OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Europe's Peoples and Nations in the Global Order Prosperity for States and Society Great Britain: Greatest of the European Powers France: Britain's Rival and Germany's Enemy Germany: Europe's Rising Star Austria-Hungary: The Clash of Ethnicities Russia: The Imperial Colossus The Ottoman Empire: Sick Man of Europe? Society in the Age of Empire Social and Cultural Influence of Empire Daily Life and Leisure Time Europe in an Age of Migration Changing Families and Family Economies Regional Migration and Urbanization Global Migration Nationalism and the Evolving Nation State The Growth of Nationalist Feeling The Nation-State Versus the Ethnic Nationalism of Minorities The Growth of Militant Nationalism Empires in Jeopardy Conflict and Conquest in Africa The Russian and Ottoman Empires in Crisis Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Migrant Life in 1900 1.1 Marie-Catherine Gardez Santerre, Oral history, early 1970s Imperial Dreams, Imperial Realities 1.2 Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden," 1899 1.3 Lothar von Trotha, writings from October, 1904. Proclamation and @a=Accompanying Letters to Troops and to General Staff Japan's Challenge to the West 1.4 Count Shigenobu Okuma, "The Rise of Japan Was Not Unexpected," 1904
PICTURE ESSAY: Europe's Global Aura in an Age of Nationalism Aristocrats on the Grand Tour in Egypt; Boy in a sailor suit; White Tea Party in India with Native Retinue; Advertisement for Pears' Soap; European dress influenced by Asian fashions; Immigrants at Ellis Island.
2. MODERNITY AND THE UNSETTLING OF EUROPE, 1900–1914 The Many Faces of Modernity Modern Technology Life in the Modern City Gender Roles and Sexual Life Modernity and the Rise of Mass Politics Working-Class Politics Feminists on the March The Arts and Philosophy Embrace Modernity Innovation in the Arts Modernism in Thought The Road to War Military Buildup amid Shifting Alliances Internal Problems of the Great Powers Balkan and Great Power Instability Conclusion
DOCUMENTS The Automobile 2.1 Anthony Rhodes, Louis Renault. A Biography, 1969 2.2 "Motorwagen," article, 1909 2.3 "Camping" newspaper article in Allgemeine Automobil-Zeitung, 1914 The Struggle for Women's Suffrage 2.4 Emmeline Pankhurst, My Story, 1914 Elites and the Spiritual Future of Europe 2.5 F. W. Marinetti, "Manifesto of Futurism" 1909 2.6 Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911
PICTURE ESSAY: Cross-Cultural Borrowing in Modern Art Picasso, Desmoiselles d'Avignon; "Head" by Amedeo Modigliani; Constantin Brancusi, Sculpture; Gustav Klimt, Embrace of Isis and Osiris; Paula Modersohn-Becker, Portrait; "Primitive" from Sacre du Printemps.
3. WORLD WAR I AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1914–1922 World War I Begins The Opening Battles War Aims and the Struggle for Victory, 1915–1916 The Soldier's War The Home Front Politics End Propaganda and Censorship War Transforms Society From War Fever to Revolution Containing Revolt during Wartime The Russian Revolution Civil War Begins in Russia The Great War Ends The Struggle to End the War Making Peace in the Midst of Revolution Conclusion
DOCUMENTS War and the Individual 3.1 Johannes Haas, Letter, 1915 3.2 Khan Mahomed Khan, Letter, October 11, 1917 3.3 Maria Luisa Perduca, A Hospital Year, 1917 Lenin's April Theses: A Program for Immediate Action 3.4 V.I. Lenin, "April Theses," 1917 The Mandate System 3.5 Articles 22 and 23 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 1920
PICTURE ESSAY: The Home Front Women coke workers; Poster of Teutonic Knight; The Gentle German (poster); Red Cross or Iron Cross?; A Republican barricade in Dublin; Greek refugees from Turkey.
4. A WORLD TRANSFORMED, 1920–1929 The Search for Stability An Unsettled Peace The Weimar Experiment New Nations in Eastern and Southeastern Europe Political and Economic Recovery in Great Britain and France Society Recovers Remembering the Great War From Wartime to Peacetime Productivity Social Change in the Postwar Years Leisure and Consumerism Resurgence of Empire in an Age of Unrest A Growing Imperial Appetite Postwar Imperial Policies and Colonial Upheaval Mass Resistance Grows An Age of Extremes Utopias and Dystopias Utopian Dreams in the Soviet Union Fascist Triumph in Italy Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Hitler and Fascism 4.1 Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf 1925–1926 Gandhi's Attack on European Civilization 4.2 Mohandas Gandhi, "The Inwardness of Non-Co-operation" 1920 4.3 Mohandas Gandhi, "Answers to Drew Pearson's Questions" 1924 Love and Sexuality in Postwar Society: The Communist Case 4.4 Aleksandra Kollontai, "Make Way for Winged Eros," 1923
PICTURE ESSAY: Building the Future Underground fixture; Moscow Metro; Vienna worker housing; German worker housing; Bungalow; Stockholm Public Library.
5. FACING GLOBAL ECONOMIC DEPRESSION, 1929–1939 Crash and Depression The Depression Comes to Europe Pressures on Society The Impact Abroad The Triumph of Dictatorship Hitler's Rise to Power Nazi Doctrine The Nazi Regime in Action Persecution of Jews and the Flight from Terror The USSR under Stalin: Collectivization, Modernization, Urbanization, and Culturalization The Democracies Search for Solutions Britain and France Defend Democracy Sweden Builds a Welfare State Cultural Leaders Take Action The Road to Global War Surging Global Imperialism: Japan, Italy, and Germany The Spanish Civil War Hitler Conquers Central Europe Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Sweden's Battle for Population 5.1 Alva Myrdal, Nation and Family: The Swedish Experiment in @h=Democratic Family and Population Policy, 1941. The Secret Poetry of Stalinism 5.2 Anna Akhmatova, "Requiem," 1930s–1960s Japan on the Move 5.3 Draft of Basic Plan for Establishment of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, 1942
PICTURE ESSAY: The Machine, the Military, and the Masses The Tiller Girls; Women's League of Health and Beauty; Exercising British Women; Nazi Pomp; Soviet Women Marchers; Boy Scouts in Vienna; Fascist Blackshirts in Italy.
6. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE COLLAPSE OF EUROPE, 1939–1945 Rapid Victories The German Onslaught The Expansion of War and Operation Barbarossa War Opens in the Pacific The Grand Alliance A War Against Civilians Occupation and Collaboration Holocaust Militarizing Nation and Empire Societies in Wartime Impact of the War Overseas Men in Combat Resistance The World War Ends and the Cold War Begins The Axis on the Defensive Surrender in Europe and the Defeat of Japan The Emergence of the Superpowers Toward the Cold War Conclusion
DOCUMENTS The War Against Civilians 6.1 London Diary (anonymous), 1941 6.2 V. S. Kostrovitskaia, Diary, January 1942, April 1943 Literature of the Holocaust 6.3 Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Weczler, "Auschwitz Observed," U.S. War Refugee Board, 1944 6.4 Nelly Sachs, "Already Embraced by the Arm of Heavenly Solace" World War II and Human Rights 6.5 United Nations, "Universal Declaration of Human Rights," 1948
PICTURE ESSAY: World War II Propaganda and Modern Racism Juden Komplot poster; Poster for the female wing of the Hitler Youth; German propaganda cartoon; Hitler as mouse cartoon; Anti-Japanese cartoon of Tojo; "Together," Allied propaganda poster; "Friend or Foe? How to know," diagram.
7. DEVASTATED EUROPE IN AN AGE OF COLD WAR, 1945–1963 Cold War and the New World Politics Europe in Ruins The Cold War Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan The Battle for Germany Bringing Order to Postwar Europe Restoring Government Postwar Society: Women and Refugees The Revival of Stalinism Restoring Cultural Values Contested Memories From Holocaust to Hope Existentialism and the Politics of Commitment The Deepening Cold War The Arms Race Cold War Culture Toward Nuclear Holocaust Conclusion
DOCUMENTS The Soviet Ambassador Appraises the U.S., 1946 7.1 Nikolai Novikov, Report to Foreign Minister Molotov, September 27, 1946 "What is Woman?... She Is The Other" 7.2 Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949 The Purges in Czechoslovakia 7.3 Official Account of the trial of Dr. Milada Horáková, 1950 7.4 Milda Horáková, Letter to her daughter before execution, 1950
PICTURE ESSAY: Cold War Media and the Struggle of Good versus Evil "Candy-Bomber"; "Escapee across the Berlin Wall"; Soviet Era Kitsch; Still from Goldfinger; Soviet anti-American Cartoon; American anti-Soviet Cartoon; Peace March and Peace Symbol.
8. THE REBIRTH OF PROSPERITY AND THE RISE OF THE WELFARE STATE IN THE 1950S AND EARLY 1960S The Welfare State Enacting Social Programs The Welfare State at Work Economic Revival East and West The Common Market Rebuilding the East European Economy The Rise of the Technocrats The Politics of Prosperity Revolt and Reform in the Soviet Sphere Cultural Thaw Leads to Further Revolt Conservative Politics in Western Europe in the 1950s The Rebirth of Consumerism Europe Goes Shopping The Perils and Possibilities of Americanization Cultural Consumption Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Childhood in the British Welfare State 8.1 Carolyn Kay Steedman, Landscape for a Good Woman, 1986 The Myth of Classlessness 8.2 Milovan Djilas, The New Class, 1957 Teen Culture in the Soviet Union 8.3 D. Belyaev, "Stilyaga," 1949
PICTURE ESSAY: European Consumerism in the 1950s and 1960s French refrigerator advertisement; Motorbike; Big TV console with built-in hi-fi; Coca-Cola ad; "Youth and beauty is marvelous" Dermilux ad; ad for luxury chocolate; models in plain Soviet fashions.
9. POST-IMPERIAL EUROPE, CA. 1947 TO 1980 Decolonization The Legacy of War Ending the Empire in Asia The Quest for Autonomy in North Africa and the Middle East Decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa Europe's Empire Comes Home Refugees and Guest Workers Civil Rights and Ethnic Politics A New Society Social Policy for Migrants Immigrant Communities Domestic Life and Gender Roles Culture After Colonization Decolonizing the Mind A New Burst of Cultural Mixture Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Nasser Faces Off with Imperial Europe 9.1 Gamal Abdul Nasser, Speech September 15, 1956 Racial Difference in Postwar Germany 9.2 Abena Adomako, Memoir A Powerful Voice of Decolonization 9.3 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 1961
PICTURE ESSAY: The Changing Face of Europe Exiled Moluccans; Woman in Brixton Market; Indian Man at Cinema; Turkish Émigré Showing Handmade Lace; Conservative Party election Poster; Muslims at Prayer in Marseilles, France; Kaiserslautern Soccer Stars.
10. POST-INDUSTRIAL EUROPE AND ITS CRITICS, 1965–1979 The Technology Revolution The Information Age: Television and Computers The Space Age Revolutions in Biology, Reproductive Technologies, and Sexual Behavior Postindustrial Economy and Society Multinational Corporations The New Worker: the Rise of the Service Sector Women in the Post-Industrial Economy The Boom in Research and Education The Redefined Family An Age of Protest and Reform Student Protest Feminism 1968: Year of Crisis in Western and Eastern Europe Attacking and Defending an Eroding Status Quo Oil Crisis and Stagflation Troubled U.S. Leadership Repression and Dissent in the Soviet Bloc Alternative Politics Environmentalism and the Green Party Political, Ethnic, and Religious Violence Conclusion
DOCUMENTS The Post-Industrial Worker and Family Life 10.1 A Day in the Life of a White-Collar Worker in Budapest, 1970s Gay Liberation 10.2 Gay Liberation Front: Manifesto, 1971, revised 1978 The "Green" Analysis 10.3 Petra Kelly, Fighting for Hope, 1983
PICTURE ESSAY: Politics in the Streets London anti-Vietnam war demonstrator; Women demonstrators in Turin; "Don't be sheep" poster; May Day parade in Prague; Dancing on the Silos; A student felled by a flic; Che Guevara.
11. EUROPE CHANGES COURSE: THE 1980S AND BEYOND Europe Faces the Global Economic Challenge The Rise of the Pacific Economy Thatcher Reshapes Political Culture The Reagan Revolution's Global Impact Alternatives to Thatcherism Germany Turns to the Right France Charts a Different Course Smaller States Pursue Prosperity Reformers Change the Soviet Bloc Gorbachev Comes to Power Poland and the Birth of Solidarity The End of the Soviet System Hungary Reunification of Germany Czechoslovakia Romania Yugoslavia and the USSR Disintegrate The Breakup of Yugoslavia The Soviet Union Comes Apart The Birth Pains of a New Eastern Europe An Elusive Market Economy Post-Communist Culture Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Thatcher and Neo-Liberalism 11.1 Margaret Thatcher, Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, Blackpool, 16 October, 1981; Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, 14 October, 1988 Gorbachev on Glasnost and Perestroika 11.2 Mikhail Gorbachev, Speech to the Communist Party, January 1987 Days of Confusion and Turmoil in Yugoslavia 11.3 Sara Bafo, "Between Despair and Hope: A Belgrade Diary," 1991–1992 11.4 Jelena, 9 Years old, from The Suitcase: Refugee Voices from Bosnia and Croatia
PICTURE ESSAY: Dissident Art in the Soviet Bloc Berliner, Picnic in Nature; Endless Train; Russian Trinity; Mother and Child by Arutíunian; Estonian art; First AptArt Exhibition by the Mukhomor Group.
12. EUROPE IN THE GLOBAL AGE The Perils and Possibilities of Globalization Europe and the Environment Disease and Drug Epidemics Migration Continues Global Networks and Organizations Beyond the Nation-State: Integration and Fragmentation From Common Market to European Union East Joins West Global Cities and Global Citizens National Fragmentation and the Move for Local Autonomy The Future of European Society Population and Prosperity Neo-liberalism and the Crisis of Social Citizenship Movements for Human Rights and Equality Culture and the Global Challenge Islam Confronts the West The Global Diffusion of Culture Conclusion
DOCUMENTS Beyond the Nation-State: Global Cities 12.1 Saskia Sassen, from Globalization and Its Discontents, 1998 The Future of Democracy in the Global Age 12.2 Shirley Williams, Can Democracy Survive the Computer?, 1985 Global Human Rights 12.3 Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim, "The Global Refugee Crisis," 1995
PICTURE ESSAY: Building the Global city, Rebuilding a Global Europe Paris Library; Hong Kong Skyline; Tokyo; New York; Sony Center, Potsdammerplatz; Beaubourg, Paris; Jewish Museum, Berlin; Helsinki Airport; Prague scaffolded; Prague, Fred & Ginger; Cordoba