European Democracies

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Organized thematically rather than country-by-country,European Democraciesis an introduction to the politics and governments of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. Considering the countries of Europe from both the "supranational" level of the European Union and the "subnational" level of regions, this text employs a comparative approach to survey issues ranging from parties and policy to democratization and globalization. These issues are illustrated with in-depth examples from a variety of European countries as well as examples from politics in the United States. Throughout, noted authors and scholars Markus Crepaz and Juuml;rg Steiner treat Europe as a single but diverse entity and ask students what European politics can teach them about politics in their own country.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
About the Authorsp. xv
Becoming Modern in Europe and America: Different History, Different Politicsp. 1
How Do We Know That Europe Is Different?p. 1
Explaining Differences: The Impact of History, Geography, and Culturep. 8
Structure of the Bookp. 13
Political Partiesp. 17
Political Parties-The "Children of Democracy"p. 17
Functions of Political Partiesp. 18
Differences between Political Parties and Interest Groupsp. 19
Socialistsp. 20
Liberalsp. 26
Conservativesp. 27
Christian Democratsp. 30
New Radical Rightp. 30
Greensp. 36
Regional Partiesp. 39
A Multidimensional Political Spacep. 40
Membership in Political Partiesp. 43
Stability and Change of Parties and Party Systemsp. 44
Parliaments: How They Are Elected and How They Workp. 48
Winner-Take-All: Great Britainp. 49
Party List Proportional Representation: The Netherlandsp. 54
Personalized Proportional Representation: Switzerland, Ireland, and Germanyp. 57
Switzerlandp. 57
Irelandp. 59
Germanyp. 62
Changing the Electoral System: France and Italyp. 64
Francep. 64
Italyp. 69
Voter Turnoutp. 75
Legislative Behaviorp. 76
Cabinet Formation and Heads of Statep. 79
Single-Party Majority Cabinetsp. 81
Minimal-Winning Cabinetsp. 88
Oversized Cabinetsp. 92
Minority Cabinetsp. 96
Cabinet Instabilityp. 98
Semipresidential Systemsp. 104
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentary and Presidential Systemsp. 110
Advantages and Disadvantages of Presidentialismp. 111
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentarismp. 112
Heads of Statep. 113
Monarchial Head of Statep. 113
Elected Heads of Statep. 115
Courtsp. 119
Great Britainp. 120
Switzerlandp. 122
Germanyp. 123
Francep. 125
Federalism and Referendump. 127
Switzerland: Prototypical Case of a Federalist Country with a Strong Referendump. 127
European Trend toward Federalism and Referendap. 132
Arguments against Federalism and Referendap. 136
Social Movementsp. 139
Environmental Movementp. 139
Peace and Third-World Movementp. 141
Women's Movementp. 143
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Movementp. 147
Youth Movementp. 149
The State and Economic Interest Groupsp. 155
The State as a Political Actorp. 155
Economic Interest Groupsp. 157
Pluralism and Corporatismp. 160
The Theory of Corporatismp. 163
The Future of Corporatismp. 166
Policy Outcomesp. 171
Explaining Policy Outcomesp. 173
The End of the Cold Warp. 191
Classical Marxismp. 192
Neo-Marxismp. 194
Communism in Central and Eastern Europep. 197
Polandp. 199
Hungaryp. 200
East Germanyp. 201
Communism in Western Europep. 205
Transitions to Democracyp. 210
The Federal Republic of Germany after 1945p. 210
Italy after 1945p. 212
Spain after 1975p. 213
Hungary after 1989p. 214
Poland after 1989p. 218
Ukraine in 2004p. 222
Explanationsp. 225
Russiap. 225
Nationalism and Ethnicityp. 228
War in Former Yugoslaviap. 229
Northern Irelandp. 237
Basque Countryp. 239
Immigrationp. 241
Sports Eventsp. 243
More Benign Aspectsp. 244
Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Societiesp. 249
Development of the Theory of Power Sharingp. 249
Critique of the Theory of Power Sharingp. 253
Northern Irelandp. 260
Former Czechoslovakiap. 267
Former Yugoslaviap. 271
Power Sharing and Deliberationp. 276
Normative Evaluation of Power Sharingp. 277
The European Unionp. 281
History of European Integrationp. 281
Council of Ministersp. 285
European Councilp. 288
European Commissionp. 289
European Parliamentp. 290
European Court of Justicep. 296
European Bureaucracyp. 299
What Does the European Union Do?p. 299
Agricultural Policyp. 300
Regional and Development Policyp. 300
Common Currency-the Europ. 301
Continued Expansion: Where Does "Europe" End?p. 302
Turkey's EU Membership Prospectsp. 303
A Constitution for Europe? "non" and "nee"p. 303
Globalization and European Democraciesp. 312
What Is Globalization?p. 313
How Should Globalization Be Measured?p. 318
The Challenges of Globalization for European Democraciesp. 320
The Welfare State and Globalizationp. 320
Immigration and Globalizationp. 323
Globalization and the Fragility of Communityp. 327
Is Globalization a Threat or an Opportunity for European Democracies?p. 328
Indexp. 331
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