Evaluation of HSDPA and LTE From Testbed Measurements to System Level Performance

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-12-12
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

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This book explains how the performance of modern cellular wireless networks can be evaluated by measurements and simulations With the roll-out of LTE, high data throughput is promised to be available to cellular users. In case you have ever wondered how high this throughput really is, this book is the right read for you: At first, it presents results from experimental research and simulations of the physical layer of HSDPA, WiMAX, and LTE. Next, it explains in detail how measurements on such systems need to be performed in order to achieve reproducible and repeatable results. The book further addresses how wireless links can be evaluated by means of standard-compliant link-level simulation. The major challenge in this context is their complexity when investigating complete wireless cellular networks. Consequently, it is shown how system-level simulators with a higher abstraction level can be designed such that their results still match link-level simulations. Exemplarily, the book finally presents optimizations of wireless systems over several cells. This book: Explains how the performance of modern cellular wireless networks can be evaluated by measurements and simulations Discusses the concept of testbeds, highlighting the challenges and expectations when building them Explains measurement techniques, including the evaluation of the measurement quality by statistical inference techniques Presents throughput results for HSDPA, WiMAX, and LTE Demonstrates simulators at both, link- level and system-level Provides system-level and link-level simulators (for WiMAX and LTE) on an accompanying website ( This book is an insightful guide for researchers and engineers working in the field of mobile radio communication as well as network planning. Advanced students studying related courses will also find the book interesting.

Author Biography

Dr. Sebastian Caban, University of Technology Vienna, Austria
Sebastian Caban finished his PhD with summa cum laude in October 2009 and is now post doctoral fellow at this institute.

Christian Mehlführer, University of Technology Vienna, Austria
Christian Mehlführer received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in electrical engineering from the Vienna University of Technology. In 2009, he finished his PhD about measurement-based performance evaluation of WiMAX and HSDPA with summa cum laude.

Professor Markus Rupp, University of Technology Vienna, Austria
Markus Rupp received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in 1988 at the University of Saarbrücken, Germany and his Dr.-Ing. degree in 1993 at the Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany, where he worked with Eberhardt Hänsler on designing new algorithms for acoustical and electrical echo compensation.

Martin Wrulich, University of Technology Vienna, Austria
Martin Wrulich received his Dipl.-Ing. degree from Vienna University of Technology in March 2006 (diploma thesis: "Capacity Analysis of MIMO systems").

Table of Contents

About the Authorsp. xiii
About the Contributorsp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxiii
List of Abbreviationsp. xxv
Cellular Wireless Standards
Introductionp. 3
Referencesp. 4
UMTS High-Speed Downlink Packet Accessp. 5
Standardization and Current Deployment of HSDPAp. 5
HSDPA Principlesp. 6
Network Architecturep. 7
Physical Layerp. 9
MAC Layerp. 13
Radio Resource Managementp. 14
Quality of Service Managementp. 16
MIMO Enhancements of HSDPAp. 17
Physical Layer Changes for MIMOp. 19
Precodingp. 21
MAC Layer Changes for MIMOp. 25
Simplifications of the Core Networkp. 26
Referencesp. 26
UMTS Long-Term Evolutionp. 29
Contributed by Josep Colom Ikuno
LTE Overviewp. 29
Requirementsp. 29
Network Architecturep. 31
LTE Physical Layerp. 33
LTE Frame Structurep. 34
Reference and Synchronization Symbolsp. 36
MIMO Transmissionp. 37
Modulation and Layer Mappingp. 39
Channel Codingp. 41
Channel Adaptive Feedbackp. 45
MAC Layerp. 46
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Requestp. 46
Schedulingp. 47
Physical, Transport, and Logical Channelsp. 48
Referencesp. 51
Testbeds For Measurements
Introductionp. 57
Referencep. 58
On Building Testbedsp. 59
Basic Ideap. 60
Transmitterp. 61
Receiverp. 63
Synchronizationp. 65
Possible Pitfallsp. 67
Digital Baseband Hardwarep. 67
Tool and Component Selectionp. 68
Analog RF Front Endsp. 69
Costp. 70
MatlabĀ® Code and Testbedsp. 70
Summaryp. 71
Referencesp. 72
Quasi-Real-Time Testbeddingp. 75
Basic Ideap. 75
Problem Formulationp. 77
Employing the Basic Ideap. 78
Data Collectionp. 80
More Sophisticated Sampling Techniquesp. 81
Variance Reduction Techniquesp. 84
Biasp. 85
Outliersp. 86
Parameter Estimationp. 87
Evaluating and Summarizing the Datap. 88
Statistical Inferencep. 90
Inferring the Population Meanp. 90
Precision and Sample Sizep. 91
Reproducibility and Repeatabilityp. 92
Measurement Automationp. 95
Dealing with Feedback and Retransmissionsp. 96
Referencesp. 97
Experimental Link-Level Evaluation
Introductionp. 101
HSDPA Performance Measurementsp. 103
Mathematical Model of the Physical Layerp. 104
System Model for the Channel Estimationp. 106
System Model for the Equalizer Calculationp. 106
Receiverp. 107
Channel Estimationp. 107
Equalizerp. 112
Further Receiver Processingp. 113
Quantized Precodingp. 113
CQI and PCI Calculationp. 115
HS-PDSCH Interferencep. 115
Pilot Interferencep. 116
Synchronization and Control Channel Interferencep. 116
Post-equalization Noise and SINRp. 118
SINR to CQI Mappingp. 119
Achievable Mutual Informationp. 121
Measurement Resultsp. 124
Alpine Scenariop. 125
Urban Scenariop. 128
Discussion of the Implementation Lossp. 130
Summaryp. 131
Referencesp. 132
HSDPA Antenna Selection Techniquesp. 139
Contributed by Jos'e Antonio Garc'ia-Naya
Existing Researchp. 141
Receive Antenna Selectionp. 142
Antenna Selection Based on System Throughputp. 143
Hardware Aspects of Antenna Selectionp. 143
An Exemplary Measurement and its Resultsp. 144
Urban Scenariop. 144
Experimental Assessment of Antenna Selection in HSDPAp. 145
Measurement Results and Discussionp. 147
Summaryp. 148
Referencesp. 149
HSDPA Antenna Spacing Measurementsp. 153
Problem Formulationp. 153
Existing Researchp. 154
Experimental Setupp. 155
Measurement Methodologyp. 157
Inferring the Mean Scenario Throughputp. 157
Issues Requiring Special Attentionp. 158
Measurement Results and Discussionp. 160
Equal Polarization Versus Cross-Polarizationp. 160
Channel Capacityp. 160
Channel Capacity Versus Mutual Informationp. 162
Mutual Information Versus Achievable Mutual Informationp. 162
Achievable Mutual Information Versus Throughputp. 163
Throughputp. 163
Different Transmit Power Levels and Scenariosp. 163
Referencesp. 164
Throughput Performance Comparisonsp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Cellular Systems Investigated: WiMAX and HSDPAp. 168
WiMAX and HSDPAp. 168
Throughput Bounds and System Lossesp. 169
Measurement Methodology and Setupp. 172
Measurement Resultsp. 173
WiMAX Resultsp. 173
HSDPA Results in Standard-Compliant Settingp. 177
HSDPA Results in Advanced Settingp. 179
Summaryp. 179
Referencesp. 182
Frequency Synchronization in LTEp. 183
Contributed by Qi Wang
Mathematical Modelp. 184
Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation in LTEp. 186
Standardized Training Symbols in LTEp. 186
Maximum Likelihood Estimatorsp. 188
Performance Evaluationp. 191
Estimation Performancep. 192
Post-FFT SINRp. 194
Post-equalization SINR and Throughputp. 195
Referencesp. 199
LTE Performance Evaluationp. 201
Mathematical Model of the Physical Layerp. 202
Receiverp. 203
Channel Estimationp. 204
Data Detectionp. 205
Further Receiver Processingp. 206
Physical Layer Modelingp. 206
Post-equalization SINRp. 207
SINR Averagingp. 207
User Equipment Feedback Calculationp. 208
User Equipment Feedback Indicatorsp. 208
Calculation of the CQI, PMI, and RIp. 210
Practical Throughput Boundsp. 216
Channel Capacityp. 216
Open-Loop Mutual Informationp. 217
Closed-Loop Mutual Informationp. 218
BICM Boundsp. 219
Achievable Throughput Boundsp. 222
Prediction of the Optimal Performancep. 223
Simulation Resultsp. 224
SISO Transmissionp. 225
OLSM Transmissionp. 227
CLSM Transmissionp. 229
Referencesp. 230
Simulators For Wireless Systems
Introductionp. 237
Referencesp. 240
LTE Link- and System-Level Simulationp. 243
The Vienna LTE Link Level Simulatorp. 245
Structure of the Simulatorp. 245
Complexityp. 247
The Vienna LTE System Level Simulatorp. 250
Structure of the Simulatorp. 250
Simulator Implementationp. 252
Complexityp. 253
Validation of the Simulatorsp. 255
3GPP Minimum Performance Requirementsp. 257
Link- and System-Level Cross-Comparisonp. 257
Exemplary Resultsp. 259
Link-Level Throughputp. 259
LTE Schedulingp. 262
Referencesp. 265
System-Level Modeling for MIMO-Enhanced HSDPAp. 271
Concept of System-Level Modelingp. 271
Computationally Efficient Link-Measurement Modelp. 273
Receive Filterp. 274
WCDMA MIMO in the Network Contextp. 276
Equivalent Fading Parameters Descriptionp. 278
Generation of the Equivalent Fading Parametersp. 284
Influence of Non-Data Channelsp. 286
Resulting SINR Descriptionp. 287
Link-Performance Modelp. 288
Link-Performance Model Conceptp. 289
Training and Validation of the Modelp. 293
Referencesp. 296
Simulation-Based Evaluation For Wireless Systems
Introductionp. 301
Optimization of MIMO-Enhanced HSDPAp. 303
Network Performance Predictionp. 303
Simulation Setupp. 303
Single Network Scenario Investigationp. 304
Average Network Performancep. 306
RLC-Based Stream Number Decisionp. 310
UE Decisionp. 310
RLC Decisionp. 311
System-Level Simulation Resultsp. 311
Content-Aware Schedulingp. 313
Video Packet Prioritization in HSDPAp. 313
Content-Aware Schedulerp. 314
Simulation Resultsp. 315
CPICH Power Optimizationp. 316
System-Level Modeling of the CPICH Influencep. 317
CPICH Optimization in the Cellular Contextp. 318
Referencesp. 321
Optimal Multi-User MMSE Equalizerp. 325
System Modelp. 326
Intra-Cell Interference Aware MMSE Equalizationp. 330
Interference Suppression Capabilityp. 332
The Cell Precoding Statep. 334
Training-Sequence-Based Precoding State Estimationp. 336
Blind Precoding State Estimationp. 337
Estimator Performancep. 339
Performance Evaluationp. 340
Physical-Layer Simulation Resultsp. 340
System-Level Simulation Resultsp. 341
Referencesp. 343
LTE Advanced Versus LTEp. 347
IMT-Advanced and 3GPP Performance Targetsp. 348
Radio Interface Enhancementsp. 349
Bandwidth Extensionp. 349
Enhanced MIMOp. 350
Uplink Improvementsp. 351
Beyond Release 10p. 352
MIMO in LTE Advancedp. 354
Codebook-Based Precodingp. 354
Non-Codebook-Based Precodingp. 356
Physical-Layer Throughput Simulation Resultsp. 359
Eight-Antenna Transmissionp. 359
Comparison between LTE and LTE Advancedp. 363
Comparison of SU-MIMO and MU-MIMOp. 363
Referencesp. 366
Indexp. 369
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