Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm-Discharge Review Process

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-06-19
  • Publisher: RAND Corporation
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"In January 2007, New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly asked the RAND Corporation to assess whether his department was doing everything it could to minimize the unnecessary discharge of firearms. In particular, he asked RAND to examine the quality and completeness of the New York City Police Department firearm-training program and identify potential improvements in the design and delivery of the curriculum, the technology used, the frequency and duration of training sessions, the tactics and procedures on which the training is based, and the Department's firearm-discharge-review process. This monograph reports the observations, findings, and recommendations of that study."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. iii
Figuresp. ix
Tablesp. xi
Executivep. xiii
Abbreviationsp. xxvii
Introductionp. 1
Background and Study Objectivep. 1
Study Approachp. 2
Organization of This Monographp. 4
Firearm-Discharge Policy and Experience in New York Cityp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Use of Force Is an Essential Part of Policingp. 7
Matching Force to the Nature of the Situationp. 9
Use of Deadly Force: A Changing Paradigmp. 10
Efforts to Control the Use of Deadly Forcep. 11
NYPD Policy on the Use of Deadly Forcep. 12
Firearm-Discharge Statisticsp. 13
Trainingp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Overview of NYPD Trainingp. 17
Recruit Trainingp. 18
Field Trainingp. 22
In-Service Trainingp. 23
Method of Assessmentp. 24
A Framework For Assessing the Quality of Trainingp. 24
Application of the Frameworkp. 25
Assessment of Recruit Trainingp. 25
Options to Improve Recruit Trainingp. 31
Observations and Assessment of In-Service Trainingp. 35
In-Service Baton Trainingp. 35
Refreshes Firearm Training and Requalificationp. 35
Summary and Recommendationsp. 37
Basic Recruit Trainingp. 38
In-Service Trainingp. 39
The Firearm-Discharge Investigation and Review Processp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Current Proceduresp. 41
Assessment of the Processp. 42
Recommendationsp. 44
Focus of the Firearm-Discharge Investigation Should Be Expanded to Include a Formal Review of the Tactics Usedp. 44
There Needs to Be a Formal Lessons-Learned Processp. 45
There Is a Need to Better Adhere to Stipulated Formatsp. 45
There Is a Need for Synthesis in Final Reportsp. 46
Analysis of Factors Associated with NYPD Officers Discharging Their Firearmsp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Data Sourcesp. 48
Methodsp. 49
Findingsp. 50
Summaryp. 55
The Need for an Improved Less-Than-Lethal Standoff Weaponp. 57
Introductionp. 57
The Tactics of Taking Control: Controlling an Uncooperative Subjectp. 57
Physical Forcep. 58
Drawing or Displaying a Firearmp. 59
Less-Than-Lethal Forcep. 61
Other Less-Than-Lethal Alternatives: Conducted-Energy Devicesp. 64
What Is a Conducted-Energy Device?p. 64
How Are They Supposed to Be Used?p. 65
How Effective Have CEDs Been?p. 67
Several National Organization Object to the Use of TASER Devicesp. 71
Arrest-Related Deaths and Excited Deliriump. 76
Recommendations for CEDs and OC Sprayp. 78
Other, Less-Than-Lethal Alternatives: Impact Munitionsp. 78
Super-Sock Roundsp. 80
Spongs Roundsp. 80
Recommendations for the Deployment of Impact Munitionsp. 80
Other Innovative Technologiesp. 81
Introductionp. 81
Laser Sightsp. 82
Recmmendationp. 84
Handgun-Mounted Flashlightsp. 84
Recmmendationp. 86
Reflexive Shootingp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Understaning Reflexive Shootingsp. 87
Training to Reduce Reflexive Shootingp. 88
Documenting Reflexive Shootingsp. 89
Recommendationsp. 90
Summary of Findings and Recommendationsp. 91
Introductionp. 91
Trainingp. 91
Findingsp. 91
Recommendationsp. 92
FDRB Investigation and Reportingp. 93
Findingsp. 93
Recommendationsp. 94
Analysis of Factors Associated with NYPD Officers Discharging Their Firearmsp. 95
Findingsp. 95
Recommendationsp. 95
Need for an Improved Less-Than-Lethal Standoff Weaponp. 96
Findingsp. 96
Recommendationsp. 97
Other Innovative Technologiesp. 97
Findingsp. 97
Recommendationsp. 98
Reflexive Shootingp. 98
Findingsp. 98
Recommendationsp. 99
Data and Methodologyp. 101
Refrencesp. 105
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