Excavation Systems Planning, Design, and Safety

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-09-14
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Get Deep into the Field of Excavation-Planning, Practice, and SafetyExcavation Systems Planning, Design, and Safetyis a thorough guide to ensuring your projects are completed correctly, safely, and cost effectively. Concisely written and presented in an easy-to-navigate format, this comprehensive guide arms you with the most current information available. New developments and trends, along with numerous design examples, illustrations, and important OSHA requirements and other legal issues, provide everything you'll need to excel in your field. Ideal for anyone involved in the trade, this indispensable resource brings you up to date on all the critical aspects of your job.Includes: Shoring Designs Standards Best Practices in Safety Planning Techniques for Protecting Subsurface Utilities Soil Classification Soil Loading on Shoring Systems OSHA Standards Information on EquipmentExcavation Systems Planning, Design, and Safetycovers: Overview of Excavation Safety Excavation Work Planning Subsurface Installations and Outside Force Damage Protection Soil Dynamics from an Excavation Perspective Soil Loading for Protective System Designo Open Cut Protective Systems Excavation Safety Systems Equipment Design and Use Legal Issues Understanding OSHA Excavation Safety Standardso Full Commentary on OSHA Subpart P Excavations Glossary of Terms

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introduction to Excavation Safety and Shoring Designp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Excavation Work Categoriesp. 2
Basic Excavation Terminologyp. 3
Excavation Industry Makeupp. 5
Excavation Safety Regulationp. 6
The State and Federal Rule-Making Processp. 11
Excavation Safety Concepts and Solutionsp. 15
Referencesp. 21
Engineering Structural Principles for Shoring Designp. 23
Introductionp. 23
Forcesp. 25
Beam Propertiesp. 33
Factor of Safetyp. 38
Allowable Stress Designp. 38
Construction Engineering Designp. 42
Steel I Beams Used for Shoringp. 44
Referencesp. 46
Excavation Work Planningp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Excavation Planning Responsibilities of the Design Engineerp. 47
Excavation Planning Responsibilities of the Contractorp. 53
Legal Requirements to Generate an Excavation Planp. 58
Elements of an Excavation Planp. 61
Design Standards for Excavation Plans and Shoring Systemsp. 69
Standard Practice for Designing Open Cut Excavationsp. 70
Standard Practice for Shored Excavation Designp. 74
Short-Term Soil Loadingp. 82
Allowable Strength of Shoring Materialsp. 83
Referencesp. 88
Existing Subsurface Installations and Outside Force Damage Protectionp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Major Players in the Process of Existing Facility Depictionp. 90
Existing Buried Infrastructurep. 92
Pipeline Safety Regulationsp. 99
Federal Regulationsp. 100
Worker Protection Regulationsp. 102
State Regulationsp. 102
Existing Subsurface Utility Location Standard Practicep. 105
Project Design Phase Collection and Depiction of Subsurface Facilitiesp. 106
Utility Location Surface Marking Prior to Production Excavation Workp. 108
Comments on Precise Line Locating Workp. 110
Surface Damage to Underground Facilities from Wheel Loadsp. 113
Determining Traffic and Soil Loading Pressure on Existing Pipesp. 114
Support of Exposed Underground Facilitiesp. 118
Requirements for Protection of Exposed Existing Facilitiesp. 119
Pipe Support Planp. 120
Open Trench Traffic Bridgesp. 123
Road Plate Installation Considerationsp. 125
Road Plate Engineeringp. 127
Road Plate Handling and Safety Issuesp. 133
Trench Bridges for Larger Spansp. 134
Referencesp. 136
Interpreting Soils Information for Excavation Planning and Shoring Designp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Soil Classification Systemp. 138
Attributes of Soils in Generalp. 138
Cohesive and Noncohesive Soilsp. 141
Fundamental Design Properties of Soilsp. 145
Reading Soils Reports and Bore Logs for Shoring Designp. 151
Determining Shoring Design Parameters and Basic Properties of Soils from Soils Reports-Watertable [down triangle, open], [phi], and cp. 156
Geotechnical Report Recommendationsp. 156
Developing Shoring Design Parameters from Boring Logs and Soil Test Datap. 158
OSHA Appendix A Soil Classification System and Type A, B, and C Soilp. 163
Comment on Appendix A and Standard Practice Shoring Application Todayp. 165
Determining OSHA Appendix A Soil Types Using Bore Logsp. 173
Referencesp. 175
Excavation Stability and Shoring Design Loadsp. 177
Soil Loading on Excavation Shoring Systemsp. 177
Earth Pressure Theories, Active, at Rest, and Passive Soil Pressurep. 178
Rankine Earth Pressure Theoryp. 181
Coulomb Earth Pressure Theoryp. 184
Log-Spiral Theoryp. 187
Use of Earth Pressure Theoriesp. 189
Apparent Soil Pressure Diagrams for Braced Cutsp. 191
Important Information Resulting from Studies of Deep Excavationsp. 193
Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram for Cuts in Noncohesive Soilsp. 194
Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram for Cuts in Cohesive Soilsp. 196
Pressure Diagrams for OSHA Appendix A Soil Typesp. 200
Soil Arching Theoryp. 204
Referencesp. 206
Surcharge Loading, Base Stability, and Surface Settlementp. 209
Surcharge Loadsp. 209
Calculating Surcharge Loadsp. 211
Surcharge Load Casesp. 215
Surcharge Load Decisions for the Competent Personp. 223
Railroad Cooper E-80 Loadingp. 226
Base Stability of Excavations and Surface Settlementp. 233
Structural Base Deterioration During the Construction Processp. 234
Bottom Stability in Noncohesive Soilsp. 234
Bottom Stability in Cohesive Soilsp. 239
Prediction and Control of Deflection and Settlement from Shoring and Excavation Operationsp. 243
Ground Loss in Excavations to 20 ft Deep Shored with Trench Jacks and Shoring Shieldsp. 244
Ground Loss in Excavations Shored with Slide Rail, H-Pile and Lagging, and Sheet Pilesp. 246
Referencesp. 268
Slope Stability and Open Cut Worker Protection Systemsp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Recognizing Project Design Inherent Slope Stability Problems and Sloped Option Eliminatorsp. 272
Slope Stability Sensitive Projectsp. 275
Factors Affecting Slope Stability in Excavationsp. 276
Open Cut Sloping Worker Protection Designed under OSHA Requirementsp. 279
Excerpts from OSHA 1926 Subpart P Regarding Open Cut Worker Protection with Commentaryp. 279
OSHA 1926 Subpart P Appendix B-Sloping and Benching with Commentaryp. 281
OSHA Appendix B-Sloping and Benching Slope Configurationsp. 292
Open Cut Plans by a Registered Engineerp. 296
Engineered Design Philosophy for Open Cut Excavation Plansp. 297
Open Cut Excavation Safety Issuesp. 298
Referencesp. 299
Shoring Systems Selected from Tabulated Datap. 301
Introductionp. 301
Timber Shoringp. 302
Timber Shoring Design Using Tabulated Datap. 303
Timber Shoring Design by a Registered Engineerp. 307
Equivalent Sectionp. 320
Soil Arching and Timber Laggingp. 321
Equivalent Steel Lagging Section for Timber Laggingp. 324
Timber Shoring Safety Issuesp. 326
Aluminum Hydraulic Shoringp. 327
Basic Theory of How Trench Jacks Workp. 328
Trench Jack Engineeringp. 334
Development of Trench Jack Tabulated Datap. 352
Safe Handling and Use of Trench Jacksp. 356
Trench Jack Use Criteriap. 360
Trench Jack Shoring Design by a Registered Engineerp. 363
High-Clearance Shoresp. 366
High-Clearance Shore Engineering and Tabulated Datap. 366
High-Clearance Shore Use and Safety Issuesp. 372
High-Clearance Shoring Design by a Registered Engineerp. 373
Waler Railsp. 375
Waler Rail Engineering and Tabulated Datap. 376
Sheeting Requirements for Waler Rail Systemp. 381
Hydraulic Shoring Boxes Constructed from Waler Railsp. 384
Waler Rail Installation and Safety Issuesp. 385
Waler Rail Design by a Civil Engineerp. 385
Shoring Shieldsp. 386
Shoring Shield Conditions for Usep. 386
Shoring Shield Size and Nomenclaturep. 389
Shoring Shield Manufacturing and Engineeringp. 392
Orthotropic Plate Designp. 392
Shoring Shield Safety Issuesp. 404
Shoring Shield Plan by a Registered Engineerp. 407
Manhole Boxesp. 411
Manhole Box Safety Issuesp. 412
Aluminum Shields and Build-a-Boxp. 412
Aluminum Shields and Build-a-Box Safety Issuesp. 413
Arch Spreadersp. 413
Arch Spreader Design and Tabulated Datap. 414
Arch Spreader Safety Issuesp. 417
Slide Railp. 418
Slide Rail Use and Comparison to Pile Systemsp. 420
Slide Rail Components and Installationp. 422
Slide Rail Use with Tabulated Datap. 425
Slide Rail Design by a Registered Engineerp. 427
Slide Rail Rebrace Systemp. 430
Slide Rail Safety Issuesp. 432
Referencesp. 435
OSHA Subpart P, Excavations and Commentaryp. 437
OSHA Appendix A, Soil Classification and Commentaryp. 471
Indexp. 495
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