Exercise Physiology Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-04-06
  • Publisher: LWW
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The Sixth Edition of Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance continues its tradition of excellence with comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of exercise physiology and related areas and superior artwork. The text blends the science of metabolism and energy transfer with cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, neural, and muscular system adaptations to acute and chronic exercise, placing specific focus on physical conditioning, sports nutrition, body composition, weight control, and more. The new edition integrates basic concepts and up-to-date research to provide a foundation for understanding how exercise physiology relates to physical performance and exercise training.

Table of Contents

Introduction: A View of the Past: Exercise Physiology-Roots and Historical Perspectivesp. xxiii
Exercise Physiology
Nutrition: The Base for Human Performance
Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteinsp. 7
Carbohydratesp. 8
Kinds and Sources of Carbohydratesp. 8
Recommended Intake of Carbohydratesp. 14
Role of Carbohydrates in the Bodyp. 14
Carbohydrate Dynamics in Exercisep. 15
Lipidsp. 19
The Nature of Lipidsp. 19
Kinds and Sources of Lipidsp. 19
Recommended Dietary Lipid Intakep. 27
Role of Lipid in the Bodyp. 27
Fat Dynamics in Exercisep. 28
Proteinsp. 31
The Nature of Proteinsp. 31
Kinds of Proteinp. 31
Recommended Dietary Protein Intakep. 32
Role of Protein in the Bodyp. 36
Dynamics of Protein Metabolismp. 38
Nitrogen Balancep. 38
Protein Dynamics in Exercise and Trainingp. 39
Vitamins, Minerals, and Waterp. 43
Vitaminsp. 44
The Nature of Vitaminsp. 44
Kinds of Vitaminsp. 44
Role of Vitaminsp. 45
Defining Nutrient Needsp. 48
Exercise, Free Radicals, and Antioxidantsp. 52
Vitamin Supplements: The Competitive Edge?p. 54
Mineralsp. 57
The Nature of Mineralsp. 57
Kinds and Sources of Mineralsp. 57
Role of Mineralsp. 57
Calciump. 58
The Female Athlete Triad: Unexpected Problem for Women Who Train Intenselyp. 64
Phosphorusp. 68
Magnesiump. 68
Ironp. 68
Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorinep. 71
Minerals and Exercise Performancep. 72
Waterp. 75
The Body's Water Contentp. 75
Water Balance: Intake Versus Outputp. 76
Water Requirement in Exercisep. 78
Optimal Nutrition for Exercisep. 81
Nutrient Intake Among the Physically Activep. 82
MyPyramid: The Essentials of Good Nutritionp. 88
An Expanding Emphasis on Healthful Eating and Regular Physical Activityp. 91
Exercise and Food Intakep. 92
Precompetition Mealp. 97
Carbohydrate Feedings Prior to, During, and in Recovery from Exercisep. 99
Glucose Feedings, Electrolytes, and Water Uptakep. 104
Energy for Physical Activity
Energy Value of Foodp. 113
Measurement of Food Energyp. 114
Introduction to Energy Transferp. 121
Energy-The Capacity for Workp. 122
Interconversions of Energyp. 124
Biologic Work in Humansp. 124
Factors That Affect the Rate of Bioenergeticsp. 125
Hydrolysis and Condensation: The Basis for Digestion and Synthesisp. 131
Energy Transfer in the Bodyp. 137
Phosphate Bond Energyp. 138
Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currencyp. 138
Phosphocreatine: The Energy Reservoirp. 140
Cellular Oxidationp. 141
Oxygen's Role in Energy Metabolismp. 144
Energy Release From Macronutrientsp. 145
Energy Release from Fatp. 155
Energy Release from Proteinp. 159
The Metabolic Mill: Interrelationships Among Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolismp. 159
Energy Transfer in Exercisep. 165
Immediate Energy: The ATP-PCR Systemp. 166
Short-Term Energy: The Lactic Acid Systemp. 166
Long-Term Energy: The Aerobic Systemp. 168
Energy Spectrum of Exercisep. 173
Oxygen Consumption During Recoveryp. 174
Measurement of Human Energy Expenditurep. 183
Methods of Measuring the Body's Heat Productionp. 184
Doubly Labeled Water Techniquep. 188
Respiratory Quotientp. 189
Respiratory Exchange Ratiop. 193
Metabolic Calculationsp. 194
Human Energy Expenditure During Rest and Physical Activityp. 195
Energy Expenditure at Restp. 196
Basal Metabolic Ratep. 196
Metabolism at Restp. 196
Factors That Affect Energy Expenditurep. 200
Energy Expenditure in Physical Activityp. 203
Classification of Physical Activities by Energy Expenditurep. 203
The METp. 203
Daily Rates of Average Energy Expenditurep. 203
Energy Cost of Household, Industrial, and Recreational Activitiesp. 204
Heart Rate to Estimate Energy Expenditurep. 206
Energy Expenditure During Walking, Jogging, Running, and Swimmingp. 209
Gross Versus Net Energy Expenditurep. 210
Economy of Human Movement and Mechanical Efficiencyp. 210
Energy Expenditure During Walkingp. 212
Energy Expenditure During Runningp. 215
Swimmingp. 222
Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacitiesp. 229
Overview of Energy-Transfer Capacity During Exercisep. 230
Anaerobic Energy Transfer: The Immediate and Short-Term Energy Systemsp. 231
Aerobic Energy: The Long-Term Energy Systemp. 239
Systems of Energy Delivery and Utilization
Pulmonary Structure and Functionp. 259
Surface Area and Gas Exchangep. 260
Anatomy of Ventilationp. 260
Mechanics of Ventilationp. 261
Lung Volumes and Capacitiesp. 264
Lung Function, Aerobic Fitness, and Exercise Performancep. 268
Pulmonary Ventilationp. 269
Variations from Normal Breathing Patternsp. 272
The Respiratory Tract During Cold-Weather Exercisep. 275
Gas Exchange and Transportp. 277
Gaseous Exchange in the Lungs and Tissuesp. 278
Concentrations and Partial Pressures of Respired Gasesp. 278
Movement of Gas in Air and Fluidsp. 279
Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissuesp. 280
Oxygen Transportp. 282
Transport of Oxygen in the Bloodp. 282
Carbon Dioxide Transportp. 289
Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Bloodp. 289
Dynamics of Pulmonary Ventilationp. 293
Regulation of Pulmonary Ventilationp. 294
Ventilatory Controlp. 294
Regulation of Ventilation During Exercisep. 296
Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercisep. 298
Ventilation and Energy Demandsp. 298
Energy Cost of Breathingp. 304
Does Ventilation Limit Aerobic Power and Endurance?p. 307
Acid-Base Regulationp. 308
Bufferingp. 308
Physiologic Buffersp. 310
Effects of Intense Exercisep. 311
The Cardiovascular Systemp. 313
Cardiovascular System Componentsp. 314
Hypertensionp. 325
Blood Pressure Response to Exercisep. 327
The Heart's Blood Supplyp. 329
Myocardial Metabolismp. 331
Cardiovascular Regulation and Integrationp. 333
Intrinsic Regulation of Heart Ratep. 334
Extrinsic Regulation of Heart Rate and Circulationp. 337
Distribution of Bloodp. 342
Integrated Exercise Responsep. 344
Exercising After Cardiac Transplantationp. 346
Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular Systemp. 351
Cardiac Outputp. 352
Cardiac Output at Restp. 353
Cardiac Output During Exercisep. 354
Cardiac Output Distributionp. 356
Cardiac Output and Oxygen Transportp. 358
Cardiovascular Adjustments to Upper-Body Exercisep. 362
Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Functionp. 365
Gross Structure of Skeletal Musclep. 366
Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructurep. 368
Muscle Fiber Alignmentp. 370
Actin-Myosin Orientationp. 372
Chemical and Mechanical Events During Muscle Action and Relaxationp. 375
Muscle Fiber Typep. 380
Species Differences: A Comparative Look at Muscle Metabolism and Dynamicsp. 385
Fiber Type Differences Among Athletic Groupsp. 386
Neural Control of Human Movementp. 391
Neuromotor System Organizationp. 392
Nerve Supply to Musclep. 402
Motor Unit Functional Characteristicsp. 405
Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptorsp. 409
The Endocrine System: Organization and Acute and Chronic Responses to Exercisep. 417
Endocrine System Overviewp. 418
Endocrine System Organizationp. 418
Resting and Exercise-Induced Endocrine Secretionsp. 425
Gonadal Hormonesp. 436
Exercise Training and Endocrine Functionp. 446
Resistance Training and Endocrine Functionp. 455
Opioid Peptides and Exercisep. 457
Exercise, Infectious Illness, Cancer, and Immune Responsep. 458
Applied Exercise Physiology
Enhancement of Energy Capacity
Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Powerp. 469
Training Principlesp. 470
Physiologic Consequences of Trainingp. 476
Anaerobic System Changes with Trainingp. 476
Aerobic System Changes with Trainingp. 477
Factors That Affect the Aerobic Training Responsep. 489
American College of Sports Medicine's Updated Fitness Guidelines and Recommendationsp. 494
How Long Before Improvements Occur?p. 495
Maintenance of Aerobic Fitness Gainsp. 496
Methods of Trainingp. 497
Overtraining: Too Much of a Good Thingp. 501
Exercising During Pregnancyp. 503
Muscular Strength: Training Muscles to Become Strongerp. 509
Strength Measurement and Resistance Trainingp. 510
Measurement of Muscle Strengthp. 511
Gender Differences in Muscle Strengthp. 515
Training Muscles to Become Strongerp. 518
Electromyography During Maximal Ballistic Muscle Actionsp. 537
Structural and Functional Adaptations to Resistance Trainingp. 539
Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strengthp. 540
Comparative Training Responses in Men and Womenp. 547
Detrainingp. 548
Metabolic Stress of Resistance Trainingp. 548
Circuit Resistance Trainingp. 548
Muscle Soreness and Stiffnessp. 549
Special Aids to Exercise Training and Performancep. 555
An Increasing Challenge to Fair Competitionp. 556
On the Horizonp. 557
Pharmacologic Agentsp. 559
Nonpharmacologic Appoachesp. 586
Exercise Performance and Environmental Stress
Exercise at Medium and High Altitudep. 617
The Stress of Altitudep. 618
Acclimatizationp. 620
Metabolic, Physiologic, and Exercise Capacities at Altitudep. 630
Altitude Training and Sea-Level Performancep. 632
Combine Altitude Stay with Low-Altitude Trainingp. 634
Exercise and Thermal Stressp. 637
Mechanisms of Thermoregulationp. 638
Thermal Balancep. 638
Hypothalamic Regulation of Temperaturep. 638
Thermoregulation in Cold Stress: Heat Conservation and Heat Productionp. 639
Thermoregulation in Heat Stress: Heat Lossp. 641
Effects of Clothing on Thermoregulationp. 643
Thermoregulation and Environmental Stress During Exercisep. 648
Exercise in the Heatp. 648
Maintaining Fluid Balance: Rehydration and Hyperhydrationp. 653
Factors That Modify Heat Tolerancep. 656
Complications from Excessive Heat Stressp. 659
Exercise in the Coldp. 662
Acclimatization to Coldp. 662
How Cold Is Too Cold?p. 663
Sport Divingp. 667
Diving History-Antiquity to the Presentp. 668
Pressure-Volume Relationships and Diving Depthp. 672
Snorkeling and Breath-Hold Divingp. 673
Scuba Divingp. 677
Special Problems with Breathing Gases at High Pressuresp. 681
Dives to Exceptional Depths: Mixed-Gas Divingp. 687
Energy Cost of Underwater Swimmingp. 691
Microgravity: The Last Frontierp. 693
The Weightless Environmentp. 694
Historical Overview of Aerospace Physiology and Medicinep. 702
Modern Erap. 704
Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selectionp. 718
Physiologic Adaptations to Microgravityp. 719
Countermeasure Strategiesp. 737
Overview of Physiologic Responses to Space Flightp. 756
Future Research Prioritiesp. 760
Vision for the Future of Space Explorationp. 760
Practical Benefits from Space Biology Researchp. 762
Body Composition, Energy Balance, and Weight Control
Body Composition Assessmentp. 773
The Body Mass Index: A Somewhat Better Alternativep. 774
Composition of the Human Bodyp. 783
Common Techniques to Assess Body Compositionp. 788
Average Percentage Body Fatp. 807
Determining Goal Body Weightp. 808
Physique, Performance, and Physical Activityp. 811
Physiques of Champion Athletesp. 812
Upper Limit for Fat-Free Body Massp. 832
Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Controlp. 835
Obesityp. 836
Historical Perspectivep. 836
Current Statusp. 837
Worldwide Epidemicp. 837
A Progressive Long-Term Processp. 839
A Complex Interaction of Many Factorsp. 840
Genetics Influences Body Fat Accumulationp. 840
Physical Inactivity: A Crucial Component in Excessive Fat Accumulationp. 844
Risks of Excessive Body Fatp. 845
Criteria for Excessive Body Fat: How Fat Is Too Fat?p. 849
Principles of Weight Control: Diet and Exercisep. 855
Energy Balance: Input Versus Outputp. 855
Dieting for Weight Controlp. 856
Factors That Affect Weight Lossp. 865
Exercise for Weight Controlp. 866
Effectiveness of Regular Exercisep. 868
Weight Loss Recommendations for Wrestlers and Other Power Athletesp. 874
Gaining Weight: The Competitive Athlete's Dilemmap. 874
Exercise, Successful Aging, and Disease Prevention
Physical Activity, Health, and Agingp. 883
The Graying of Americap. 884
Physical Activity in the Populationp. 886
Physical Activity Epidemiologyp. 886
Aging and Physiologic Functionp. 892
Age Trendsp. 892
Trainability and Agep. 903
Physical Activity, Health, and Longevityp. 905
Causes of Death in the United Statesp. 905
Exercise, Health, and Longevityp. 905
Regular Moderate Exercise Provides Significant Benefitsp. 907
Can Changing Activity Level Improve Health and Extend Life?p. 909
Coronary Heart Diseasep. 910
Changes on the Cellular Levelp. 910
Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factorsp. 913
Clinical Exercise Physiology for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Pulmonary Rehabilitationp. 925
The Exercise Physiologist in the Clinical Settingp. 926
Training and Certification Programs for Professional Exercise Physiologistsp. 927
Clinical Applications of Exercise Physiology to Oncology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Pulmonary Diseases, Neuromuscular Diseases, Renal Disease, and Cognitive/Emotional Diseasesp. 929
Oncologyp. 929
Cardiovascular Diseasesp. 935
Cardiac Disease Assessmentp. 943
Stress Test Protocolsp. 954
Prescribing Exercisep. 955
Cardiac Rehabilitationp. 958
Rehabilitation Following Heart Transplantationp. 961
Pulmonary Diseasesp. 962
Exercise and Asthmap. 970
Neuromuscular Diseases, Disabilities, and Disordersp. 973
Renal Diseasep. 974
Cognitive/Emotional Diseases and Disordersp. 975
On the Horizon
Molecular Biology-A New Vista for Exercise Physiologyp. 985
Brief History Tour of Molecular Biologyp. 988
Revolution in the Biologic Sciencesp. 990
Human Genomep. 993
Nucleic Acidsp. 995
How DNA Replicatesp. 1004
Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translationp. 1007
Mutationsp. 1024
New Horizons in Molecular Biologyp. 1031
Human Performance Researchp. 1059
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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