Expanded Family Life Cycle, The: Individual, Family, And Social Perspectives, 4/E

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-08-02
  • Publisher: PEARSON
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Now featured in a Classics Edition with a new Foreword by Donald Boch, The Expanded Family Life Cycle integrates theory and current research with clinical guidelines and cases by two of the most-respected authors, teachers, and clinicians in the field of family therapy, Betty Carter and Monica McGoldrick.

This classic Family Therapy text provides “and more comprehensive way to think about human development and the life cycle,” reflecting changes in society away from orientation toward the nuclear family, toward a more diverse and inclusive definition of “family.”

This expanded view of the family includes the impact of issues at multiple levels of the human system: the individual, family households, the extended family, the community, the cultural group, and the larger society.

The text boasts a lively and dynamic writing style, coupled with contributions by some of the best-known therapists and experts in family therapy, integrating theory and research with clinical guidelines and cases. It contains chapters on men's issues, individual development, a clinical method based on Bowen's coaching model, class, violence, migration, lesbians and gays, siblings, and never-married adults.

Author Biography

Monica McGoldrick, M.A., M.S.W, Ph.D. (h.c.), is the Director of the Multicultural Family Institute in Highland Park, NJ, and on Psychiatry Faculty of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Her other books include: Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 3rd ed; Genograms: Assessment and Intervention, 3rd ed. Living Beyond Loss: 2nd ed; Revisioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, 2nd ed; and The Genogram Journey: Reconnecting with your Family- to be published by W. W. Norton in the Fall of 2010,whichtranslates her ideas about family relationships for a popular audience, using examples such as Beethoven, Groucho Marx, Sigmund Freud and the Kennedys.

She received her BA from Brown University, a Masters in Russian Studies from Yale University, and her M.S.W and an Honorary Doctorate from Smith College School for Social Work. Dr. McGoldrick is known internationally for her writings and teaching on topics including culture, class, gender, loss, family patterns (genograms), remarried families, and sibling relationships. Her clinical videotape demonstrating the use of the life cycle perspective with a multicultural remarried family dealing with issues of unresolved mourning has become one of the most widely respected videotapes available in the field.

Betty Carter, M.S.W., founder and Director Emerita (1977-1997) of the Family Institute of Westchester in White Plains, New York, spent over 30 years as a family therapy clinician, supervisor, teacher, and director of a major training institute. She received awards from the American Family Therapy Academy, Hunter College School of Social work, and the American Association of marriage and Family Therapy Research and Education Foundation. With her colleagues Peggy Papp, Olga Silverstein and Marianne Walters she co-founded the Women’s Project in Family Therapy, which promoted a feminist revisioning of family therapy and received awards from both the Family Therapy Academy and the AAMFT. Their work culminated in a book on gender-sensitive family therapy practice: The Invisible Web: Gender Patterns in Family Therapy Relationships.

In 1996 Betty Carter authored a trade book on couples, Love, Honor and Negotiate: Building Partnerships That Last a Lifetime. She published numerous professional book chapters and journal articles, along with educational videotapes produced by Steve Lerner for Guilford Press. Married to her husband Sam, a musician, for over 50 years, Betty has two sons and three grandchildren. She has said that of all her ideas she always loved the family life cycle framework most “because it contains all the other ideas and has room for more.”

Nydia Garcia-Preto, M.S.W., is the Associate Director at the Multicultural Family Institute in Highland Pk., NJ where she also has a Private Practice. Ms. Garcia-Preto was formerly a Visiting Professor at the Rutgers Graduate School of Social Work, and for many years the Director of the Adolescent Day Hospital, at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. She received her MSW from Rutgers Graduate School of Social Work and her BA in Sociology at Rider College. A highly respected family therapist, author, and teacher, and organizational trainer, she has publications in textbooks and journals on issues of cultural competence, Puerto Rican and Latino families, Latinas, immigration, ethnic intermarriage, and families with adolescents. She is co-editor of the most recent edition of Ethnicity and Family Therapy.  Ms. Garcia-Preto received the Frantz Fanon, M.D. Award from the Post Graduate Center for Mental Health for her work Puerto Rican and Latino adolescents and families, and the Social Justice Award from The American Family Therapy Academy. She and her colleagues at MFI have developed many training for many years on multiculturalism in clinical work, and organizational consulting on cultural competence.


Constance Ahrons, Ph.D., Professor emerita and former director of the Marriage and Family Therapy Doctoral Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.  Private practice in San Diego.

Carol Anderson, MSW, Ph.D., Professor, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA.  Editor, Family Process.

Marie Anderson, MSW, Mental health with low income populations, Pittsburgh, PA.

Deidre Ashton, MSSW, LCSW, Faculty/Supervisor, Center for Family, Community, and Social Justice, Inc. Princeton, NJ.  Faculty, Ackerman Institute for the Family, New York, NY.  Couple and Family Therapist, Princeton Family Institute, Princeton, NJ.

Kathy Berliner, LCSW, Marriage and Family Therapist.  Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester.

Ellen Berman, MD, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Lynne Blacker, LCSW, Clinical Coordinator, Family Intervention Services, Morristown, NJ

Celia Jaes Falicov, Ph.D., Private Practice, San Diego, CA., Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA

Richard H. Fulmer, Ph.D., Postocostoral Programs in Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.  Private practice, New York, NY

Alison Heru, MD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of Colorado, Denver

Paulette Moore Hines, Ph.D., Director, Office of Prevention Services & Research, a division of UBHC-University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ.

Evan Imber-Black, Ed.D., Faculty, Ackerman Institute for Family Therapy, New York, NY

Demaris Jacobs, Ph.D., Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester

Jodie Kilman, Ph.D., Core faculty of the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Boston, MA; founding member of the Boston Institute for Culturally Accountable Practice

Tracey Laszloffy, Ph.D., Private practice, Norwich, CT

Steve Lerner, Ph.D., Private Practice, Topeka, KS

Matthew Mock, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, John F. Kennedy University;  Private Clinical and Consulting Practice, Berkeley, California; former Director, Center for Multicultural Development, California Institute for Mental Health (CIMH) and Drector, Family, Youth, Childern's and Multicultural Services, City of Berkeley, California.
Barbara Petkov, LMFT, Ed.S., Private practice, Highland Park; Alumni, MFI, Core Faculty MFI.  Experience with children, adolescents, couples and families. Certified in EMDR.  Trainer in cultural diversity
Sueli Petry, Ph.D., Alumna & Faculty of MFI. Experience with Latino families and with survivors of sexual abuse.  Publications on Genograms, Brazilian families
John Rolland, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Chicago and Co-Director, Chicago Center for Family Health, Chicago, IL.
Mary Anne Ross, BA, COPSA Institute for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders, CMHC Piscataway University of Medicine and Dentistry of N.J.
Natalie Schwartzberg, LCSW, Marriage and Family Therapist.  Former faculty Family Institute of Westchester.
Froma Walsh, MSW, Ph.D., Co-Founder, Chicago Center for Family Health, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.  Professor, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.  Editor, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Marlene Watson, Ph.D., Associate Professor and the Director of Programs in Couple and Family therapy at Drexel University in Philadelphia
David Wohlsifer, LCSW, Ph.D., Private Practice, Bala Psychological Resources, Bala Cynwyd, PA; Adjunct Professor, Bryn Mawr College, Graduate School of Social Work; Social Research, Univ. of Pennsylvania’s School of Social Policy and Practice

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Overview: The Life Cycle in its Changing Context: Individual, Family and Social Perspectives
Monica McGoldrick, Betty Carter, Nydia Garcia Preto

Introduction: The Family Life Cycle: A System Moving Through Time

The Changing Family Life Cycle

Human Development in Context

The Vertical and Horizontal Flow of Stress in the Life Cycle

Anxiety and Symptom Development

Cohorts: When and Where in Time and Place We Are Located

Understanding Changing Families in Context

Friendship Through the Life Cycle

The Changing Family Life Cycle of Men and Women

Homeplace: The Importance of Belonging Throughout the Life Cycle

Power and Privilege Given to Some Groups over Others Because of the Hierarchical Rules and Norms Held by Religious, Social, Business, or Governmental Institutions

Life Cycle Stages: A Provisional Framework



Chapter 2 : Self in Contect: Human Development and the Individual Life Cycle in Systemic Perspective

Monica McGoldrick, Betty Carter, & Nydia Garcia Preto

Redefining the Dimensions of Human Development

Developing a Self in Context

The Myths of Complete Autonomy and Self-Determination

Developing a Mature Interdependent Self

Gendered Development

Developing a Self in a Nonaffirming Environment

Our Multiple Intelligences

The Connected Self Countering Unequal Gender, Class, Cultural, and Racial Socialization

The “Slings and Arrows” as Individual, Family, and Community Intersect

The Individual Life Cycle in Context: Developing an Autonomous and Emotionally Connected Self


Chapter 3: Women and the Family Life Cycle

Monica McGoldrick

Women’s Changing Life Cycle Roles

Women and Education

Women and Work

Women in Families

Women in the Middle: Women and Caretaking

Women’s Exclusion From Power Under the Law and Societal Expectations

Women and Marriage

Becoming Mothers


Launching Children and Moving On

Older Families

Women and Their Friendship Networks

Women and Loss

Conclusion: That the Bumble Bee Should Fly: Affirming Women Through the Life Cycle


Chapter 4: Men and the Life Cycle: Diversity and Complexity

Matthew R. Mock


Men: A View of Their Relationships Across Generations

Men in Multiple, Mutual Relationships Across the Life Span

The Intersection of Gender and Other Social Complexities

Gender as a Significant Matter

An Understanding of Intersectionality and Male Power



Young Adulthood

Men as Partners and Husbands


Men at Midlife

Men as Friends With Other Men, Women and Friendship Networks

Men, Work, and Family Health

Elders and Older Age

Conclusion and Areas of Future Focus


Chapter 5: Social Class and the Life Cycle

Jodie Kliman


Understanding Social Class

Case Examples

Social Class and Families With Young Children

Social Class and Families With Older Children and Adolescents

Social Class and Families With Late Adolescents and Young Adults

Social Class and Families With Adults in Mid- and Later Life

Conclusions: Implications for Family Therapy


Chapter 6: The Life Cycle of African American Families Living in Poverty  

Paulette Moore Hines

Factors Influencing Diversity, Functioning, and Resilience Through the Life Cycle

Characteristics of the Family Life Cycle

Stages of the Family Life Cycle

Assessment and Treatment Considerations

Case Illustration

Avoiding Therapist Burn-Out



Chapter 7 Sexuality and the Life Cycle

Ellen Berman & David Wohlsifer

The Biology of Sexuality

Sexuality and Gender Across the Life Cycle

Sexuality Through the Life Cycle



Chapter 8: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals and the Family Life Cycle

Deidre Ashton


Current Status of LGBT Families in the United States

Diversity Among LGBT Families

Models of LGBT Identity Development

Lesbian and Gay Identity Development

Bisexual Identity Development

Transgender Identity Development

Coming Out

The Family Life Cycle

Leaving Home and Staying Connected: Launching and Single Adulthood


Parenting: Families With Young Children

Parenting: Families With Adolescent Children Families in Later Life



Chapter 9: Spirituality and the Family Life Cycle  

Sueli Petry

Spirituality and Religion in America

Family Life Cycle Theory and Application to Context of Spirituality

Children and Spirituality

Adolescence: Identity Development and Spirituality

Early Adulthood: Time to Explore and Make Choices About Spiritual Beliefs

Middle-Age: Beliefs Reaffirmed

Older Adults: Aging and Facing Mortality



Chapter 10 Siblings and the Life Cycle

Monica McGoldrick & Marlene Watson

The Importance of Sibling Relationships Through the Life Cycle

Age Spacing

Gender Differences

Birth-Order Effects in Sibling Relationships

Life Cycle Issues in Families With Disabled Siblings

Sibling Positions and Parenting

Siblings and Adolescent Relationships

Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

Sibling Positions and Marital Relationships

In-Laws, Step- and Half Siblings Sibling Relationships in Midlife

Sibling Relationships After the Death of Parents

Other Factors That Intersect With Sibling Patterns: Culture, Class, and Race

Rules of Thumb for Sibling Relationships Through the Life Cycle



Chapter 11: Single Adults and the Life Cycle

Kathy Berliner, Demaris Jacob, & Natalie Schwartzberg

The Single Adult and the Family Life Cycle

Setting the Clinical Stage

The Single Person’s Life Cycle

The Stages




Chapter 12: Becoming and Adult: Finding Ways to Love and Work

Richard H. Fulmer

Young Adulthood(s) in the New Century

Early Young Adulthood: Developmental Tasks

Work Tasks: Preparation Without Pay or Earning out of Necessity?

Relationship Tasks: Trying to Find Love in Lust

Early Young Adulthood: Ages 18 to 21

Later Young Adulthood, Ages 22 to 30: Trying to Consolidate Work and Family

Young Adulthood for Men

Anticipation of Death

Barriers to Affiliation for Men

Affiliation: Can Fathers Help?

Young Adulthood for Women

Anticipation of Birth

Conclusion: Young Adulthood as a Transition for Three Generations

Chapter 13: Becoming a Couple

Monica McGoldrick

Marriage in Our Times

Fusion and Intimacy

Gay and Lesbian Couples

The Wedding


Patterns With Extended Family


Sibling Issues in Couple Formation

Cultural Differences


Chapter 14: Becoming Parents: The Family with Young Children

Betty Carter, Monica McGoldrick, & Barbara Petkov


Expectations Versus Reality

The New Demographics of Families in the Parenting Phase

The Emotional System

Child Care and the Work—Family Dilemma

Gender Issues in Parenting: The Power Imbalance 


Alternate Pathways to Parenthood

Lesbian and Gay Parenting

Foster Care

Clinical Guidelines

Shifting Focus Among Levels of the System

Transition Groups

Helping Fathers to Be More Involved

Helping Parents Prepare Sons as Well as Daughters to Develop into Caring Adults

Helping White Parents to Prepare Their Children for a Multicultural World

Helping Minority-Group Parents to Protect Their Children in an Oppressive Society

Talking to Parents About Values



Chapter 15: Transformation of the Family System During Adolescence

Nydia Garcia Preto

The Sociocultural Context

Developing a Gender Identity

Gender Identity: A Social and Cultural Construct

Developing Racial and Ethnic Identity

Physical Changes

Sexual Changes and Sexual Orientation

Emotional Changes

Changes in the Family Structure

Therapeutic Interventions

Renegotiating Relationships Between Parents and Adolescents

Strengthening the Parental Bond

Building Community



Chapter 16: Families at Midlife: Launching Children and Moving On

Nydia Garcia Preto & Lynn Blacker



Middle Age: The Longest Life Cycle Stage

Men and Women at Midlife

Women at Midlife

Men at Midlife

Other Midlife Tasks



Chapter 17: Families in Later Life: Challenges, Opportunities, and Resilience

Froma Walsh

The Graying of the Family

The Varying and Extended Family Life Course

From Ageism and Gerophobia to a Larger Vision of Later Life

The Vital Importance of Family Bonds

Later-Life Transitions and Challenges



Chronic Illness and Family Caregiving

Dementias: The Long Good-Bye

Family Intervention Issues and Priorities

From Designated Caregiver to Caregiving Team

Placement Planning

Facing End-of-life Challenges, Widowhood, and Loss of Loved Ones

Cross-Generational Interplay of Life Cycle Issues

Successful Aging: Meaning and Connection

The Wisdom and Spirit of the Elders

The Significance of Relational Connections

Clinical Challenges and Opportunities: A Resilience-Oriented Approach

Facilitating Family Healing and Resilience

Looking Ahead

Expanding Our Developmental Lens


Chapter 18: Death, Loss, and the Family Life Cycle  

Monica McGoldrick & Froma Walsh

Family Adaptation to Loss

Loss at Various Family Life Cycle Stages

Launching Children and Moving On

Families in Later Life

Death in Divorced and Remarried Families

Varied Life Course Challenges: Hidden and Stigmatized Losses

Diverse Cultural and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices



Chapter 19: Divorce: An Unscheduled Family Transition 

Constance R. Ahrons

The Context of Divorce: Historical and Legal Perspectives

Demographics and the Probability of Divorce

Ethnic and Life Cycle Variations

The Social Context

Divorce as a Multidimensional Process

The Binuclear Family

Transitions of the Divorce Process

The Transitions Framework

Individual Cognition: The Decision

Family Metacognition: The Announcement

Systemic Separation: Dismantling the Nuclear Family

Systemic Reorganization: The Binuclear Family

Family Redefinition: The Aftermath

Clinical Overview


Chapter 20: Single-Parent Families: Strengths, Vulnerabilities, and Interventions  

Carol M. Anderson & Maria Anderson

Single Parents and the Family Life Cycle

When Single-Parent Families Seek Help



Chapter 21: Families Transformed by the Divorce Cycle: Reconstituted, Multinuclear, Recoupled, and Remarried Families

Monica McGoldrick & Betty Carter

Gender Issues in Divorce

Time to Move Through This Life Cycle Phase

The Divorce and Postdivorce Family Emotional Process

A New Paradigm of Family

The Impact of Remarriage at Various Phases of the Family Life Cycle

Spouses at the Same Life Cycle Phase

Stepfamilies and Young Children

Stepfamilies With Adolescents

The Impact of Remarriage in Later Life Cycle Phases

Clinical Intervention With Remarried Families Clinical Guidelines

Case Illustration


Chapter 22: Migration and the Life Cycle

Celia J. Falicov

A Social Critique of Life Cycle Concepts in Family Therapy

Age and Life Cycle Stage at the Time of Migration

Contextual Stressors in the Life Cycle of Immigrants

Separations, Reunifications, and Life Cycle Consequences

Family Reorganizations and Life Cycle Reverberations

Cultural Changes and Cultural Retention in the Family Life Cycle





Chapter 23: Chronic Ilness and the Life Cycle  

John S. Rolland

The Social Context of Illness and Disabilities

Psychosocial Typology of Illness

Time Phases of Illness

Clinical Implications

Interface of the Illness, Individual, and Family Development

Periods of Child-Rearing and Postlaunching

Life Cycle Transition Periods

Life Structure-Maintaining Periods

Multigenerational Experiences With Illness, Loss, and Crisis Life Cycle Coincidences Across Generations

The New Era of Genetics



Chapter 24: Alcohol Problems and the Life Cycle

Tracey A. Laszloffy

Definitions of Alcoholism

Scope of the Problem

Risk Factors/Vulnerabilities

Understanding Alcoholism From a Family Life Cycle Perspective

A Word About Contextual Factors

Effect of Alcoholism on Children

Families With Adolescents

Midlife Change


Aging and Later Life

Implications for Treatment

Case Study–The Burton Family



Chapter 25: Violence and the Life Cycle  

Monica McGoldrick & Mary Anne Ross

A Family or Social Legacy

Young Adulthood

Families With Young Children

Families With Adolescents

Families at Midlife

Older Families



Chapter 26: Psychiatric Illness and the Life Cycle

Ellen Berman & Alison Heru

The Concept of Psychiatric Illness

The Evolving Nature of Diagnosis

Psychiatric Illness and the Family System

Culture and Psychiatric Illness

Psychiatric Illness and the Family Life Cycle

The Family With Young and Adolescent Children



Chapter 27: Coaching at Various Stages of the Life Cycle  

Monica McGoldrick & Betty Carter

Fusion and Differentiation

Distancing and Cut Off



Reversals and Detriangling

Opening Up a Closed System

Engagement and System Mapping

Planning: Learning About the System and One’s Own Role in It

Guidelines to Teach Clients

The Single Young Adult The Main Work Follow Through

Money and the Family

Gender Issues in Coaching

Guidelines for the Therapist (Coach)



Chapter 28: Creating Meaningful Rituals for New Life Cycle Transitions  

Evan Imber-Black

Creating Rituals as a Developmental Task for Couples

Contemporary Life Cycle Transitions

The Emergence of Symptoms

Therapeutic Rituals

Discussion of the Ritual

Healing Rituals

Identity Redefinition Rituals

Designing and Implementing Rituals for New Life Cycle Transitions



Chapter 29: The Therapist and the Family: The Intersection of Life Cycles

Steve Lerner

Dimensions of Similarity Between Therapist and Client

Brief Scenarios: Complex Therapist—Family Life Cycle Interactions

Families With Young Children: A Complex Intersection

She Nurtures/He Earns: The Therapist’s Transition Gets in the Way

The Long-Term View: Working With One Family Over Successive Life Cycle Stages

Working With Loss: A Link Between Life Cycle Stages



Appendix: A Multicultural Life Cycle Framework for Clinical Assessment  

Monica McGoldrick, Betty Carter & Nydia Garcia Preto

A Multicontextual Assessment

I. Assessing Individual Life Cycle Development & Stressors (Body, Mind, and Spirit)

II. Assessing the Family: Immediate and Extended Family System

III. Assessing the Social and Cultural Context

Assessing Families’ Multiple Contexts

Questions to Help Clients Think About Their Family’s Migration and Cultural Heritage in a Multicontextual

Life Cycle Perspective

Questions to Help Clients Look Beyond the Stress of Their Current Situation and Access the Strengths

of Their Heritage

Questions About Values

About Privilege and Oppression

Tools for Assessment

Standard Symbols for Genograms


Name Index

Subject Index

Rewards Program

Customer Reviews

excellent textbook March 15, 2011
I used this textbook in class, and I have been surprised at the amount of times I have turned to it since. It has helped me keep their life cycles in perspective, and has allowed me to understand the not-so-conventional families. It reads easily, is very informative, thought provoking, and rings true over and over again.
It is so clearly written that I recommend it not only to family therapists, but also to just plain folks who want to learn more about how families work.
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Expanded Family Life Cycle, The: Individual, Family, And Social Perspectives, 4/E: 5 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

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