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9781931719162

Explaining Criminal Justice

by ; ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781931719162

  • ISBN10:

    1931719160

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-10-01
  • Publisher: Oxford Univ Pr
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Table of Contents

About the Authors ix
Crime and the Criminal Justice System
1(14)
Introduction: What Is Crime?
1(4)
Measuring Crime
1(4)
The Philosophies of the Criminal Justice System
5(1)
Retribution
5(1)
Deterrence
5(1)
Rehabilitation
6(1)
A System of Checks and Balances
6(2)
The Four C's of the Criminal Justice System (Citizens, Cops, Courts, and Corrections)
8(3)
Recent Trends in Criminal Justice
11(2)
References
13(1)
Suggested Readings
14(1)
History of the Criminal Justice System
14(1)
History of American Criminal Justice
14(1)
Discretionary Decision Making in the Criminal Justice System
14(1)
Discussion Questions
14(1)
Theories and Explanations of Crime
15(34)
Introduction
16(3)
Theoretical Schools of Thought
19(1)
The Classical School
19(1)
The Positivist School
19(1)
Neoclassicism
20(1)
Biological Explanations
20(4)
Physical Appearance Theories
21(1)
Genetics and Inheritance Explanations
22(1)
Biosocial Approaches
23(1)
Psychological Explanations
24(5)
Psychoanalytic Approaches
25(1)
Developmental Explanations
26(1)
Learning Theories
27(1)
Personality Traits
28(1)
Sociological Explanations
29(14)
The Ecological Perspective
29(2)
Sociological Learning Theories
31(2)
Subcultural Approaches
33(2)
Routine Activities and Rational Choice
35(1)
Social Control Theories
36(2)
Strain Theories
38(2)
The Labeling Perspective
40(1)
Conflict Theories
41(2)
Theory Integration
43(1)
Summary
44(1)
References
44(2)
Suggested Readings
46(1)
Discussion Questions
47(2)
Policing and Law Enforcement
49(32)
Introduction
49(3)
Law Enforcement
50(1)
Order Maintenance
51(1)
Service
52(1)
Structure
52(5)
Local
53(1)
Sheriff
53(1)
Special Police
54(1)
State
54(1)
Federal
55(1)
Tribal
56(1)
Homeland Security
56(1)
Organization
57(2)
Sworn vs. Civilian
57(1)
Geography
58(1)
Time
59(1)
Police Work and Career Paths
59(3)
The Hiring Process
60(1)
Field Training
61(1)
Promotion
61(1)
Historical Background
62(2)
The American Experience
64(7)
Political Era
64(1)
Professional Era
65(1)
Community Policing Era
66(5)
Enduring Elements and Issues
71(6)
Police Subculture
71(1)
Police Corruption
72(1)
Harassment
73(1)
Improper Use of Force and Police Brutality
74(1)
The Blue Wall
75(1)
Policing the Police
76(1)
Special Constituencies
77(1)
Future Issues
77(2)
References
79(1)
Suggested Readings
79(1)
Police Culture
79(1)
Community-Oriented and Problem-Oriented Policing
79(1)
Modern Reform: Initial Studies
80(1)
Discussion Questions
80(1)
Courts and Legal Issues
81(22)
Introduction
81(6)
Common Law
82(1)
Sources of Law
82(1)
Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
83(1)
Adversarial System
84(1)
Due Process vs. Crime Control
85(2)
The Court System
87(2)
Dual Court System
87(1)
Jurisdiction
87(1)
Assembly-Line Justice
88(1)
Courtroom Workgroup
88(1)
Attrition and Plea Bargaining
89(1)
Federal Court System
89(2)
State Court Systems
91(1)
Court Actors
92(4)
Prosecutors
93(1)
Defense Attorneys
94(1)
Judges
95(1)
Movement of Cases Through the Court System
96(3)
Current Issues
99(1)
References
100(1)
Suggested Readings
100(1)
Due Process and Crime Control Models of the Criminal Justice System
100(1)
Courts and Court Processes
100(1)
Politics in the Administration of the Court System
100(1)
Discussion Questions
100(3)
Corrections
103(34)
Introduction
103(3)
Contemporary Corrections
105(1)
Punishment in Contemporary America
106(2)
Sentencing and Sanctions
108(3)
Sentencing Models
109(2)
Available Sanctions
111(18)
Community Supervision and Intermediate Sanctions
114(5)
Jails
119(1)
Prisons and Correctional Institutions
120(5)
Prison Life, Release, and Reintegration
125(4)
Future Issues Facing Corrections
129(2)
References
131(3)
Suggested Readings
134(1)
History of Punishment
134(1)
Prisons and Imprisonment
134(1)
Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Parole
134(1)
Discussion Questions
134(3)
The Juvenile Justice System
137(30)
Introduction
138(1)
Defining Delinquency
138(2)
The Development of the Juvenile Justice System
140(1)
The Philosophy of the System
141(2)
The Police and Juveniles
143(2)
The Juvenile Court
145(6)
Detention
145(2)
The Intake Decision
147(1)
The Transfer (or Waiver) Decision
148(1)
Adjudication
149(1)
Disposition
150(1)
Due Process for Juveniles
151(2)
Juvenile Corrections
153(7)
Diversion
154(1)
Institutional and Residential Interventions
155(3)
Community Interventions
158(2)
Special Topics
160(4)
Gangs
160(1)
Drugs and Delinquency
161(1)
Capital Punishment and Juveniles
162(1)
Calls to Eliminate the Juvenile System
163(1)
References
164(2)
Suggested Readings
166(1)
General Juvenile Justice
166(1)
History
166(1)
Transfer or Waiver
166(1)
Changing Philosophy
166(1)
Discussion Questions
166(1)
Appendix Readings for Further Topics
167(2)
Crime Prevention
167(1)
Victimology
167(1)
Restorative Justice
167(1)
Terrorism
168(1)
Race, Class, and Gender
168(1)
International Criminal Justice
168(1)
Author Index 169(4)
Subject Index 173

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