Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory : Seeing the Social World

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-04-30
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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Written in a praised conversational tone with personal examples and bolstered with helpful pedagogical tools, Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory: Seeing the Social World introduces readers to the major classical theorists: Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, Mead, Schutz, Martineau Gilman, Du Bois, and Parsons. These theorists were chosen for diversity as well as utility in introducing students to contemporary theory. Author Kenneth Allan focuses on the specific views of each theorist, rather than schools of thought, and highlights modernity and postmodernity to help readers understand how classical sociological theory applies to their lives.An emphasis on teaching readers how to ˘think theoretically,÷ offering the context of modernity as a meaningful frameworkA focus on the particular perspective of each theorist with its nuances intactA categorical scheme that helps students situate the theorists, compare their work, and ponder for themselves some of sociologyĂs big questionsExtensive use of original source material from theoristsĂ writings, displaying the power and poetry of theory˘Definition,÷ ˘Big Idea,÷ and ˘Genesis of a Perspective÷ boxes throughout each chapter that discuss terms and concepts central to sociologyA ˘Building Your Own Theory Toolbox÷ section at the end of each chapter to encourage further exploration

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Beginning to See: A Sociological Corep. 1
The Making of Modernity and the Modern Way of Knowingp. 2
Institutions of Modernityp. 4
The Birth of Sociology: August Comtep. 5
Comte's Positivismp. 7
The Evolution of Knowledgep. 10
Theoryp. 12
Advantages and Goals of Positivismp. 13
Seeing Societyp. 15
Sociological Methodsp. 16
Practicing Theory-A Summaryp. 18
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 22
Seeing Society for the First Time: Herbert Spencerp. 23
Theorist's Digestp. 24
The Sociological Imagination of Herbert Spencerp. 25
Spencer's Lifep. 25
Spencer's Social Worldp. 27
Spencer's Sociological Imagination: Functionalismp. 30
Concepts and Theory: Social Evolutionp. 31
The Social Systemp. 32
System Needsp. 33
Differentiation and Specializationp. 34
Types of Societyp. 36
Regulatory Complexityp. 37
Industrial and Militaristicp. 38
Concepts and Theory: Social Institutionsp. 43
Domestic Institutionsp. 44
Ceremonial Institutionsp. 46
Ecclesiastical Institutionsp. 47
Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 49
Defining Postmodernityp. 49
Religion: A Postmodern Case in Pointp. 50
Summaryp. 52
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 53
Class Inequality: Karl Marxp. 57
Theorist's Digestp. 59
The Sociological Imagination of Karl Marxp. 59
Marx's Lifep. 60
Marx's Social Worldp. 63
Marx's Intellectual Worldp. 64
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegelp. 65
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbachp. 70
Adam Smithp. 70
Marx's Sociological Imagination: Critical Conflict Theoryp. 73
Human Naturep. 74
History-The Material Dialecticp. 77
Concepts and Theory: The Contradictions of Capitalismp. 79
Value and Exploitationp. 80
Industrialization, Markets, and Commodificationp. 83
Concepts and Theory: Class Revolutionp. 86
Class and Class Structurep. 87
Overproductionp. 89
Concepts and Theory: The Problem of Consciousnessp. 89
Alienation, Private Property, and Commodity Fetishp. 91
False Consciousness and Religionp. 95
Class Consciousnessp. 99
Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 103
Machines of Production and Consciousnessp. 103
Machines of Reproduction and Schizophrenic Culturep. 104
Summaryp. 105
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 106
Diversity and Social Solidarity: ╔mile Durkheimp. 109
Theorist's Digestp. 110
The Sociological Imagination of ╔mile Durkheimp. 111
Durkheim's Lifep. 111
Durkheim's Social Worldp. 113
Durkheim's Intellectual Worldp. 114
Montesquieup. 114
Jean-Jacques Rousseaup. 117
Durkheim's Contribution to Functionalismp. 120
Durkheim's Sociological Imagination: Cultural Sociologyp. 121
Concepts and Theory: Primal Societyp. 122
Defining Religionp. 125
Creating a Sacred Worldp. 127
Concepts and Theory: Social Diversity and Moral Consensusp. 132
Mechanical and Organic Solidarityp. 133
The Division of Laborp. 137
The Problem With Modern Societyp. 138
Organic Solidarity and Social Pathologyp. 140
Concepts and Theory: Individualismp. 144
Suicidep. 144
The Cult of the Individualp. 146
Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 148
Grand Narratives, Doubt, and Civil Religionp. 148
Summaryp. 151
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 153
Rationality and Organization: Max Weberp. 157
Theorist's Digestp. 159
The Sociological Imagination of Max Weberp. 159
Weber's Lifep. 159
Weber's Social Worldp. 163
Weber's Intellectual Worldp. 168
The Problems of Values and Meaningp. 169
Specific Methods: Ideal Typesp. 172
Specific Methods: Verstehenp. 173
Weber's Sociological Imaginationp. 175
Concepts and Theory: The Process of Rationalizationp. 177
Types of Social Actionp. 178
Concepts and Theory: The Evolution of Religionp. 181
From Magic to Religionp. 181
From Polytheism to Ethical Monotheismp. 184
Concepts and Theory: The Rise of Capitalismp. 187
The Religious Culture of Capitalismp. 187
Structural Influences on Capitalismp. 191
Concepts and Theory: Class, Authority, and Social Changep. 193
Classp. 193
Status and Partyp. 196
Crosscutting Stratificationp. 198
Authority and Social Changep. 199
Concepts and Theory: Rational-Legal Organizationp. 202
Ideal-Type Bureaucraciesp. 204
Effects of Bureaucratic Organizationp. 205
Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 207
Summaryp. 210
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 212
Introduction: Another Sociological Corep. 215
The Modern Person: George Herbert Mead and Georg Simmelp. 219
George Herbert Mead-Symbolic Interactionp. 221
Theorist's Digestp. 223
Concepts and Theory: Truth, Meaning, and Actionp. 224
Pragmatic Truthp. 224
Human Actionp. 225
Concepts and Theory: Meaning and Interactionp. 226
Symbolic Interactionp. 229
Concepts and Theory: Making Yourselfp. 229
The Mindp. 231
Stages of Role Takingp. 232
Self and Societyp. 234
The I and the Mep. 235
Summaryp. 235
Georg Simmel-Formal Sociologyp. 237
Theorist's Digestp. 239
Concepts and Theory: The Individual in Societyp. 239
Subjective and Objective Culturesp. 241
Concepts and Theory: The Self in the Cityp. 243
The Division of Laborp. 244
Money and Marketsp. 245
Social Networks: Rational Versus Organic Group Membershipp. 248
Summaryp. 251
Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 254
Simulacrum and Hyperrealityp. 255
Reflexivity and the Fragmenting of the Selfp. 257
Fusing the I and the Mep. 258
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 260
Seeing Gender: Harriett Martineau and Charlotte Perkins Gilmanp. 263
Waves of Feminismp. 264
Harriet Martineau-Gender and Democracyp. 267
Theorist's Digestp. 268
Concepts and Theory: Observing Societyp. 268
Morals and Mannersp. 269
Preparing the Observerp. 271
Safeguarding Observationsp. 272
Concepts and Theory: Gender and Democracyp. 273
Gender and Familyp. 273
The Cultural Logic of Genderp. 274
Workforce Participationp. 275
Concepts and Theory: Religion, Education, and Democracyp. 277
Religious Formsp. 277
Religious Forms and Democracyp. 278
Conditions of Religionp. 278
Education and Freedomp. 279
Summaryp. 281
Charlotte Perkins Gilman-The Evolution of Genderp. 282
Theorist's Digestp. 283
Concepts and Theory: Critical Evolution Theoryp. 284
Functional Evolutionp. 284
Adding Marxp. 285
Gynaecocentric Theoryp. 286
Concepts and Theory: Dynamics of Social Evolutionp. 287
Morbid Excess in Sex Distinctionp. 289
Sexuo-Economic Effectsp. 291
Summaryp. 294
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 295
Seeing Race: Frederick Douglass and W. E. B. Du Boisp. 299
Race Literaturep. 300
Frederick Douglass-The American Discourse of Racep. 301
Theorist's Digestp. 303
Concepts and Theory: The Discourse of Slaveryp. 304
Race as Otherp. 306
Democracy and Universalismp. 307
Summaryp. 309
W. E. B. Du Bois-The Culture of Racep. 310
Theorist's Digestp. 312
Concepts and Theory: The Experience of Oppression and Critical Knowledgep. 312
Standpoint of the Oppressedp. 313
Concepts and Theory: Cultural Oppressionp. 315
Exclusion From Historyp. 315
Representationp. 316
Stereotypes and Slippery Slopesp. 317
Double Consciousnessp. 318
Concepts and Theory: The Dark Nations and World Capitalismp. 319
The Need for Colorp. 320
Summaryp. 321
Gender and Race: Thinking About Modernity and Postmodernityp. 322
Modernity and Identityp. 322
The Postmodern Twistp. 323
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 325
Seeing Ahead: Defining Moments in Twentieth Century Theory: Talcott Parsons and the Frankfurt Schoolp. 329
Talcott Parsons: Defining Sociologyp. 330
Parsons's Vision for the Social Sciencesp. 330
Parsons's Theoretical Projectp. 331
Parsons and the Problem of Social Orderp. 333
Voluntaristic Actionp. 334
Patterning Voluntaristic Actionp. 334
The Frankfurt School: The Problem With Sociologyp. 336
Historical Rootsp. 337
The Problem With Positivism: Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adornop. 337
Building Your Theory Toolboxp. 340
Referencesp. 341
Photo Creditsp. 351
Indexp. 353
About the Authorp. 379
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