Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey, Value Edition, Combined Volume

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  • Copyright: 2014-01-03
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Explore U.S. histories at an affordable price

Exploring American Histories, Value Edition, presents Nancy Hewitt and Steven Lawson's new U.S. history narrative in a two-color trade format with selected maps and images from the full-length text. The authors explore a variety of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic perspectives and recognize the political, social, and economic contributions of both men and women in their narrative. Competitively priced to save your students money, the Value Edition includes online document projects and features Bedford/St. Martin's new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes.  It's the best content joined up with the best technology.

What's in the LaunchPad

Author Biography

Nancy A. Hewitt (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of History and of Women’s and Gender Studies at Rutgers University. Her publications include Southern Discomfort: Women’s Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s-1920s, for which she received the Julia Cherry Spruill Prize from the Southern Association of Women Historians, Women’s Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822-1872, and the edited volume No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism. She is currently working on a biography of the nineteenth-century radical activist Amy Post and a book that recasts the U.S. woman suffrage movement.

Steven F. Lawson (Ph.D., Columbia University) is Professor Emeritus of History at Rutgers University. His research interests include U.S. politics since 1945 and the history of the civil rights movement, with a particular focus on black politics and the interplay between civil rights and political culture in the mid-twentieth century. He is the author of many works including Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America since 1941, Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969, and In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965-1982.


Table of Contents



Versions and Supplements

Maps, Figures, and Tables


1 Mapping Global Frontiers, to 1585

American Histories: Malintzin and Martin Waldseemüller

     Native Peoples in the Americas

          Native Peoples Develop Diverse Cultures

          The Aztecs, the Maya, and the Incas

          Native Cultures to the North

     Europe Expands Its Reach

          The Mediterranean World

          Portugal Pursues Long-Distance Trade

          European Encounters with West Africa

     Worlds Collide

          Europeans Cross the Atlantic

          Europeans Explore the Americas

          Mapmaking and Printing

          The Columbian Exchange

     Europeans Make Claims to North America

          Spaniards Conquer Indian Empires

          Spanish Adventurers Head North

          Europeans Compete in North America

          Spain Seeks Dominion in the Americas

     Conclusion: A New America

Chapter Review — [[LC icon]] LearningCurve

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Mapping America

Spanish and Indian Encounters in the Americas, 1520-1555


2 Colonization and Conflicts, 1550–1680

American Histories: Captain John Smith and Anne Hutchinson

     Religious and Imperial Transformations

          The Protestant Reformation

          Spain’s Global Empire Declines

          France Enters the Race for Empire

          The Dutch Expand into North America

     The English Seek an Empire

          The English Establish Jamestown

          Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia

         Expansion, Rebellion, and the Emergence of Slavery

          The English Compete for West Indies Possessions

     Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

          Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts

          The Puritan Migration

          The Puritan Worldview

         Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

          Wars in Old and New England

     Conclusion: European Empires in North America

Chapter Review — [[LC icon]] LearningCurve

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King Philip’s War

Comparing Virginia and Massachusetts Bay Colonies


3 Global Changes Reshape Colonial America, 1680–1750

American Histories: William Moraley Jr. and Eliza Lucas

     Europeans Expand Their Claims

          English Colonies Grow and Multiply

          France Seeks Land and Control

          The Pueblo Revolt and Spain’s Fragile Empire

     European Wars and American Consequences     

          Colonial Conflicts and Indian Alliances

          Indians Resist European Encroachment

          Global Conflicts on the Southern Frontier

     The Benefits and Costs of Empire

          Colonial Traders Join Global Networks

          Imperial Policies Focus on Profits

          The Atlantic Slave Trade

          Seaport Cities and Consumer Cultures

     Labor in North America

          Finding Work in the Northern Colonies

          Coping with Economic Distress

          Rural Americans Face Changing Conditions

          Slavery Takes Hold in the South

          Africans Resist Their Enslavement

     Conclusion: Changing Fortunes in British North America

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The Production of Indigo

The Atlantic Slave Trade


4 Religious Strife and Social Upheavals, 1680–1750

American Histories: Gilbert Tennent and Sarah Grosvenor

     An Ungodly Society?

          The Rise of Religious Anxieties

          Cries of Witchcraft

     Family and Household Dynamics

          Women’s Changing Status

          Working Families

          Reproduction and Women’s Roles

          The Limits of Patriarchal Order

     Diversity and Competition in Colonial Society

          Population Growth and Economic Competition

          Increasing Diversity

          Expansion and Conflict

     Religious Awakenings

          The Roots of the Great Awakening

          An Outburst of Revivals

          Religious Dissension

     Political Awakenings

          Changing Political Relations

          Dissent and Protest

          Transforming Urban Politics

     Conclusion: A Divided Society

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Awakening Religious Tensions

A New Commercial Culture in Boston


5 Wars and Empires, 1750–1774

American Histories: George Washington and Herman Husband

     A War for Empire, 1754–1763

          The Opening Battles

          A Shift to Global War

          The Costs of Victory

          Battles and Boundaries on the Frontier

          Conflicts over Land and Labor Escalate

     Postwar British Policies and Colonial Unity

          Common Grievances

          Forging Ties across the Colonies

          Great Britain Seeks Greater Control

     Resistance to Britain Intensifies

          The Stamp Act Inspires Coordinated Resistance

          The Townshend Act and the Boston Massacre

          Continuing Conflicts at Home

          Tea and Widening Resistance

          The Continental Congress and Colonial Unity

     Conclusion: Liberty within Empire

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The Boston Massacre

Defining Liberty, Defining America


6 Revolutions, 1775–1783

American Histories: Thomas Paine and Deborah Sampson

     The Question of Independence

          Armed Conflict Erupts

          Building a Continental Army

          Reasons for Caution and for Action

          Declaring Independence

     Choosing Sides

          Recruiting Supporters

          Choosing Neutrality

          Committing to Independence

     Fighting for Independence

          British Troops Gain Early Victories

          Patriots Prevail in New Jersey

          A Critical Year of Warfare

          Patriots Gain Critical Assistance

          Surviving on the Home Front

     Governing in Revolutionary Times

          Colonies Become States

          Patriots Divide over Slavery

          France Allies with the Patriots

          Raising Armies and Funds

          Indian Affairs and Land Claims

     Winning the War and the Peace

          Fighting in the West

          War Rages in the South

          An Uncertain Peace

          A Surprising Victory

     Conclusion: Legacies of the Revolution

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Women in the Revolution

Loyalists in the American Revolution


7 Political Cultures, 1783–1800

American Histories: Daniel Shays and Alexander Hamilton

     Postwar Problems

          Officers Threaten Mutiny

          Indians, Land, and the Northwest Ordinance

          Depression and Debt

     On the Political Margins

          Separating Church and State

          African Americans Struggle for Rights

          Women Seek Wider Roles

          Indebted Farmers Fuel Political Crises

     Reframing the American Government

          The Philadelphia Convention of 1787

          Americans Battle over Ratification

          Organizing the Federal Government

          Hamilton Forges an Economic Agenda

     Years of Crisis, 1792–1796

          Foreign Trade and Foreign Wars

          The Whiskey Rebellion

          Further Conflicts on the Frontier

     The First Party System

          The Adams Presidency

          The Election of 1800

     Conclusion: A Young Nation Comes of Age

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The Whiskey Rebellion

Debating the Constitution


8 New Frontiers, 1790–1820

American Histories: Parker Cleaveland and Sacagawea

     Creating an American Identity

          Education for a New Nation

          Literary and Cultural Developments

          The Racial Limits of American Culture

          Emigration and Colonization

          Building a National Capital

     Extending U.S. Borders

          A New Administration Faces Challenges

          Incorporating the Louisiana Territory

          The Supreme Court Extends Its Reach

          Democratic-Republicans Expand Federal Powers

     Remaking the U.S. Economy

          The U.S. Population Grows and Migrates

          Technology Reshapes Agriculture and Industry

          Transforming Household Production

          Technology, Cotton, and Slaves

     Conclusion: New Frontiers and New Challenges

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Race Relations in the Early Republic

Literary and Cultural Developments in the Early United States


9 Defending and Redefining the Nation, 1809–1832

American Histories: Dolley Madison and John Ross

     Conflicts at Home and Abroad

          Tensions at Sea and on the Frontier

          War Erupts with Britain

     Expanding the Economy and the Nation

          Governments Fuel Economic Growth

          Americans Expand the Nation’s Borders

          Regional Economic Development

     Economic and Political Crises

          The Panic of 1819

          Slavery in Missouri

     Redefining American Democracy

          Expanding Voting Rights

          Racial Restrictions and Antiblack Violence

          Political Realignments

          The Presidential Election of 1828

     Jacksonian Democracy in Action

          A Democratic Spirit?

          Confrontations over Tariffs and the Bank

          Contesting Indian Removal

     Conclusion: The Nation Faces New Challenges

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The Panic of 1819

The Election of 1828


10 Slavery Expands South and West, 1830–1850

American Histories: James Henry Hammond and Solomon Northrup

     Planters Expand the Slave System

          A Plantation Society Develops in the South

          Urban Life in the Slave South

          The Consequences of Slavery’s Expansion

          Slave Society and Culture

          Slaves Fuel the Southern Economy

          Developing an African American Culture

          Resistance and Rebellion

     Planters Tighten Control

          Harsher Treatment for Southern Blacks

          White Southerners without Slaves

          Planters Seek to Unify Southern Whites

     Democrats Face Political and Economic Crises

          Continued Conflicts over Indian Lands

          The Battle for Texas

          Van Buren and the Panic of 1837

          The Whigs Gain the White House

     The National Government Looks to the West

          Expanding to Oregon and Texas

          Pursuing War with Mexico

          Debates over Slavery Intensify

     Conclusion: Geographical Expansion and Political Division

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Claiming Texas

Life in Slavery


11 Social and Cultural Ferment in the North, 1820–1850

American Histories: Charles Grandison Finney and Amy Post

     The Growth of Cities

          The Lure of Urban Life

          The Roots of Urban Disorder

          The New Middle Class

     The Rise of Industry

          Factory Towns and Women Workers

          Deskilling and the Response of Working Men

          The Panic of 1837 in the North

          Rising Class and Cultural Tensions

     Saving the Nation from Sin

          The Second Great Awakening

          New Spirits Rising


     Organizing for Change

          Varieties of Reform

          The Temperance Movement

          Utopian Communities

     Abolitionism Expands and Divides

          The Beginnings of the Antislavery Movement

          Abolition Gains Ground and Enemies

          Abolitionism and Women’s Rights

          The Rise of Antislavery Parties

     Conclusion: From the North to the Nation

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The Second Great Awakening and Women’s Activism

Debating Abolition


12 Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises, 1848–1861

American Histories: John C. Frémont and Dred Scott

     Claiming the West

          Traveling the Overland Trail

          The Gold Rush

          A Crowded Land

     Expansion and the Politics of Slavery

          California and the Compromise of 1850

          The Fugitive Slave Act Inspires Northern Protest

          Pierce Encourages U.S. Expansion

     Sectional Crises Intensify

          Popularizing Antislavery Sentiment

          The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stirs Up Dissent

          Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856

          The Dred Scott Decision

     From Sectional Crisis to War

          John Brown’s Raid

          The Election of 1860

          The Lower South Secedes

     Conclusion: The Coming of the Civil War

Chapter Review — [[LC icon]] LearningCurve

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Visions of John Brown

Sectional Politics and the Rise of the Republican Party


13 Civil War, 1861–1865

American Histories: Frederick Douglass and Rose O’Neal Greenhow

     The Nation Goes to War

          The South Embraces Secession

          Both Sides Prepare for War

     Fighting for Union or against Slavery?

          Debating the Role of African Americans

         Fighting for the Right to Fight

          Union Politicians Consider Emancipation

     War Transforms the North and the South

          Life and Death on the Battlefield

          The Northern Economy Booms

          Urbanization and Industrialization in the South

          Women Aid the War Effort

          Dissent and Protest in the Midst of War

The Tide of War Turns

          Key Victories for the Union

          African Americans Contribute to Victory

          The Final Battles and the Promise of Peace

     Conclusion: An Uncertain Future

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Civil War Letters

Home Front Protest during the Civil War


14 Emancipations and Reconstructions, 1863–1877

American Histories: Jefferson Long and Andrew Johnson

     Prelude to Reconstruction

          African Americans Embrace Emancipation

          Reuniting Families Torn Apart by Slavery

          Free to Learn

          Black Churches Take a Leadership Role

     National Reconstructions

          Abraham Lincoln Plans for Reunion

         Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

         Johnson and Congressional Resistance

          Congressional Reconstruction

          The Struggle for Universal Suffrage

     Remaking the South

          Whites Reconstruct the South

          Black Political Participation and Economic Opportunities

          White Resistance to Congressional Reconstruction

     The Unmaking of Reconstruction

          The Republican Retreat

          Congressional and Judicial Retreat

          The Presidential Compromise of 1876

     Conclusion: The Legacies of Reconstruction

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Testing and Contesting Freedom

Reconstruction in South Carolina


15 Frontier Encounters, 1865–1896

American Histories: Annie Oakley and Geronimo

     Opening the West

          The Great Plains

          Federal Policy and Foreign Investment

     Conquest of the Frontier

          Indian Civilizations

          Changing Federal Policy toward Indians

          Indian Defeat

          Reforming Indian Policy

          Indian Assimilation and Resistance

     The Mining Frontier

          The Business of Mining

          Life in the Mining Towns

     Ranching and Farming Frontiers

          The Life of the Cowboy

          Farmers Head West

          Women Homesteaders

          The Economy of Farming on the Great Plains

     Pushing Farther West

          Mormons Head West


          The Chinese in the Far West

     Conclusion: The Ambiguous Legacy of the Frontier

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American Indians and Whites on the Frontier

Women in the West


16 American Industry in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: Andrew Carnegie and John Sherman

     America Industrializes

          The New Industrial Economy

          Innovation and Inventions

          Building a New South

          Industrial Consolidation

          The Growth of Corporations

     Free Markets and Rugged Individuals

          The Doctrine of Success

          Challenges to Laissez-Faire

     Society and Culture in the Gilded Age

          Wealthy and Middle-Class Pleasures

          Changing Gender Roles

          Black America and Jim Crow

     National Politics in the Era of Industrialization

          Why Great Men Did Not Become President

          Congressional Inaction

          An Energized and Entertained Electorate

     Conclusion: Industry in the Age of Organization

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Debates about Laissez-Faire

Labor and Race in the New South


17 Workers and Farmers in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: John McLuckie and Mary Elizabeth Lease

     Working People Organize

          The Industrialization of Labor

          Organizing Unions

          Clashes between Workers and Owners

          Working-Class Leisure in Industrial America

     Farmers Organize

          Farmers Unite

          Populists Rise Up

     The Depression of the 1890s

          Depression Politics

          Political Realignment in the Election of 1896

          The Decline of the Populists

     Conclusion: A Passion for Organization

Chapter Review — [[LC icon]] LearningCurve

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The Pullman Strike of 1894

The Meanings of Populism


18 Cities, Immigrants, and the Nation, 1880–1914

American Histories: Beryl Lassin and Maria Vik

     A New Wave of Immigrants

          Immigrants Arrive from Many Lands

          Creating Immigrant Communities

          Hostility toward Recent Immigrants

          The Assimilation Dilemma

     Becoming an Urban Nation

          The New Industrial City

          Cities Expand Outward and Upward

          How the Other Half Lived

     Urban Politics at the Turn of the Century

          Political Machines and City Bosses

          Urban Reformers

     Conclusion: A Nation of Cities

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"Melting Pot" or "Vegetable Soup"?

Class and Leisure in the American City


19 Progressivism and the Search for Order, 1900–1917

American Histories: Gifford Pinchot and Gene Stratton-Porter

     The Roots of Progressivism

          Progressive Origins


     Humanitarian Reform

          Female Progressives and the Poor

          Fighting for Women’s Suffrage

          Progressivism and African Americans

     Morality and Social Control


          The Crusade against Vice

          Immigration Restriction

     Good Government Progressivism

          Municipal and State Reform

          Conservation and Preservation of the Environment

     Presidential Progressivism

          Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

          Taft Retreats from Progressivism

          The Election of 1912 and the Progressive Mandate

          Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Agenda

     Conclusion: The Progressive Legacy

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Progressivism and Social Control

The New Nationalism, the New Freedom, and the Election of 1912


20 Empire and Wars, 1898–1918

American Histories: Alfred Thayer Mahan and José Martí

     The Awakening of Imperialism

          The Economics of Expansion

          Cultural Justifications for Imperialism

          Gender and Empire

     The War with Spain

          Cuba Libre

          The War of 1898

          A Not-So-Free Cuba

          The Philippine War

     Extending U.S. Imperialism, 1899–1913

          Theodore Roosevelt and "Big Stick" Diplomacy

          Opening the Door in China

     Wilson and American Foreign Policy, 1912–1917

          Diplomacy and War

          Making the World Safe for Democracy

     Fighting the War at Home

          Government by Commission

          Winning Hearts and Minds

          Waging Peace

          The Failure of Ratification

     Conclusion: An American Empire

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Imperialism versus Anti-Imperialism

The Committee on Public Information and Wartime Propaganda


21 An Anxious Affluence, 1919–1929

American Histories: D. C. Stephenson and Ossian Sweet

     Postwar Turmoil

          The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties

          The Red Scare, 1919–1920

          Racial Violence in the Postwar Era

     People of Plenty

          Government Promotion of the Economy

          Americans Become Consumers

          Perilous Prosperity

     Challenges to Social Conventions

          Breaking with the Old Morality

          The African American Renaissance

          Marcus Garvey and Black Nationalism

     Culture Wars

          Nativists versus Immigrants

          Resurrection of the Ku Klux Klan

          Fundamentalism versus Modernism

     Politics and the Fading of Prosperity

          The Battle for the Soul of the Democratic Party

          Where Have All the Progressives Gone?

          Financial Crash

     Conclusion: The Roaring Twenties

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The Abrams Case and the Red Scare

The New Negro and the Harlem Renaissance


22 Depression, Dissent, and the New Deal, 1929–1940

American Histories: Eleanor Roosevelt and Luisa Moreno

     The Great Depression

          Hoover Faces the Depression

          Hoovervilles and Dust Storms

          Challenges for Minorities

          Families under Strain

          The Season of Discontent

     The New Deal

          Roosevelt Restores Confidence

          Steps toward Recovery

          Direct Assistance and Relief

          New Deal Critics

     The New Deal Moves to the Left

          Expanding Relief Measures

          Establishing Social Security

          Organized Labor Strikes Back

          A Half Deal for Minorities

          Twilight of the New Deal

     Conclusion: New Deal Liberalism

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The Depression in Rural America

Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal and its Critics


23 World War II, 1933–1945

American Histories: J. Robert Oppenheimer and Fred Korematsu

     The Road toward War

          The Growing Crisis in Europe

          The Challenge to Isolationism

          The United States Enters the War

     Global War

          War in Europe

          War in the Pacific

          Ending the War

          Evidence of the Holocaust

     The Home-Front Economy

          Managing the Wartime Economy

          New Opportunities for Women

          Everyday Life on the Home Front

     Fighting for Equality at Home

          The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement

          Struggles for Mexican Americans

          The Ordeal of Japanese Americans

     Conclusion: The Impact of World War II

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The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb

Anti-Japanese Prejudice during World War II


24 The Opening of the Cold War, 1945–1954

American Histories: George Kennan and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

     The Origins of the Cold War, 1945–1947

         Mutual Misunderstandings

          The Truman Doctrine

          The Marshall Plan and Economic Containment

     The Cold War Hardens, 1948–1952

          Military Containment

          The Korean War

          The War and the Imperial Presidency

     Peacetime Challenges, 1945–1948

          Coming Home

          Economic Conversion and Labor Discontent

          The Postwar Civil Rights Struggle

          The Election of 1948

     The Anti-Communist Consensus, 1945–1954

          Loyalty and Americanism


     Conclusion: The Cold War and Anticommunism

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McCarthyism and the Hollywood Ten

McCarthyism in Higher Education


25 Troubled Innocence, 1950–1961

American Histories: Alan Freed and Grace Metalious

     The Boom Years

          Economic Boom

          Baby Boom

          Suburban Boom

     The Culture of the 1950s

          The Rise of Television

          Wild Ones on the Big Screen

          The Influence of Teenage Culture

          The Lives of Women

          Religious Revival

          Beats and Other Nonconformists

     The Civil Rights Movement

          School Segregation and the Supreme Court

          The Montgomery Bus Boycott

          White Resistance to Desegregation

          The Sit-Ins

     The Eisenhower Era

          Modern Republicanism

          Eisenhower and the Cold War

          Cold War Interventions

          Early U.S. Intervention in Vietnam

          The Election of 1960

     Conclusion: Cold War Politics and Culture

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Teenagers in Postwar America

The Postwar Suburbs


26 The Liberal Consensus and Its Challengers, 1960–1973

American Histories: Earl Warren and Bayard Rustin

     The Politics of Liberalism

          Kennedy’s New Frontier

          Containment in Southeast Asia

        Johnson Escalates the War in Vietnam

     Civil Rights

          Freedom Rides

          The Government Responds on Civil Rights

          Freedom Summer and Voting Rights

     Reforming the Social Order

          The Great Society

          The Warren Court

     Challenges to the Liberal Center

          Movements on the Left

          Women’s Liberation

          Power to the People

          The Revival of Conservatism

     Conclusion: Liberalism and Its Discontents

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Freedom Summer

Women’s Liberation


27 The Conservative Ascendancy, 1968–1992

American Histories: Allan Bakke and Anita Hill

     Richard M. Nixon, War, and Politics, 1969–1974

          The Election of President Nixon

          The Failure of Vietnamization

          Cold War Realism and Détente

          Pragmatic Conservatism at Home

          The Nixon Landslide and Disgrace, 1972–1974

     The Challenges of the 1970s

          Jimmy Carter and the Limits of Affluence

          The Persistence of Liberalism

          Racial Struggles Continue

     The Conservative Political Ascendancy

          The New Right Revival

          The Triumph of Ronald Reagan

          The Implementation of Social Conservatism

          The George H.W. Bush Presidency

     Conclusion: The Conservative Legacy

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The Affirmative Action Debate

Debating the Vietnam War


28 Ending the Cold War, 1977–1991

American Histories: George Shultz and Barbara Deming

     Carter’s Diplomacy, 1977–1980

          The Perils of Détente

          Challenges in the Middle East

     Reagan’s Cold War Policy, 1981–1988

          "The Evil Empire"

          Human Rights and the Fight against Communism

          Fighting International Terrorism

          The Nuclear Freeze Movement

          The Road to Nuclear De-escalation

     The Fall of the Iron Curtain

          The Breakup of the Soviet Union

          Globalization and the New World Order

          Managing Conflict after the Cold War

     Conclusion: Farewell to the Cold War

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The Iran-Contra Scandal

Ronald Reagan and the End of the Cold War


29 The Challenges of a New Century, 1993 to the present

American Histories: Bill Gates and Kristen Breitweiser

     Transforming American Society

          The Computer Revolution

          Business Consolidation

          The Changing American Population

     Politics at the End of the Twentieth Century

          The Clinton Presidency

          Global Challenges and Economic Renewal

     The New Millennium

          George W. Bush and Compassionate Conservatism

          The United States at War

          The Decline of the Bush Presidency

     Challenges Ahead

          The Great Recession

          The Rise of Barack Obama

          An Unfinished Agenda

     Conclusion: Technology and Terror in a Global Society

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The Uses of September 11

The Environment and Federal Policy in the Twenty-First Century


The Declaration of Independence

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union

The Constitution of the United States

Amendments to the Constitution (including six unratified amendments)

Admission of States to the Union

Presidents of the United States

Glossary of Key Terms



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