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Exploring American Histories, Combined Volume A Brief Survey with Sources

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Combined
ISBN13:

9780312409982

ISBN10:
0312409982
Format:
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Pub. Date:
12/21/2012
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
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Summary

Exploring American Histories offers an entirely new approach to teaching the U.S. survey that puts investigating sources and thinking about the many stories of American history right at the center of your course. The distinctive format integrates primary documents and a brief narrative into one cost-effective and easy-to-use volume. Available in a number of affordable print and digital options, the text is also integrated with LearningCurve, online quizzing that adapts to what your students need to learn and helps them come to class prepared.

Author Biography

Nancy A. Hewitt (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of History and of Women’s and Gender Studies at Rutgers University. Her publications include Southern Discomfort: Women’s Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s-1920s, for which she received the Julia Cherry Spruill Prize from the Southern Association of Women Historians, Women’s Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822-1872, and the edited volume No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism. She is currently working on a biography of the nineteenth-century radical activist Amy Post and a book that recasts the U.S. woman suffrage movement.

Steven F. Lawson (Ph.D., Columbia University) is Professor Emeritus of History at Rutgers University. His research interests include U.S. politics since 1945 and the history of the civil rights movement, with a particular focus on black politics and the interplay between civil rights and political culture in the mid-twentieth century. He is the author of many works including Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America since 1941, Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969, and In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965-1982.

 

Table of Contents

LearningCurve. Check what you know at bedfordstmartins.com/hewittLC.

 

1 Mapping Global Frontiers, to 1585

American Histories: Malintzin and Martin Waldseemüller

     Native Peoples in the Americas

          Native Peoples Develop Diverse Cultures

          The Aztecs, the Maya, and the Incas

          Native Cultures to the North

     Europe Expands Its Reach

          The Mediterranean World

          Portugal Pursues Long-Distance Trade

          European Encounters with West Africa

Document 1.1 John Lok, The Second Voyage to Guinea, 1554

     Worlds Collide

          Europeans Cross the Atlantic

Document 1.2 Christopher Columbus, Reaching the West Indies, 1492

          Europeans Explore the Americas

          Mapmaking and Printing

          The Columbian Exchange

     Europeans Make Claims to North America

          Spaniards Conquer Indian Empires

Document 1.3 Aztec Smallpox Victim, 1540

          Spanish Adventurers Head North

          Europeans Compete in North America

          Spain Seeks Dominion in the Americas

Documents 1.4 and 1.5 European Depictions of the Americas: Two Views

     Conclusion: A New America

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 1 Mapping America

Document 1.6 Christopher and Bartolomeo Columbus, Map of Europe and North Africa, c. 1490

Document 1.7 Martin Waldseemüller and Mathias Ringmann, Universalis Cosmographia, 1507

Document 1.8 Piri Reis Map, 1513

Document 1.9 Dauphin Map of Canada, c. 1543

Document 1.10 Map of Cuauhtinchan, 1550

2 Colonization and Conflicts, 1550–1680

American Histories: Captain John Smith and Anne Hutchinson

     Religious and Imperial Transformations

          The Protestant Reformation

          Spain’s Global Empire Declines

          France Enters the Race for Empire

Documents 2.1 and 2.2 Indians and Jesuit Missionaries in New France: Two Views

          The Dutch Expand into North America

     The English Seek an Empire

          The English Establish Jamestown

          Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia

Document 2.3 Simon van de Passe, Engraving of Pocahontas, 1616

         Expansion, Rebellion, and the Emergence of Slavery

Document 2.4 Virginia Slave Law, 1662

          The English Compete for West Indies Possessions

     Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

          Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts

          The Puritan Migration

          The Puritan Worldview

         Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

          Wars in Old and New England

Document 2.5 Captain John Underhill, Attack at Mystic, Connecticut, 1638

     Conclusion: European Empires in North America

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 2 King Philip’s War

Document 2.6 John Easton, A Relation of the Indian War, 1675

Document 2.7 Benjamin Church, Passages Relating to Philip’s War, 1716

Document 2.8 Edward Randolph, Report on the War, 1676

Document 2.9 William Nahaton, Petition to Free an Indian Slave, 1675

Document 2.10 Mary Rowlandson, Narrative of Captivity, 1682

3 Global Changes Reshape Colonial America, 1680–1750

American Histories: William Moraley Jr. and Eliza Lucas

     Europeans Expand Their Claims

          English Colonies Grow and Multiply

Document 3.1 John Locke, On the State of Nature, 1690

          France Seeks Land and Control

          The Pueblo Revolt and Spain’s Fragile Empire

     European Wars and American Consequences     

          Colonial Conflicts and Indian Alliances

          Indians Resist European Encroachment

Document 3.2 The Tuscarora Appeal to the Pennsylvania Government, 1710

          Global Conflicts on the Southern Frontier

     The Benefits and Costs of Empire

          Colonial Traders Join Global Networks

          Imperial Policies Focus on Profits

          The Atlantic Slave Trade

Document 3.3 Plan of a Slave Ship, 1789

          Seaport Cities and Consumer Cultures

     Labor in North America

          Finding Work in the Northern Colonies

Documents 3.4 and 3.5 Pennsylvania: The Promised Land?: Two Views

          Coping with Economic Distress

          Rural Americans Face Changing Conditions

          Slavery Takes Hold in the South

          Africans Resist Their Enslavement

     Conclusion: Changing Fortunes in British North America

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 3 The Production of Indigo

Document 3.6 Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Letter to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 1785

Document 3.7 George Milligen-Johnston, A Description of South Carolina, 1770

Document 3.8 Pamphlet on Cultivating Indigo, 1746

Document 3.9 Laboring for Indigo, 1773

Document 3.10 James Habersham, Letter to Benjamin Martyn, June 13, 1751

4 Religious Strife and Social Upheavals, 1680–1750

American Histories: Gilbert Tennent and Sarah Grosvenor

     An Ungodly Society?

          The Rise of Religious Anxieties

          Cries of Witchcraft

Documents 4.1 and 4.2 The Devil’s Work: Two Views

     Family and Household Dynamics

          Women’s Changing Status

Document 4.3 Will of Edmund Titus, Oyster Bay, New York, 1754

          Working Families

          Reproduction and Women’s Roles

          The Limits of Patriarchal Order

     Diversity and Competition in Colonial Society

          Population Growth and Economic Competition

          Increasing Diversity

          Expansion and Conflict

     Religious Awakenings

          The Roots of the Great Awakening

          An Outburst of Revivals

Document 4.4 Nathan Cole, On George Whitefield Coming to Connecticut, 1740

          Religious Dissension

     Political Awakenings

          Changing Political Relations

          Dissent and Protest

          Transforming Urban Politics

Document 4.5 The Trial of John Peter Zenger, 1736

     Conclusion: A Divided Society

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 4 Awakening Religious Tensions

Document 4.6 George Whitefield, Marks of a True Conversion, 1739

Document 4.7 Gilbert Tennent, The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry, 1739

Document 4.8 Newspaper Report on James Davenport, 1743

Document 4.9 Charles Chauncy, Letter to Scottish Minister George Wishart, 1742

Document 4.10 Dr. Squintum’s Exaltation or the Reformation, 1763

5 Wars and Empires, 1750–1774

American Histories: George Washington and Herman Husband

     A War for Empire, 1754–1763

          The Opening Battles

          A Shift to Global War

          The Costs of Victory

          Battles and Boundaries on the Frontier

Document 5.1 Pontiac, Speech to Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Huron Leaders, 1763

          Conflicts over Land and Labor Escalate

     Postwar British Policies and Colonial Unity

          Common Grievances

          Forging Ties across the Colonies

          Great Britain Seeks Greater Control

     Resistance to Britain Intensifies

          The Stamp Act Inspires Coordinated Resistance

Documents 5.2 and 5.3 Protesting the Stamp Act: Two Views

          The Townshend Act and the Boston Massacre

Document 5.4 John Dickinson, Letter from a Farmer, 1768

          Continuing Conflicts at Home

          Tea and Widening Resistance

Document 5.5 The Edenton Proclamation, 1774

          The Continental Congress and Colonial Unity

     Conclusion: Liberty within Empire

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 5 The Boston Massacre

Document 5.6 Deposition of William Wyatt, March 7, 1770

Document 5.7 Account of Boston Massacre Funeral Procession, March 12, 1770

Document 5.8 Paul Revere, Etching of the Boston Massacre, 1770

Document 5.9 Account of Captain Thomas Preston, June 25, 1770

Document 5.10 John Hancock, Oration on the Boston Massacre, 1774

6 Revolutions, 1775–1783

American Histories: Thomas Paine and Deborah Sampson

     The Question of Independence

          Armed Conflict Erupts

          Building a Continental Army

          Reasons for Caution and for Action

Documents 6.1 and 6.2 Debating Independence: Two Views

          Declaring Independence

     Choosing Sides

          Recruiting Supporters

Document 6.3 Oneida Address to Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull, June 1775

          Choosing Neutrality

          Committing to Independence

     Fighting for Independence

          British Troops Gain Early Victories

          Patriots Prevail in New Jersey

          A Critical Year of Warfare

          Patriots Gain Critical Assistance

          Surviving on the Home Front

     Governing in Revolutionary Times

          Colonies Become States

          Patriots Divide over Slavery

          France Allies with the Patriots

          Raising Armies and Funds

Document 6.4 Chevalier de Pontgibaud, A French Volunteer at Valley Forge, 1828

          Indian Affairs and Land Claims

     Winning the War and the Peace

          Fighting in the West

          War Rages in the South

          An Uncertain Peace

Document 6.5 Thomas Peters, Petition to British Cabinet, 1790

          A Surprising Victory

     Conclusion: Legacies of the Revolution

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 6 Women in the Revolution

Document 6.6 Christian Barnes, Letter to Elizabeth Inman, April 29, 1775

Document 6.7 Deborah Champion, Letter to Patience, October 2, 1775

Document 6.8 Abigail Adams, Letter to John Adams, July 13, 1777

Document 6.9 Esther De Berdt Reed, The Sentiments of an American Woman, 1780

Document 6.10 Mary Jemison, The War’s Impact on Native Americans, 1823

7 Political Cultures, 1783–1800

American Histories: Daniel Shays and Alexander Hamilton

     Postwar Problems

          Officers Threaten Mutiny

Documents 7.1 and 7.2 Conflicts over Western Lands: Two Views

          Indians, Land, and the Northwest Ordinance

          Depression and Debt

     On the Political Margins

          Separating Church and State

          African Americans Struggle for Rights

Document 7.3 Petition from Free Blacks of Charleston, 1791

          Women Seek Wider Roles

          Indebted Farmers Fuel Political Crises

     Reframing the American Government

          The Philadelphia Convention of 1787

          Americans Battle over Ratification

Document 7.4 Amos Singletary, Speech to the Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 1788

          Organizing the Federal Government

          Hamilton Forges an Economic Agenda

     Years of Crisis, 1792–1796

          Foreign Trade and Foreign Wars

          The Whiskey Rebellion

          Further Conflicts on the Frontier

     The First Party System

          The Adams Presidency

          The Election of 1800

     Conclusion: A Young Nation Comes of Age

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 7 The Whiskey Rebellion

Document 7.5 Resolution to the Pennsylvania Legislature, 1791

Document 7.6 The Pittsburgh Resolution, 1794

Document 7.7 George Washington, Proclamation against the Rebels, 1794

Document 7.8 Alexander Hamilton, Letter to George Washington, August 5, 1794

Document 7.9 Alexander Hamilton, Tully’s Pamphlet, 1794

Document 7.10 Francis Kemmelmeyer, George Washington Reviewing Army Troops, 1794

8 New Frontiers, 1790–1820

American Histories: Parker Cleaveland and Sacagawea

     Creating an American Identity

          Education for a New Nation

          Literary and Cultural Developments

Document 8.1 Susanna Rowson, Charlotte Temple, 1791

          The Racial Limits of American Culture

          Emigration and Colonization

          Building a National Capital

     Extending U.S. Borders

          A New Administration Faces Challenges

Document 8.2 Mary Hassal, Secret History, 1808

          Incorporating the Louisiana Territory

          The Supreme Court Extends Its Reach

          Democratic-Republicans Expand Federal Powers

     Remaking the U.S. Economy

          The U.S. Population Grows and Migrates

          Technology Reshapes Agriculture and Industry

          Transforming Household Production

Documents 8.3 and 8.4 Industrial Beginnings in Massachusetts: Two Views

          Technology, Cotton, and Slaves

     Conclusion: New Frontiers and New Challenges

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 8 Race Relations in the Early Republic

Document 8.5 Thomas Jefferson, Letter to the Marquis de Chastellux, 1785

Document 8.6 Meriwether Lewis, Journal Entry, 1805

Document 8.7 Confession of Solomon, September 1800

Document 8.8 Andrew Jackson, Runaway Slave Advertisement, 1804

Document 8.9 Robert Sutcliff, Travels in Some Parts of North America, 1812

Document 8.10 Free Blacks in Philadelphia Oppose Colonization, 1817

9 Defending and Redefining the Nation, 1809–1832

American Histories: Dolley Madison and John Ross

     Conflicts at Home and Abroad

          Tensions at Sea and on the Frontier

Document 9.1 Tecumseh, Speech to William Henry Harrison, 1810

          War Erupts with Britain

     Expanding the Economy and the Nation

          Governments Fuel Economic Growth

          Americans Expand the Nation’s Borders

          Regional Economic Development

     Economic and Political Crises

          The Panic of 1819

          Slavery in Missouri

Documents 9.2 and 9.3 Protesting the Missouri Compromise: Two Views

     Redefining American Democracy

          Expanding Voting Rights

          Racial Restrictions and Antiblack Violence

          Political Realignments

          The Presidential Election of 1828

     Jacksonian Democracy in Action

          A Democratic Spirit?

          Confrontations over Tariffs and the Bank

Document 9.4 General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster, 1836

          Contesting Indian Removal

     Conclusion: The Nation Faces New Challenges

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 9 The Panic of 1819

Document 9.5 Auction in Chatham Square Street, 1820

Document 9.6 James Flint, Account of the Panic, 1820

Document 9.7 Virginia Agricultural Society, Antitariff Petition, 1820

Document 9.8 James Kent, Arguments against Expanding Male Voting Rights, 1821

Document 9.9 Nathan Sanford, Arguments for Expanding Male Voting Rights, 1821

10 Slavery Expands South and West, 1830–1850

American Histories: James Henry Hammond and Solomon Northrup

     Planters Expand the Slave System

          A Plantation Society Develops in the South

          Urban Life in the Slave South

          The Consequences of Slavery’s Expansion

Document 10.1 Edward Strutt Abdy, Description of Washington D.C., Slave Pen, 1833

          Slave Society and Culture

          Slaves Fuel the Southern Economy

          Developing an African American Culture

          Resistance and Rebellion

     Planters Tighten Control

          Harsher Treatment for Southern Blacks

Documents 10.2 and 10.3 Debating Slavery: Two Views

          White Southerners without Slaves

          Planters Seek to Unify Southern Whites

     Democrats Face Political and Economic Crises

          Continued Conflicts over Indian Lands

Document 10.4 Petition of the Women’s Councils to the Cherokee National Council, 1831

          The Battle for Texas

          Van Buren and the Panic of 1837

          The Whigs Gain the White House

Document 10.5 William Henry Harrison Campaign Poster, 1840

     The National Government Looks to the West

          Expanding to Oregon and Texas

          Pursuing War with Mexico

          Debates over Slavery Intensify

     Conclusion: Geographical Expansion and Political Division

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 10 Claiming Texas

Document 10.6 Mary Austin Holley, Letter to Charles Austin, 1831

Document 10.7 Colonel Gregorio Gomez, Call to Arms against the Texans, 1835

Document 10.8 Colonel William Travis, Appeal for Reinforcements, March 3, 1836

Document 10.9 Benjamin Lundy, The War in Texas, 1836

Document 10.10 Southerners Support Texas Settlers, 1837

Document 10.11 Treaty of Tehuacana Creek, October 9, 1844

11 Social and Cultural Ferment in the North, 1820–1850

American Histories: Charles Grandison Finney and Amy Post

     The Growth of Cities

          The Lure of Urban Life

          The Roots of Urban Disorder

          The New Middle Class

     The Rise of Industry

          Factory Towns and Women Workers

Documents 11.1 and 11.2 Life in the Mills: Two Views

          Deskilling and the Response of Working Men

          The Panic of 1837 in the North

          Rising Class and Cultural Tensions

Document 11.3 Samuel F. B. Morse, The Dangers of Foreign Immigration, 1835

     Saving the Nation from Sin

          The Second Great Awakening

          New Spirits Rising

          Transcendentalism

     Organizing for Change

          Varieties of Reform

          The Temperance Movement

Document 11.4 Drunkard’s Home, 1850

          Utopian Communities

Document 11.5 George Ripley, Letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson, November 9, 1840

     Abolitionism Expands and Divides

          The Beginnings of the Antislavery Movement

          Abolition Gains Ground and Enemies

          Abolitionism and Women’s Rights

          The Rise of Antislavery Parties

     Conclusion: From the North to the Nation

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 11 The Second Great Awakening and Women’s Activism

Document 11.6 Charles Grandison Finney, What Revival Is, 1835

Document 11.7 Frances Trollope, Description of a Revival Meeting, 1832

Document 11.8 Elizabeth Emery and Mary P. Abbott, Letter to the Liberator, 1836

Document 11.9 Pastoral Letter to the Liberator, 1837

Document 11.10 Sarah Grimké, Response to the Pastoral Letter, 1837

12 Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises, 1848–1861

American Histories: John C. Frémont and Dred Scott

     Claiming the West

          Traveling the Overland Trail

Document 12.1 Elizabeth Smith Geer, Oregon Trail Diary, 1847

          The Gold Rush

          A Crowded Land

     Expansion and the Politics of Slavery

          California and the Compromise of 1850

Document 12.2 John C. Calhoun, On the Compromise of 1850, 1850

          The Fugitive Slave Act Inspires Northern Protest

          Pierce Encourages U.S. Expansion

     Sectional Crises Intensify

          Popularizing Antislavery Sentiment

Documents 12.3 and 12.4 Slavery in Literature: Two Views

          The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stirs Up Dissent

Document 12.5 John Magee, Forcing Slavery down the Throat of a Freesoiler, 1856

          Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856

          The Dred Scott Decision

     From Sectional Crisis to War

          John Brown’s Raid

          The Election of 1860

          The Lower South Secedes

     Conclusion: The Coming of the Civil War

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 12 Visions of John Brown

Document 12.6 State Register (Springfield, Illinois), The Irrepressible Conflict, 1859

Document 12.7 Henry David Thoreau, A Plea for Captain John Brown, 1859

Document 12.8 John Brown, Letter to E.B. from Jail, November 1, 1859

Document 12.9 Reverend J. Sella Martin, Day of Mourning Speech, December 2, 1859

Document 12.10 A Southern Paper Reacts to Brown’s Execution, December 3, 1859

Document 12.11 Currier and Ives, John Brown on His Way to Execution, 1863

13 Civil War, 1861–1865

American Histories: Frederick Douglass and Rose O’Neal Greenhow

     The Nation Goes to War

          The South Embraces Secession

Documents 13.1 and 13.2 Debating Secession in Georgia: Two Views

          Both Sides Prepare for War

     Fighting for Union or against Slavery?

          Debating the Role of African Americans

Document 13.3 Charlotte Forten, Life on the Sea Islands, 1864

         Fighting for the Right to Fight

          Union Politicians Consider Emancipation

     War Transforms the North and the South

          Life and Death on the Battlefield

Document 13.4 Timothy H. O’Sullivan, Burial of Federal Dead, Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 1864

          The Northern Economy Booms

          Urbanization and Industrialization in the South

          Women Aid the War Effort

          Dissent and Protest in the Midst of War

The Tide of War Turns

          Key Victories for the Union

          African Americans Contribute to Victory

          The Final Battles and the Promise of Peace

Document 13.5 Eleanor Cohen Seixas, Journal Entry, February 1865

     Conclusion: An Uncertain Future

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 13 Civil War Letters

Document 13.6 Fred Spooner, Letter to His Brother Henry, April 30, 1861

Document 13.7 John Hines, Letter to His Parents, April 22, 1862

Document 13.8 Ginnie Ott, Letter to Enos Ott, November 21, 1864

Document 13.9 Katharine Prescott Wormeley, Letter to Her Mother, May 26, 1862

Document 13.10 Thomas Freeman, Letter to His Brother-in-Law, March 26, 1864

14 Emancipations and Reconstructions, 1863–1877

American Histories: Jefferson Long and Andrew Johnson

     Prelude to Reconstruction

          African Americans Embrace Emancipation

          Reuniting Families Torn Apart by Slavery

          Free to Learn

          Black Churches Take a Leadership Role

     National Reconstructions

          Abraham Lincoln Plans for Reunion

         Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

         Johnson and Congressional Resistance

Documents 14.1 and 14.2 Debating the Freedmen’s Bureau: Two Views

          Congressional Reconstruction

          The Struggle for Universal Suffrage

Document 14.3 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, On Suffrage, 1869

     Remaking the South

          Whites Reconstruct the South

          Black Political Participation and Economic Opportunities

Document 14.4 Sharecropping Agreement, 1870

          White Resistance to Congressional Reconstruction

     The Unmaking of Reconstruction

          The Republican Retreat

          Congressional and Judicial Retreat

          The Presidential Compromise of 1876

     Conclusion: The Legacies of Reconstruction

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 14 Testing and Contesting Freedom

Document 14.5 Mississippi Black Code, 1865

Document 14.6 Richard H. Cain, Federal Aid for Land Purchase, 1868

Document 14.7 Ellen Parton, Testimony on Klan Violence, 1871

Document 14.8 The Force Act, 1871

Document 14.9, Thomas Nast, Colored Rule in a Reconstructed (?) State, 1874

Document 14.10 What the Centennial Ought to Accomplish, 1875

15 Frontier Encounters, 1865–1896

American Histories: Annie Oakley and Geronimo

     Opening the West

          The Great Plains

          Federal Policy and Foreign Investment

     Conquest of the Frontier

          Indian Civilizations

          Changing Federal Policy toward Indians

          Indian Defeat

          Reforming Indian Policy

          Indian Assimilation and Resistance

     The Mining Frontier

          The Business of Mining

Document 15.1 Granville Stuart, Gold Rush Days, 1925

          Life in the Mining Towns

     Ranching and Farming Frontiers

          The Life of the Cowboy

Documents 15.2 and 15.3 Cowboy Myths and Realities: Two Views

          Farmers Head West

          Women Homesteaders

Document 15.4 Gro Svendson, Letter from a Homesteader, 1863

          The Economy of Farming on the Great Plains

     Pushing Farther West

          Mormons Head West

          Californios

Document 15.5 White Caps Flier, 1890

          The Chinese in the Far West

     Conclusion: The Ambiguous Legacy of the Frontier

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 15 American Indians and Whites on the Frontier

Document 15.6 James Michael Cavanaugh, Support for Indian Extermination, 1868

Document 15.7 Thomas Nast, "Patience until the Indian Is Civilized—So to Speak," 1878

Document 15.8 Helen Hunt Jackson, Challenges to Indian Policy, 1881

Document 15.9 Zitkala-Ša, Life at an Indian Boarding School, 1921

Document 15.10 Chief Joseph, Views on Indian Affairs, 1879

16 American Industry in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: Andrew Carnegie and John Sherman

     America Industrializes

          The New Industrial Economy

          Innovation and Inventions

          Building a New South

          Industrial Consolidation

          The Growth of Corporations

Document 16.1 Horace Taylor, What a Funny Little Government, 1900

     Free Markets and Rugged Individuals

          The Doctrine of Success

          Challenges to Laissez-Faire

     Society and Culture in the Gilded Age

          Wealthy and Middle-Class Pleasures

Document 16.2 The Delineator, 1900

          Changing Gender Roles

          Black America and Jim Crow

     National Politics in the Era of Industrialization

          Why Great Men Did Not Become President

Documents 16.3 and 16.4 The Making of a Great President: Two Views

          Congressional Inaction

          An Energized and Entertained Electorate

     Conclusion: Industry in the Age of Organization

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 16 Debates about Laissez-Faire

Document 16.5 William Graham Sumner, A Defense of Laissez-Faire, 1883

Document 16.6 Edward Bellamy Looking Backward, 2000–1887, 1887

Document 16.7 Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth, 1889

Document 16.8 Henry Demarest Lloyd, Critique of Wealth, 1894

17 Workers and Farmers in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: John McLuckie and Mary Elizabeth Lease

     Working People Organize

          The Industrialization of Labor

Document 17.1 John Morrison, Testimony on the Impact of Mechanization, 1883

          Organizing Unions

          Clashes between Workers and Owners

Document 17.2 Emma Goldman, Reflections on the Homestead Strike, 1931

          Working-Class Leisure in Industrial America

     Farmers Organize

          Farmers Unite

          Populists Rise Up

Documents 17.3 and 17.4 Farmers and Workers Organize: Two Views

     The Depression of the 1890s

          Depression Politics

Document 17.5 Walter Huston, "Here Lies Prosperity," 1895

          Political Realignment in the Election of 1896

          The Decline of the Populists

     Conclusion: A Passion for Organization

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 17 The Pullman Strike of 1894

Document 17.6 George Pullman, Testimony before the U.S. Strike Commission, 1894

Document 17.7 Eugene V. Debs, On Radicalism, 1902

Document 17.8 Jennie Curtis, Testimony before the U.S. Strike Commission, 1894

Document 17.9 Report from the Commission to Investigate the Chicago Strike, 1895

Document 17.10 Grover Cleveland, Reflections on the Pullman Strike, 1904

18 Cities, Immigrants, and the Nation, 1880–1914

American Histories: Beryl Lassin and Maria Vik

     A New Wave of Immigrants

          Immigrants Arrive from Many Lands

          Creating Immigrant Communities

Document 18.1 Anzia Yerzierska, Immigrant Fathers and Daughters, 1925

          Hostility toward Recent Immigrants

Document 18.2 The Stranger at Our Gate, 1899

          The Assimilation Dilemma

     Becoming an Urban Nation

          The New Industrial City

          Cities Expand Outward and Upward

          How the Other Half Lived

Document 18.3 Rose Schneiderman, The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911

     Urban Politics at the Turn of the Century

          Political Machines and City Bosses

Documents 18.4 and 18.5 Muckrakers and Political Machines: Two Views

          Urban Reformers

     Conclusion: A Nation of Cities

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 18 "Melting Pot" or "Vegetable Soup"?

Document 18.6 Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot, 1908

Document 18.7 "Be Just—Even to John Chinaman," 1893

Document 18.8 Alfred P. Schultz, The Mongrelization of America, 1908

Document 18.9 Randolph S. Bourne, Trans-national America, 1916

Document 18.10 Jacob Riis, The Color Line in New York, 1891

19 Progressivism and the Search for Order, 1900–1917

American Histories: Gifford Pinchot and Gene Stratton-Porter

     The Roots of Progressivism

          Progressive Origins

          Muckrakers

     Humanitarian Reform

          Female Progressives and the Poor

Document 19.1 Jane Addams, Civic Housekeeping, 1910

          Fighting for Women’s Suffrage

Document 19.2 Nannie Helen Burroughs, Suffrage for Black Women, 1915

          Progressivism and African Americans

Documents 19.3 and 19.4 Addressing Inequality: Two Views

     Morality and Social Control

          Prohibition

          The Crusade against Vice

          Immigration Restriction

     Good Government Progressivism

          Municipal and State Reform

          Conservation and Preservation of the Environment

     Presidential Progressivism

          Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

          Taft Retreats from Progressivism

          The Election of 1912 and the Progressive Mandate

          Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Agenda

     Conclusion: The Progressive Legacy

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 19 Progressivism and Social Control

Document 19.5 Frances Willard, On Behalf of Home Protection, 1884

Document 19.6 Abstinence Poster, 1919

Document 19.7 Indiana Sterilization Law, 1907

Document 19.8 The Immigration Act of 1917

Document 19.9 "Sanitary Precaution," c. 1914

20 Empire and Wars, 1898–1918

American Histories: Alfred Thayer Mahan and José Martí

     The Awakening of Imperialism

          The Economics of Expansion

          Cultural Justifications for Imperialism

          Gender and Empire

Document 20.1 Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man’s Burden," 1899

     The War with Spain

          Cuba Libre

          The War of 1898

          A Not-So-Free Cuba

          The Philippine War

     Extending U.S. Imperialism, 1899–1913

          Theodore Roosevelt and "Big Stick" Diplomacy

Document 20.2 Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life, 1899

          Opening the Door in China

     Wilson and American Foreign Policy, 1912–1917

          Diplomacy and War

          Making the World Safe for Democracy

Document 20.3 Robert La Follette, Antiwar Speech, 1917

     Fighting the War at Home

          Government by Commission

          Winning Hearts and Minds

Documents 20.4 and 20.5 African Americans and the War: Two Views

          Waging Peace

          The Failure of Ratification

     Conclusion: An American Empire

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 20 Imperialism versus Anti-Imperialism

Document 20.6 The Hawaiian Memorial, 1897

Document 20.7 Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag, 1898

Document 20.8 "There’s Plenty of Room at the Table," 1906

Document 20.9 Anti-Imperialism Letter, 1899

Document 20.10 "Civilization Begins at Home," 1898

21 An Anxious Affluence, 1919–1929

American Histories: D. C. Stephenson and Ossian Sweet

     Postwar Turmoil

          The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties

          The Red Scare, 1919–1920

          Racial Violence in the Postwar Era

     People of Plenty

          Government Promotion of the Economy

          Americans Become Consumers

Document 21.1 General Electric Refrigerator Advertisement, 1928

          Perilous Prosperity

     Challenges to Social Conventions

          Breaking with the Old Morality

          The African American Renaissance

Document 21.2 Claude McKay, If We Must Die, 1919

          Marcus Garvey and Black Nationalism

     Culture Wars

          Nativists versus Immigrants

          Resurrection of the Ku Klux Klan

Documents 21.3 and 21.4 Men and Women of the KKK: Two Views

          Fundamentalism versus Modernism

     Politics and the Fading of Prosperity

          The Battle for the Soul of the Democratic Party

          Where Have All the Progressives Gone?

          Financial Crash

     Conclusion: The Roaring Twenties

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 21 The Abrams Case and the Red Scare

Document 21.5 Mollie Steimer, Trial Testimony, 1918

Document 21.6 "Workers—Wake Up!!," 1917

Document 21.7 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Abrams v. United States Dissent, 1919

Document 21.8 Zechariah Chafee Jr., Freedom of Speech in Wartime, 1919

Document 21.9 Billy Ireland, "We Can’t Digest the Scum," 1919

Document 21.10 A. Mitchell Palmer, The Case against the Reds, 1920

22 Depression, Dissent, and the New Deal, 1929–1940

American Histories: Eleanor Roosevelt and Luisa Moreno

     The Great Depression

          Hoover Faces the Depression

          Hoovervilles and Dust Storms

          Challenges for Minorities

Document 21.1 Andy Wright, Plea from One of the Scottsboro Nine, 1937

          Families under Strain

          The Season of Discontent

     The New Deal

          Roosevelt Restores Confidence

          Steps toward Recovery

          Direct Assistance and Relief

Document 22.2 Minnie Hardin, Letter to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1937

          New Deal Critics

     The New Deal Moves to the Left

          Expanding Relief Measures

          Establishing Social Security

          Organized Labor Strikes Back

          A Half Deal for Minorities

          Twilight of the New Deal

Documents 22.3 and 22.4 Packing the Supreme Court: Two Views

     Conclusion: New Deal Liberalism

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 22 The Depression in Rural America

Document 22.5 Ann Marie Low, Dust Bowl Diary, 1934

Document 22.6 The Life of a White Sharecropper, 1938

Document 22.7 Sharecropping Family in Washington County, Arkansas, 1935

Document 22.8 John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies, 1936

Document 22.9 Frank Stokes, Let the Mexicans Organize, 1936

Document 22.10 Report of the Great Plains Committee, 1937

23 World War II, 1933–1945

American Histories: J. Robert Oppenheimer and Fred Korematsu

     The Road toward War

          The Growing Crisis in Europe

          The Challenge to Isolationism

          The United States Enters the War

Documents 23.1 and 23.2 American Reactions to Pearl Harbor: Two Views

     Global War

          War in Europe

          War in the Pacific

          Ending the War

          Evidence of the Holocaust

     The Home-Front Economy

          Managing the Wartime Economy

          New Opportunities for Women

Documents 23.3 and 23.4 Women Workers during Wartime: Two Views

          Everyday Life on the Home Front

     Fighting for Equality at Home

          The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement

Document 23.5 Letter from Black Soldiers, 1943

          Struggles for Mexican Americans

          The Ordeal of Japanese Americans

     Conclusion: The Impact of World War II

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 23 The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb

Document 23.6 Recommendations on the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons, June 16, 1945

Document 23.7 Petition to the President of the United States, July 17, 1945

Document 23.8 President Harry S. Truman, Press Release on the Atomic Bomb, August 6, 1945

Document 23.9 Hiroshima, August 6, 1945

Document 23.10 U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1946

Document 23.11 Father Johannes Siemes, Eyewitness Account of the Hiroshima Bombing, 1945

24 The Opening of the Cold War, 1945–1954

American Histories: George Kennan and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

     The Origins of the Cold War, 1945–1947

         Mutual Misunderstandings

Documents 24.1 and 24.2 Reactions to Soviet Policy in Europe: Two Views

          The Truman Doctrine

          The Marshall Plan and Economic Containment

Document 24.3 Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet Objections to the Marshall Plan, 1947

     The Cold War Hardens, 1948–1952

          Military Containment

          The Korean War

Document 24.4 Helen Stevenson, Letter from Korea, 1951

          The War and the Imperial Presidency

     Peacetime Challenges, 1945–1948

          Coming Home

          Economic Conversion and Labor Discontent

          The Postwar Civil Rights Struggle

Document 24.5 To Secure These Rights, 1947

          The Election of 1948

     The Anti-Communist Consensus, 1945–1954

          Loyalty and Americanism

          McCarthyism

     Conclusion: The Cold War and Anticommunism

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 24 McCarthyism and the Hollywood Ten

Document 24.6 Ronald Reagan, Testimony before HUAC, 1947

Document 24.7 John Howard Lawson, Testimony before HUAC, 1947

Document 24.8 Herblock, "Fire!," 1949

Document 24.9 Lillian Hellman, Letter to HUAC, 1952

Document 24.10 Arthur Miller, Reflections on HUAC, 2000

25 Troubled Innocence, 1950–1961

American Histories: Alan Freed and Grace Metalious

     The Boom Years

          Economic Boom

          Baby Boom

          Suburban Boom

Documents 25.1 and 25.2 Living the Suburban Dream: Two Views

     The Culture of the 1950s

          The Rise of Television

          Wild Ones on the Big Screen

          The Influence of Teenage Culture

          The Lives of Women

          Religious Revival

Document 25.3 Billy Graham, What’s Wrong with Our World?, 1958

          Beats and Other Nonconformists

     The Civil Rights Movement

          School Segregation and the Supreme Court

          The Montgomery Bus Boycott

          White Resistance to Desegregation

          The Sit-Ins

Document 25.4 Ella Baker, Bigger than a Hamburger, 1960

     The Eisenhower Era

          Modern Republicanism

          Eisenhower and the Cold War

          Cold War Interventions

          Early U.S. Intervention in Vietnam

          The Election of 1960

     Conclusion: Cold War Politics and Culture

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 25 Teenagers in Postwar America

Document 25.5 Dick Clark, Your Happiest Years, 1959

Document 25.6 Richard Gehman, The Nine Billion Dollars in Hot Little Hands, 1957

Document 25.7 Chevrolet Advertisement, 1954

Document 25.8 Charlotte Jones, Letter on Elvis, 1957

Document 25.9 Todd Gitlin, Reflections on the 1950s, 1987

Document 25.10 The Desegregation of Central High School, 1957

26 The Liberal Consensus and Its Challengers, 1960–1973

American Histories: Earl Warren and Bayard Rustin

     The Politics of Liberalism

          Kennedy’s New Frontier

Document 26.1 Edmund Valtman, The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962

          Containment in Southeast Asia

        Johnson Escalates the War in Vietnam

Document 26.2 George Olsen, Letter Home from Vietnam, 1969

     Civil Rights

          Freedom Rides

          The Government Responds on Civil Rights

          Freedom Summer and Voting Rights

     Reforming the Social Order

          The Great Society

          The Warren Court

     Challenges to the Liberal Center

          Movements on the Left

          Women’s Liberation

          Power to the People

Document 26.3 Chicano Student Movement of Aztlán, 1969

          The Revival of Conservatism

Documents 26.4 and 26.5 Liberalism and Conservatism: Two Views

     Conclusion: Liberalism and Its Discontents

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 26 Freedom Summer

Document 26.6 Prospectus for Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.7 Nancy Ellin, Letter Describing Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.8 Letter from a Freedom Summer Volunteer, 1964

Document 26.9 White Southerners Respond to Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.10 Fannie Lou Hamer, Address to the Democratic National Convention Credentials Committee, 1964

Document 26.11 Lyndon B. Johnson, Monitoring the MFDP Challenge, 1964

27 The Conservative Ascendancy, 1968–1992

American Histories: Allan Bakke and Anita Hill

     Richard M. Nixon, War, and Politics, 1969–1974

          The Election of President Nixon

          The Failure of Vietnamization

          Cold War Realism and Détente

          Pragmatic Conservatism at Home

          The Nixon Landslide and Disgrace, 1972–1974

     The Challenges of the 1970s

          Jimmy Carter and the Limits of Affluence

          The Persistence of Liberalism

Document 27.1 Combahee River Collective, Black Feminist Statement, 1977

          Racial Struggles Continue

     The Conservative Political Ascendancy

          The New Right Revival

Document 27.2 Jerry Falwell, We Must Return to Traditional Religious Values, 1980

          The Triumph of Ronald Reagan

Documents 27.3 and 27.4 Morning in America: Two Views

          The Implementation of Social Conservatism

          The George H.W. Bush Presidency

     Conclusion: The Conservative Legacy

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 27 The Affirmative Action Debate

Document 27.5 Lyndon B. Johnson, Freedom Is Not Enough, 1965

Document 27.6 Title IX of the Education Amendments Regulations, 1975

Document 27.7 Nathan Glazer, Affirmative Discrimination, 1975

Document 27.8 Lewis Powell, Opinion in Bakke Case, 1978

Document 27.9 Nell Irvin Painter, Whites Say I Must Be on Easy Street, 1981

Document 27.10 Bob Dole, Call to End Affirmative Action, 1995

28 Ending the Cold War, 1977–1991

American Histories: George Shultz and Barbara Deming

     Carter’s Diplomacy, 1977–1980

          The Perils of Détente

          Challenges in the Middle East

Document 28.1 Robert Ode, Iran Hostage Diary, 1979–1980

     Reagan’s Cold War Policy, 1981–1988

          "The Evil Empire"

          Human Rights and the Fight against Communism

          Fighting International Terrorism

          The Nuclear Freeze Movement

Documents 28.2 and 28.3 The Nuclear Freeze Movement: Two Views

          The Road to Nuclear De-escalation

     The Fall of the Iron Curtain

          The Breakup of the Soviet Union

Document 28.4 Mikhail Gorbachev, Speech to the United Nations, 1988

          Globalization and the New World Order

          Managing Conflict after the Cold War

     Conclusion: Farewell to the Cold War

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 28 The Iran-Contra Scandal

Document 28.5 The Boland Amendment, 1982

Document 28.6 CIA Freedom Fighters’ Manual, 1983

Document 28.7 Tower Commission Report, 1987

Document 28.8 Ronald Reagan, Speech on Iran-Contra, 1987

Document 28.9 Oliver North, Testimony to Congress, July 1987

Document 28.10 George Mitchell, Response to Oliver North, 1987

29 The Challenges of a New Century, 1993 to the present

American Histories: Bill Gates and Kristen Breitweiser

     Transforming American Society

          The Computer Revolution

          Business Consolidation

Document 29.1 Bo Yee, The New American Sweatshop, 1994

          The Changing American Population

     Politics at the End of the Twentieth Century

          The Clinton Presidency

          Global Challenges and Economic Renewal

     The New Millennium

          George W. Bush and Compassionate Conservatism

          The United States at War

Document 29.2 Farnaz Fassihi, Report from Baghdad, 2004

          The Decline of the Bush Presidency

     Challenges Ahead

          The Great Recession

          The Rise of Barack Obama

Documents 29.3 and Documents 29.4 The Great Recession: Two Views

          An Unfinished Agenda

     Conclusion: Technology and Terror in a Global Society

Chapter Review LearningCurve

Document Project 29 The Uses of September 11

Document 29.5 George W. Bush, The Axis of Evil, 2002

Document 29.6 Diana Hoffman, "The Power of Freedom," 2002

Document 29.7 Daniel Harris, The Kitschification of September 11, 2002

Document 29.8 Khaled Abou El Fadl, Response to September 11, 2001

Document 29.9 Anti-Muslim Discrimination, 2011

Document 29.10 Brian Gallagher, Hundred-Mile Marine, 2012

Appendix

Glossary of Key Terms

Credits

Index

 


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