9781583605165

Exploring Corrections in America

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781583605165

  • ISBN10:

    1583605169

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-05-01
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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Table of Contents

Foreword v
Understanding Corrections: Where Are We?
1(24)
Introduction
1(1)
The Current State of American Corrections: Present Trends
2(11)
Growth
2(1)
The Punitive Ideal
2(5)
The Search for Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability
7(1)
The Impact of the War on Drugs on Corrections
8(2)
The Rehabilitative Ideal
10(2)
Restorative and Community Justice
12(1)
Correctional Goals
13(3)
Retribution
14(1)
Rehabilitation
14(1)
Deterrence
14(1)
Incapacitation
15(1)
Themes of the Text
16(4)
Evaluation Research
16(1)
A Balanced Approach
17(2)
A Humane and Peacemaking Perspective
19(1)
Conclusion
20(1)
Discussion Questions
20(1)
Notes
21(1)
References
22(3)
The History of American Corrections: Where Did We Come From?
25(36)
Introduction
25(1)
Corrections in the Prehistoric Era
26(1)
Corrections Practices in Ancient Societies
26(5)
The Mesopotamians
26(1)
The Israelites
27(2)
The Ancient Greeks
29(1)
The Romans
30(1)
The Middle Ages
31(1)
English Corrections During the Enlightenment
32(1)
Corrections in the United States
33(21)
The Birth of the Penitentiary
36(1)
The 1820s: Eastern vs. Auburn
37(3)
The Birth of American Probation
40(1)
Prisons in the Industrial Era
41(1)
The Indeterminate Sentence and Parole
41(3)
Corrections in the Progressive Era
44(4)
Rehabilitation: The ``Anything Works'' Era
48(1)
Deinstitutionalization and ``Nothing Works''
49(4)
Corrections in the ``Get Tough'' Era
53(1)
Conclusion
54(2)
Discussion Questions
56(1)
Notes
56(2)
References
58(1)
Court Cases
59(2)
Corrections and the Courts
61(48)
The Courts--Corrections Relationship
61(1)
The Courts--Corrections Relationship in Historical Perspective
62(2)
The Courts--Corrections Relationship in Recent Times
64(2)
Institutional Corrections and the Courts
66(25)
Access to the Courts
67(1)
The First Amendment
68(1)
Freedom of Religion
69(2)
Freedom of Speech
71(2)
Freedom of Press
73(1)
Freedom of Assembly
73(1)
The Fourth Amendment
74(1)
The Eighth Amendment
75(1)
Overall Conditions of Confinement
76(1)
Solitary Confinement
77(1)
Double-Celling and Crowding
78(1)
Excessive Use of Force
79(1)
Medical Care
80(3)
The Fourteenth Amendment
83(1)
Due Process
83(3)
Classification and Transfers
86(1)
Equal Protection
87(1)
Recent Fourteenth Amendment Issues
88(3)
Other Legal Issues Affecting Prisons and Prisoners
91(1)
Community Corrections and the Courts
91(5)
Revocation of Probation and Parole
92(2)
Self-Incrimination and Privacy
94(2)
Limitations of Correctional Litigation
96(1)
Conclusion
97(2)
Discussion Questions
99(1)
Notes
100(3)
References
103(2)
Court Cases
105(4)
Jails
109(46)
Introduction
109(3)
The History of Jails
112(3)
Jails in England
111(1)
Jails in America
112(3)
Jails Today
115(2)
Jail Inmate Characteristics
117(3)
The Role of the Jail in the American Criminal Justice System
120(5)
Pretrial Detainees
121(1)
Misdemeanants
122(1)
Felons
123(1)
Juveniles
123(2)
Others
125(1)
Jail Design
125(6)
Traditional Jails
126(1)
Second-Generation Jails
127(1)
New-Generation Jails
128(3)
Jail Administration and Supervision
131(12)
Jail Standards
131(1)
Legal Issues
131(3)
Jail Personnel
134(2)
Crowding
136(1)
Inmates With Special Needs
137(1)
Alcoholics
138(1)
Drug Addicts
138(1)
Sex Offenders
139(1)
Mentally Ill Inmates
140(1)
Suicides
141(1)
Jail Time
142(1)
The Twenty-First Century
143(1)
Conclusion
144(1)
Discussion Questions
145(1)
Notes
145(5)
References
150(5)
Community Corrections
155(54)
Introduction
155(1)
Why Community Corrections?
155(1)
Rationale for Community Corrections Programs
156(1)
Concerns about Community Corrections
157(1)
Mistakes in Classification
157(1)
Net-Widening
157(1)
Diversion
158(1)
Probation
159(14)
Probation Defined
159(1)
The History and Origins of Probation
160(1)
John Augustus: The Father of Probation in the United States
161(1)
The Philosophy of Probation
162(2)
The Administration of Probation
164(1)
Centralized vs. Decentralized Probation Services
164(1)
Executive vs. Judicial Administration of Probation
165(1)
Probation and Parole: Should They Be Combined Services?
165(1)
The Dual Role of Investigation and Supervision in Probation
166(1)
The Probation Officer's Role
166(1)
The Investigation Function
166(1)
The Supervision Function
167(1)
Caseload Size and Officer Effectiveness
167(1)
Case Management Styles
168(1)
Is Probation Effective?
169(1)
Revocation and Termination of Probation
170(3)
Parole
173(17)
Parole Defined
173(1)
The History and Origins of Parole
173(1)
Transportation
173(1)
The Mark System
174(1)
The Irish System: The Ticket-of-Leave
175(2)
The Development of Parole in the United States
177(1)
The Decision to Release: The Parole Process
178(1)
The Organization of the Parole Board
178(1)
Types of Release Decisions
179(2)
The Terms and Conditions of Parole
181(1)
Revocation and Termination of Parole
181(1)
The Supervision and Control of Inmates in the Community
182(1)
The Parole Officer's Role
182(2)
The Investigation Function
184(1)
The Supervision Function
184(1)
Parole Programs
185(2)
Abolishing Parole
187(3)
Probation and Parole Populations: A New Demographic Record
190(3)
Intermediate Punishments
193(7)
Intensive Supervision Probation and Parole
194(1)
Electronic Monitoring
194(5)
Boot Camp Prisons
199(1)
Conclusion
200(1)
Discussion Questions
201(1)
Notes
201(3)
References
204(3)
Court Cases
207(2)
Dimensions of Community Justice
209(34)
Introduction
209(2)
What is Community Justice?
211(2)
Principles and Core Values
213(3)
The Traditional Retributive Approach
213(1)
The Community Justice Model
214(2)
Community Justice Practices
216(5)
Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM)
216(1)
Family Group Conferencing (FGC) or Community Conferencing
217(1)
Community Reparative Boards (CRBs)
217(1)
Circle Sentencing (CS) or Peacemaking Circles
218(3)
Stakeholder Involvement: The Roles of Victim, Community, and Offender
221(3)
The Traditional Model
221(1)
The Community Model
222(2)
The Process of Decisionmaking
224(2)
The Role of Government and Community
226(3)
The Traditional Model
226(2)
The Community Model
228(1)
Challenges to the Community Justice Approach
229(5)
Defining and Engaging Communities
230(1)
Governmental vs. Community-Based Net-Widening
231(1)
Individual Rights
231(1)
Structural Inequities in Society
232(1)
Community Justice as a Panacea
232(2)
Conclusion
234(1)
Discussion Questions
235(1)
Notes
235(2)
References
237(6)
Prisons: An American Institution
243(36)
Introduction
243(1)
The History of Prisons
243(8)
The Separate and Congregate Systems
245(1)
The Reformatory Era
246(2)
Northern Industry and Southern Agriculture
248(1)
The ``Big House'' Era and Beyond
249(1)
The Rise of Rehabilitation
249(1)
The Demise of Rehabilitation
250(1)
Overcrowded Prisons: A War on People
251(2)
Prisons and Prisoners
253(9)
Living in Prison
254(2)
Programs and Programming
256(3)
The Keepers
259(1)
The Officer Subculture
260(1)
Prison Management: From Autocracy to Bureaucracy
261(1)
Issues and Challenges
262(7)
Corruption
262(2)
Cross-Sex Supervision
264(1)
Privatization
265(2)
Maxi-Maxi Prisons
267(1)
Riots and Disturbances
268(1)
Conclusion
269(1)
Discussion Questions
270(1)
Notes
270(3)
References
273(4)
Court Cases
277(2)
Offenders and Inmates
279(28)
Introduction
279(1)
The Prison Population
279(1)
Are We Imprisoning The Wrong Offenders?
280(1)
Prison Adjustment
280(1)
Deprivations of Prison Life
281(7)
Long-Term Inmates
288(1)
Prison Victimization
289(2)
Sexual Victimization
289(1)
Victimization by Guards
290(1)
Summary on Prison Life and Victimization
291(1)
Death Row
292(1)
Offender Needs
293(3)
Alcohol-Drug History
293(1)
Mental Health Needs
294(1)
Prison Response to Prisoner Needs
295(1)
Race in Prison
296(1)
Women in Prison
296(1)
Spiritual Adjustment in Prison
297(1)
Probationer Characteristics
298(2)
Conclusion
300(1)
Discussion Questions
301(1)
Notes
301(2)
References
303(4)
Women Offenders and Correctional Workers
307(46)
Introduction
307(8)
Increasing Numbers: Increasing Problems
308(4)
History: Separate and Unequal
312(3)
Women in Prison
315(15)
Prisoner Subcultures
316(2)
Prisoners as Mothers
318(3)
Prison Programs for Women
321(7)
Special Issues
328(1)
Cross-Sex Supervision
328(1)
Health Care
329(1)
Other Issues
329(1)
Women and Community Corrections
330(6)
Jail
331(1)
Probation
332(2)
Parole
334(1)
Other Programs
335(1)
Women Correctional Workers
336(3)
Conclusion
339(1)
Discussion Questions
340(1)
Notes
340(6)
References
346(5)
Court Cases
351(2)
Juvenile Corrections
353(46)
Introduction
353(1)
Institutional Corrections for Juveniles
353(8)
State Training Schools
354(1)
Training School Programs for Residents
354(4)
Other Placements
358(1)
Boot Camps
358(3)
Program Effectiveness
361(2)
Reviews of Multiple Studies
361(1)
Conclusions about Program Effectiveness
362(1)
Institutional Life
363(6)
Victimization
363(3)
Racial Tension
366(1)
The Inmate Code
367(1)
Deprivation of Heterosexual Contact
368(1)
New Directions in Institutional Interventions
369(3)
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders
369(1)
Deinstitutionalization: Closing Training Schools
369(2)
Blended Sentencing
371(1)
Wilderness Programs
371(1)
Summary on Institutional Placements
372(1)
Community Interventions
373(9)
Probation
373(1)
Social History (Predisposition) Investigations
374(1)
Probation Supervision
375(1)
Aftercare
376(1)
Supervision and Counseling
376(1)
Current Trends in Community Supervision
377(1)
The Balanced Approach
377(1)
The Punitive Model: Attack Supervision
377(2)
Renewed Emphasis on Status Offenders
379(1)
Restorative Justice
380(1)
Peacemaking
381(1)
What Does the Future Hold?
381(1)
Effectiveness of Juvenile Probation and Related Sanctions
382(1)
Effective and Ineffective Treatment Interventions with Offenders
383(1)
Additional Factors Related to Effectiveness
384(2)
Continuing Concerns in Community Corrections
386(3)
Goal Confusion
386(1)
Restitution
387(1)
Community Service
388(1)
Conclusion
389(1)
Discussion Questions
389(1)
Notes
390(3)
References
393(6)
Special Populations in Prisons
399(64)
Introduction
399(1)
Mentally Ill Offenders
400(7)
Mentally Retarded and Developmentally Disabled Offenders
407(5)
Programs
409(3)
Substance-Abusing Offenders
412(6)
Medically Ill Offenders
418(14)
Elderly Offenders
423(5)
Terminally Ill Offenders
428(4)
Sex Offenders
432(3)
Conclusion
435(1)
Discussion Questions
436(1)
Notes
436(9)
References
445(16)
Court Cases
461(2)
Correctional Officers
463(36)
Introduction
463(1)
Transformation
464(4)
Unionization
466(1)
Professionalization
467(1)
Bureaucratization
467(1)
Demographics
468(5)
Female and Minority Officers
469(4)
Working in Prison
473(11)
Violence
473(4)
Interactions with Inmates
477(4)
Interactions with Management and Administration
481(1)
Unions
482(2)
Unit Management
484(1)
Ethics and the Good Officer
484(4)
Conclusion
488(1)
Discussion Questions
489(1)
Notes
489(4)
References
493(4)
Court Cases
497(2)
Correctional Counselors and Other Treatment Professionals
499(38)
Introduction
499(2)
The Historical Context of Treatment
501(1)
Correctional Treatment and Health Care
502(2)
Types of Correctional Counseling and Related Treatment
504(12)
Education and Vocational Programs
504(2)
Religion
506(2)
Recreation
508(3)
Mental Health
511(2)
Developmentally Disabled Offenders
513(1)
The Antisocial Offender
513(1)
Substance Abuse
514(2)
Offenders with Special Treatment Needs
516(7)
Sex Offenders
517(2)
Offenders with HIV/AIDS
519(1)
Elderly Offenders
520(1)
Terminally Ill Offenders
521(2)
Other Special Concerns
523(5)
Prison Overcrowding
523(1)
Large Caseloads
524(1)
Lack of Institutional Support
524(1)
Racial and Ethnic Groups
525(1)
Confidentiality
525(2)
Stress and Burnout
527(1)
How Effective are Correctional Counseling and Treatment Programs?
528(2)
Conclusion
530(1)
Discussion Questions
531(1)
Notes
531(2)
References
533(2)
Court Cases
535(2)
Issues in Correctional Administration and Management
537(46)
Introduction
537(5)
Organizational Theory
538(2)
Defining Administration and Management
540(2)
Administration in Context
542(6)
Correctional Philosophies
542(1)
Correctional Administration and Government
543(1)
Correctional Administration and Politics
544(1)
Correctional Administration and the Law
545(3)
The Institutional Environment
548(9)
Drugs
548(2)
Sexual Coercion
550(4)
Violence
554(1)
Gangs
555(2)
Provision of Services and Programs
557(7)
Physical Health
558(1)
Mental Health
559(1)
Inmate Programs
560(1)
Substance Abuse Treatment
561(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
562(2)
Managing Correctional Personnel
564(4)
Health Concerns
565(1)
Stress
566(1)
Employee Organizations
567(1)
The Future of Correctional Management and Administration
568(3)
Privatization
569(1)
Changing Focus
570(1)
Conclusion
571(1)
Discussion Questions
572(1)
Notes
573(4)
References
577(4)
Court Cases
581(2)
The Death Penalty in America
583(42)
Introduction
583(1)
The Death Penalty Worldwide
584(1)
The History of the Death Penalty in the United States
585(3)
Current Use of the Death Penalty in the United States
588(4)
How the Modern Death Penalty Functions
592(8)
The Condemnation and Execution of Innocent People
592(3)
Race and Capital Punishment
595(1)
Capricious Imposition of the Death Penalty
596(1)
Quality of Counsel
597(3)
The Cost of Capital Punishment
600(2)
The Effects of Executions
602(8)
Deterrence
603(4)
Incapacitation
607(2)
Families of Victims and Defendants
609(1)
Moral Arguments
610(2)
Conclusion
612(2)
Discussion Questions
614(1)
Notes
615(3)
References
618(5)
Court Cases
623(2)
The Evolution of Corrections: What Does the Future Hold?
625(18)
Introduction
625(1)
Current Trends Continuing into the Future
625(3)
Speculative Possibilities in Corrections
628(2)
The Punitive Ideal (The ``Get Tough'' Movement)
630(1)
Privatization
630(1)
The Remedicalization of Corrections
631(1)
Technological Advances
632(1)
Restorative Justice
632(1)
Restorative Rehabilitation
633(1)
Reintroducing the Spiritual Dimension into Corrections
634(2)
Conclusion
636(3)
Discussion Questions
639(1)
Notes
639(1)
References
640(3)
Name Index 643(12)
Subject Index 655

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