Exploring Social Psychology

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-10-28
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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This brief, modular introduction to social psychology offers streamlined focus on issues such as belief and illusion, prejudice and diversity, and love and hate. The brevity of each of the book's 31 stand-alone modules makes this the perfect text for covering the core concepts in the field. By introducing social psychology in an essay format and by writing in a voice that is both solidly scientific and warmly human,Exploring Social Psychologyis able to reveal social psychology as an investigative reporter might, by providing a current summary of important social phenomena, by showing how social psychologists uncover and explain such phenomena, and by reflecting on their human significance. The new edition includes discussion of the Hurricane Katrina aftermath as an illustration of hindsight bias and availability heuristic, the Iraq War and belief perseverance, and terrorism and group polarization.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvi
Introducing Social Psychologyp. 1
Doing Social Psychologyp. 3
Forming and Testing Theoriesp. 4
Correlational Research: Detecting Natural Associationsp. 6
Correlation and Causationp. 6
Experimental Research: Searching for Cause and Effectp. 9
Control: Manipulating Variablesp. 9
Random Assignment: The Great Equalizerp. 10
The Ethics of Experimentationp. 10
Generalizing From Laboratory to Lifep. 12
Did You Know It All Along?p. 15
Social Thinkingp. 21
Self-Concept: Who Am I?p. 23
At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Selfp. 23
Self and Culturep. 25
Self-Knowledgep. 27
Explaining Our Behaviorp. 28
Predicting Our Behaviorp. 28
Predicting Our Feelingsp. 29
The Wisdom and Illusions of Self-Analysisp. 32
Self-Serving Biasp. 35
Explaining Positive and Negative Eventsp. 35
Can We All Be Better than Average?p. 36
Focus On: Self-Serving Bias-How Do I Love Me? Let Me Count the Waysp. 38
Unrealistic Optimismp. 39
False Consensus and Uniquenessp. 40
Self-Esteem Motivationp. 42
Reflections on Self-Esteem and Self-Serving Biasp. 44
The Self-Serving Bias as Adaptivep. 44
The Self-Serving Bias as Maladaptivep. 45
The Power of Positive Thinkingp. 47
Locus of Controlp. 48
Learned Helplessness Versus Self-Determinationp. 49
The Costs of Excess Choicep. 50
Reflections on Self-Efficacyp. 51
The Power of Positive Thinkingp. 51
The Dark Side of Self-Esteemp. 53
The Fundamental Attribution Errorp. 57
The Fundamental Attribution Error in Everyday Lifep. 59
Why Do We Make the Attribution Error?p. 61
Perspective and Situational Awarenessp. 61
Cultural Differencesp. 63
How Fundamental Is the Fundamental Attribution Error?p. 64
The Powers and Perils of Intuitionp. 67
The Powers of Intuitionp. 68
The Limits of Intuitionp. 69
We Overestimate the Accuracy of Our Judgmentsp. 70
Remedies for Overconfidencep. 73
Constructing Memoriesp. 74
Reconstructing Our Past Attitudesp. 74
Reconstructing Our Past Behaviorp. 76
Reasons for Unreasonp. 77
Our Preconceptions Control Our Interpretationsp. 78
We Are More Swayed by Memorable Events than by Factsp. 80
We Misperceive Correlation and Controlp. 82
Illusory Correlationp. 82
Illusion of Controlp. 82
Our Beliefs Can Generate Their Own Confirmationp. 83
Do Teacher Expectations Affect Student Performance?p. 84
Do We Get What We Expect from Others?p. 85
Conclusionsp. 87
Behavior and Beliefp. 89
Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?p. 89
Does Behavior Influence Attitudes?p. 90
Role Playingp. 91
Saying Becomes Believingp. 92
The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenonp. 93
Evil Acts and Attitudesp. 94
Interracial Behavior and Racial Attitudesp. 96
Brainwashingp. 97
Why Does Behavior Affect Our Attitudes?p. 98
Clinical Intuitionp. 101
Illusory Correlationsp. 101
Hindsightp. 102
Self-Confirming Diagnosesp. 103
Clinical Versus Statistical Predictionp. 105
Implications for Better Clinical Practicep. 106
Clinical Therapy: The Powers of Social Cognitionp. 107
Social Cognition and Depressionp. 107
Distortion or Realism?p. 108
Is Negative Thinking a Cause or a Result of Depression?p. 109
Social Cognition and Lonelinessp. 112
Social Cognition and Anxietyp. 114
Social-Psychological Approaches to Treatmentp. 116
Inducing Internal Change Through External Behaviorp. 116
Breaking Vicious Cyclesp. 117
Social Influencep. 121
Human Nature and Cultural Diversityp. 123
Evolution and Behaviorp. 123
Culture and Behaviorp. 125
Cultural Diversityp. 126
Cultural Similarityp. 128
Gender, Genes, and Culturep. 131
Gender Differencep. 132
Independence Versus Connectednessp. 132
Social Dominancep. 134
Aggressionp. 136
Sexualityp. 137
Evolution and Gender: Doing What Comes Naturally?p. 138
Gender and Mating Preferencesp. 139
Reflections on Evolutionary Psychologyp. 140
Gender and Hormonesp. 142
Culture and Genderp. 142
Gender Roles Vary with Culture and Timep. 143
Conclusions: Biology and Culturep. 144
How Nice People Get Corruptedp. 147
Asch's Studies of Conformityp. 147
Milgram's Obedience Experimentsp. 149
What Breeds Obedience?p. 153
Institutional Authorityp. 155
Reflections on the Classic Studiesp. 155
Behavior and Attitudesp. 156
The Power of the Situationp. 158
The Fundamental Attribution Errorp. 159
Two Routes to Persuasionp. 161
The Two Routesp. 161
The Elements of Persuasionp. 163
Who Says? The Communicatorp. 163
What Is Said? The Message Contentp. 165
To Whom Is It Said? The Audiencep. 167
The Two Routes to Persuasion in Therapyp. 171
Indoctrination and Inoculationp. 173
Cult Indoctrinationp. 174
Attitudes Follow Behaviorp. 176
Persuasive Elementsp. 177
Group Effectsp. 178
Resisting Persuasion: Attitude Inoculationp. 180
Stimulate Commitmentp. 180
Real-Life Applications: Inoculation Programsp. 181
Implicationsp. 184
The Mere Presence of Othersp. 187
The Mere Presence of Othersp. 187
Crowding: The Presence of Many Othersp. 189
Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others?p. 190
Evaluation Apprehensionp. 191
Driven by Distractionp. 191
Mere Presencep. 192
Many Hands Make Diminished Responsibilityp. 193
Many Hands Make Light Workp. 193
Social Loafing in Everyday Lifep. 196
Doing Together What We Would Never Do Alonep. 199
Deindividuationp. 199
Group Sizep. 200
Physical Anonymityp. 201
Arousing and Distracting Activitiesp. 203
Diminished Self-Awarenessp. 204
How Groups Intensify Decisionsp. 207
The Case of the "Risky Shift"p. 207
Do Groups Intensify Opinions?p. 209
Group Polarization Experimentsp. 209
Group Polarization in Everyday Lifep. 210
Explaining Group Polarizationp. 214
Informational Influencep. 214
Normative Influencep. 215
Groupthinkp. 216
Symptoms of Groupthinkp. 217
Groupthink in Actionp. 219
Preventing Groupthinkp. 220
Power to the Personp. 223
Interacting Persons and Situationsp. 224
Resisting Social Pressurep. 225
Reactancep. 225
Asserting Uniquenessp. 226
Minority Influencep. 227
Consistencyp. 228
Self-Confidencep. 229
Defections from the Majorityp. 229
Is Leadership Minority Influence?p. 230
Social Relationsp. 233
The Challenge of Diversityp. 235
What Is Prejudice?p. 236
How Pervasive Is Prejudice?p. 237
Racial Prejudicep. 237
Gender Prejudicep. 240
The Roots of Prejudicep. 245
Social Sources of Prejudicep. 245
Unequal Statusp. 245
Discrimination's Impact: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecyp. 246
Stereotype Threatp. 247
Social Identityp. 249
Ingroup Biasp. 250
Conformityp. 251
Emotional Sources of Prejudicep. 252
Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theoryp. 252
Personality Dynamicsp. 253
Cognitive Sources of Prejudicep. 255
Categorizationp. 256
Distinctivenessp. 258
Attribution: Is It a Just World?p. 261
The Nature and Nurture of Aggressionp. 265
Theories of Aggressionp. 267
Is Aggression an Instinct?p. 267
Neural Influencesp. 267
Genetic Influencesp. 268
Blood Chemistryp. 268
Psychological Influences on Aggressionp. 270
Frustration and Aggressionp. 270
The Learning of Aggressionp. 273
Environmental Influencesp. 275
Reducing Aggressionp. 278
Catharsis?p. 278
A Social Learning Approachp. 280
Does the Media Influence Social Behavior?p. 283
Pornography and Sexual Violencep. 283
Distorted Perceptions of Sexual Realityp. 284
Aggression Against Womenp. 285
Televisionp. 287
Television's Effects on Behaviorp. 288
Media Influences: Video Gamesp. 292
The Games Kids Playp. 292
Effects of the Games Kids Playp. 293
Who Likes Whom?p. 297
Proximityp. 298
Interactionp. 298
Anticipation of Interactionp. 298
Mere Exposurep. 299
Focus On: Liking Things Associated with Oneselfp. 301
Physical Attractivenessp. 303
Attractiveness and Datingp. 303
The Matching Phenomenonp. 305
The Physical-Attractiveness Stereotypep. 306
Who Is Attractive?p. 308
Similarity Versus Complementarityp. 311
Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?p. 311
Do Opposites Attract?p. 312
Liking Those Who Like Usp. 313
Self-Esteem and Attractionp. 314
Our Need to Belongp. 314
The Ups and Downs of Lovep. 319
Passionate Lovep. 320
A Theory of Passionate Lovep. 321
Variations in Lovep. 322
Companionate Lovep. 323
Maintaining Close Relationshipsp. 325
Equityp. 325
Self-Disclosurep. 327
Ending Relationshipsp. 331
Who Divorces?p. 332
The Detachment Processp. 333
Causes of Conflictp. 337
Social Dilemmasp. 337
The Prisoner's Dilemmap. 338
The Tragedy of the Commonsp. 339
Resolving Social Dilemmasp. 341
Competitionp. 343
Perceived Injusticep. 344
Misperceptionp. 345
Mirror-Image Perceptionsp. 346
Shifting Perceptionsp. 348
Blessed Are the Peacemakersp. 351
Contactp. 351
Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes?p. 352
When Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes?p. 353
Cooperationp. 355
Common External Threatsp. 355
Superordinate Goalsp. 357
Cooperative Learningp. 357
Communicationp. 359
Bargainingp. 359
Mediationp. 359
Arbitrationp. 362
Conciliationp. 363
When Do People Help?p. 367
Why Do People Help?p. 369
When Do People Help?p. 369
Number of Bystandersp. 370
Noticingp. 371
Interpretingp. 372
Assuming Responsibilityp. 373
Social Psychology and the Sustainable Futurep. 377
Enabling Sustainable Livingp. 379
New Technologiesp. 380
Reducing Consumptionp. 380
The Social Psychology of Materialism and Wealthp. 381
Increased Materialismp. 381
Wealth and Well-Beingp. 383
Materialism Fails to Satisfyp. 386
Toward Sustainability and Survivalp. 389
Referencesp. 392
Creditsp. 504
Name Indexp. 507
Subject Indexp. 525
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