9789810228880

Extensive Air Showers

  • ISBN13:

    9789810228880

  • ISBN10:

    9810228880

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1997-10-01
  • Publisher: WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUB CO INC
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Table of Contents

Preface ix
Discovery
1(8)
Discovery of Cosmic Rays
1(4)
Discovery of Extensive Air Showers
5(4)
Phenomenology
9(24)
The Cascade Process
10(1)
Electromagnetic Cascade
11(6)
Interaction of Photons
11(1)
Photo-electric Effect
11(1)
Compton Effect
11(1)
Pair Production
12(1)
Interaction of Electrons
13(1)
Ionization
13(1)
Bremsstrahlung
13(1)
The EM Cascade
14(1)
Lateral Spread
15(1)
Monte Carlo Simulations
16(1)
EAS Cascade
17(5)
Numerical Method
17(3)
Monte Carlo Method
20(1)
EAS Initiated by Primary Nuclei
21(1)
General Features of Air Showers
22(11)
Electron Component
23(3)
Lateral Structure
26(1)
Hadron Component
26(1)
Temporal Structure of Hadrons
27(1)
Charged to Neutral (C/N) Ratio
27(1)
Muon Component
28(1)
Cerenkov Light from EAS
29(1)
Fluorescent Light
30(3)
Techniques
33(44)
Detectors
33(17)
Electron Detectors
33(1)
YES/NO Type of Detectors
34(2)
Proportional Detectors
36(4)
Fast Timing
40(1)
Muon Detectors
40(4)
Hadron Detectors
44(6)
Multicomponent Techniques of EAS Studies
50(20)
Surface and Deep Underground Installations Operated in Coincidence
50(1)
The Cornell Experiment
51(1)
The KGF Experiment
52(3)
The EAS-TOP Array
55(3)
The MILAGRO
58(2)
The HEGRA Detector
60(1)
Muon Towers in HEGRA
61(1)
Tracking Detectors in HEGRA
62(1)
Time Track Detectors in Air Shower Arrays
62(1)
The CASA-MIA Array
63(1)
The KASCADE Array
64(1)
GRAPES III Array
65(1)
SPASE Array
65(3)
The Tibetan Air Shower Array
68(2)
Shower Analysis
70(7)
Determination of Zenith Angle
71(1)
Determination of Shower Size
72(5)
High Energy Interactions
77(26)
Inelasticity of High Energy Collisions
78(1)
Variation of Interaction Mean Free Path with Energy
78(4)
Variation of Nucleon-Antinucleon Production Cross Section with Energy
82(1)
Drastic Changes in the Interaction Characteristics Beyond 1015 eV?
82(3)
Emulsion Chambers
85(18)
Results from Emulsion Chamber Experiments
89(1)
The Energy Spectrum of Gamma Families: Scaling Violation
89(1)
Attenuation of Cosmic Ray Hadrons in Lead
90(1)
Centauro Events
91(4)
Halo Events
95(2)
Penetrating Cascades
97(6)
Primary Energy Spectrum
103(30)
Direct Measurements
103(2)
Primary Energy Spectrum from Air Shower Studies
105(22)
The Akeno and KGF Experiments
105(14)
The Moscow Experiment
119(3)
The EAS-TOP Experiment
122(1)
The Tibetan Experiment
123(2)
The Moscow Cerenkov Experiment
125(1)
The Calorimetric Method of Linsley
126(1)
The Knee
127(6)
Primary Composition
133(72)
Direct Measurements
133(1)
Depth of Shower Maximum
134(18)
Cerenkov Technique
134(1)
Theoretical Results
135(5)
Experimental Results
140(1)
The Adelaide Experiment
140(2)
The Durham Experiments
142(4)
The Moscow Experiment
146(1)
The Yakutsk Experiment
146(2)
The Samarkand Experiment
148(1)
The Akeno Experiments
149(1)
The HEGRA Experiment
150(2)
Constant Intensity Cut Method
152(1)
Muons
152(30)
High Energy Muons
154(1)
Model Independent Method
154(1)
The KGF Experiment
155(2)
Lateral Distribution
157(1)
Variation of Muon Number with Shower Size
157(9)
The Moscow Experiment
166(1)
The EASTOP-MACRO Experiment
166(6)
The Baksan Experiment
172(4)
Low Energy Muons
176(1)
The Ooty Experiment
176(2)
The Moscow Experiment
178(2)
The Akeno Experiment
180(1)
The Tien Shan Experiment
181(1)
Hadrons
182(2)
Delayed Hadrons
183(1)
Fractal Analysis
184(5)
Composition Models
189(16)
Extremely High Energy Cosmic Rays
205(36)
The EHE Arrays
206(3)
The Fly's Eye Detector
206(1)
The Hi-Res
207(1)
The AGASA Array
208(1)
Results
209(32)
Primary Energy Spectrum
210(12)
The Highest Energy Cosmic Rays (> 1020 eV)
222(4)
Composition Beyond 1017 eV
226(5)
Anisotropy
231(10)
Gamma Ray Astronomy
241(54)
Experimental Techniques
242(10)
The Atmospheric Cerenkov Technique
243(6)
EAS Technique
249(3)
Gamma Ray Source Search
252(43)
Crab Nebula
253(1)
TeV Gamma Rays
253(2)
PeV Gamma Rays
255(1)
Comparison of Observations
256(2)
Production Mechanisms
258(1)
Crab Pulsar
259(1)
TeV Gamma Rays
259(4)
PeV Gamma Rays
263(6)
Production Mechanisms
269(3)
Other Pulsars
272(3)
X-ray Binaries
275(1)
Cygnus X-3
275(1)
TeV Gamma Rays
275(1)
PeV Gamma Rays
276(3)
Muons from Cygnus X-3
279(1)
Production Mechanisms
279(4)
Hercules X-1
283(1)
TeV Gamma Rays
283(1)
PeV Gamma Rays
284(1)
Production Mechanisms
284(1)
Extragalactic Sources
285(1)
Markarian 421
285(1)
Markarian 501
286(9)
Neutrino Astronomy
295(8)
Detection of UHE Neutrinos
298(5)
Radio Detection of Neutrino induced Showers
299(1)
Horizontal Air Showers
299(4)
Cosmic Ray Sources
303(12)
Summary of Energy Spectrum and Composition
303(4)
Origin and Acceleration Mechanisms
307(8)
Conclusions
315(2)
A Monte Carlo Technique 317(4)
B Monte Carlo Simulation of Extreme Air Showers 321(1)
The Interaction Model
321(2)
Simulation of Individual Interactions
323(1)
Simulation of Individual Particle Multiplicities
323(1)
Generation and Conservation of Transverse Momentum
324(1)
Generation and Conservation of Longitudinal Momentum and Energy
324(1)
Simulation of the Air Shower Cascade
325

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