9780762727889

Fall Foliage : The Mystery, Science, and Folklore of Autumn Leaves

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780762727889

  • ISBN10:

    0762727888

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-09-01
  • Publisher: FalconGuides
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List Price: $14.95

Summary

This colorful and authoritative travel and field guide answers commonly asked questions about fall foliage: "Why do trees change color?" "What kind of leaf is that?" and "Where are the best displays of fall foliage and how do I know when to go?"

Author Biography

Charles W. G. Smith, formerly the Natural History Editor at Storey Communications, is the author of several books on topics ranging from gardening to backpacking. He lives in Mill River, Massachusetts.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1(1)
A Celebration of Color 1(1)
The Science of Fall Foliage 1(7)
How to Use this Book 8(3)
Trees of the Forest and Countryside
11(34)
Ash
12(2)
Aspens
14(2)
Beech
16(2)
Birches
18(2)
Elms
20(2)
Hickories
22(2)
Maple, Red
24(2)
Maple, Sugar
26(2)
Oak, Red
28(2)
Oak, White
30(2)
Sassafras
32(2)
Sourwood
34(2)
Sweetgum
36(2)
Tamarack
38(2)
Tulip Tree
40(2)
Tupelo, Black
42(3)
Shrubs, Small Trees, and Vines
45(20)
Blueberries/Huckleberries
46(4)
Burning Bush
50(2)
Dogwood, Flowering
52(2)
Hornbeam, American
54(2)
Juneberries
56(2)
Redbud
58(2)
Virginia Creeper
60(2)
Witch-Hazel
62(3)
Fall Foliage in Cities and Towns
65(28)
Trees
66(14)
Callery Pear
66(2)
Franklin Tree
68(2)
Ginkgo
70(2)
Katsura Tree
72(2)
Kousa Dogwood
74(2)
Maple, Japanese
76(2)
Stewartia
78(2)
Shrubs
80(13)
Bottlebrush Buckeye
80(2)
Chokeberry, Red
82(2)
Fothergillia, Dwarf
84(2)
Smokebush
86(2)
Staghorn Sumac
88(2)
Viburnums
90(3)
Bright Spots
93(38)
Rules of the Road: How to See Fall Foliage Successfully
95(1)
New England
95(13)
Connecticut
97(2)
Massachusetts
99(2)
Vermont
101(2)
New Hampshire
103(2)
Maine
105(3)
Northeast
108(8)
New York
108(4)
Pennsylvania and New Jersey
112(4)
Midwest
116(3)
Wisconsin
116(2)
Michigan
118(1)
Ohio
119(1)
The South
119(5)
The Blue Ridge Mountains
120(2)
The Great Smokies
122(1)
Georgia
123(1)
Arkansas
123(1)
Rocky Mountains
124(3)
Colorado
124(1)
Utah and Idaho
124(3)
Wyoming and Montana
127(1)
Fall Foliage in Unexpected Places
127(4)
Texas
127(1)
Washington and Oregon
128(2)
Arizona
130(1)
Resources
131(1)
Foliage Hotlines and Web Sites
132

Excerpts

A GREEN LEAF IS GREEN because of the presence of a group of pigments known as chlorophylls. When they are abundant in the leaf's cells, as they are during the growing season, the chlorophylls' green color dominates and masks out the colors of any other pigments that may be present in the leaf. Thus the leaves of summer are characteristically green.

The chlorophylls have a vital function: They capture some of the sun's energy and use it to manufacture the plant's food--simple sugars that are produced from water and carbon dioxide. These sugars are the basis of the plant's nourishment--the sole source of the carbohydrates needed for growth and development.

In their food-manufacturing process, the chlorophylls themselves break down and thus are being continually "used up." During the growing season, however, the plant replenishes the chlorophyll so that the supply remains high and the leaves stay green.

But as autumn approaches, certain influences both inside and outside the plant cause the chlorophylls to be replaced at a slower rate than they are being used up. During this period, with the total supply of chlorophylls gradually dwindling, the "masking" effect slowly fades away. Then other pigments that have been present (along with the chlorophylls) in the cells all during the leaf's life begin to show through. These are the carotenoids; they give us colorations of yellow, brown, orange, and the many hues in between.

The reds, the purples, and their blended combinations that decorate autumn foliage come from another group of pigments in the cells called the anthocyanins. These pigments are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season as are the carotenoids. They develop in late summer in the sap of the cells on the leaf, and this development is the result of complex interactions of many influences--both inside and outside the plant. Their formation depends on the breakdown of sugars in the presence of bright light as the level of phosphate in the leaf is reduced.

During the summer growing season, phosphate is at a high level. It has a vital role in the breakdown of the sugars manufactured by chlorophyll.

But in the fall, phosphate, along with the other chemicals and nutrients, moves out of the leaf into the stem of the plant. When this happens, the sugar-breakdown process changes, leading to the production of anthocyanin pigments. The brighter the light during this period, the greater the production of anthocyanin pigments. The brighter the light during this period, the greater the production of anthocyanins and the more brilliant the resulting color display that we see. When the days of autumn are bright and cool, the nights chilly but not freezing, the brightest colorations usually develop.

Anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the very young leaves as they unfold from the buds in early spring. They also give the familiar color to such common fruits as cranberries, red apples, purple grapes, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, and plums. These same pigments often combine with the carotenoids' colors to give us the deeper orange, fiery reds, and bronzes typical of many hardwood species.

The carotenoids occur, along with the chlorophyll pigments, in tiny structures--called plastics--within the cells of leaves. Sometimes they are in such abundance in the leaf that they give a plant a yellow-green color, even during the summer. But usually we become aware of their presence for the first time in autumn, when the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll.

Carotenoids are common in many living things, giving characteristics color to carrots, corn, canaries, and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas.

Their brilliant yellows and oranges tint the leaves of such hardwood species as hickories, ash, maple, yellow poplar, aspen, birch, black cherry sycamore, cottonwood, sassafras, and alder.

Excerpted from Fall Foliage: The Mystery, Science, and Folklore of Autumn Leaves by Charles W. G. Smith
All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

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