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9780070384293

Film History: An Introduction

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780070384293

  • ISBN10:

    0070384290

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-08-06
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Summary

Written by two leading film scholars, Film History: An Introduction is a comprehensive survey of film-from the backlots of Hollywood, across the United States, and around the world. As in the authors' bestselling Film Art, concepts and events are illustrated with actual frame enlargements, giving students more realistic points of reference than competing books that use publicity stills.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Introduction: Film History and How It Is Done 1(1)
Why Do We Care About Old Movies?
1(1)
What Do Film Historians Do?
2(5)
Questions and Answers
2(1)
Film History as Description and Explanation
3(1)
Evidence
4(1)
Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches
5(1)
Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence
5(2)
Our Approach to Film History
7(2)
History as Story
9(2)
Reference
10(1)
Part One EARLY CINEMA 11(11)
The Invention and Early Years of the Cinema, 1880s-1904
13(9)
The Invention of the Cinema
14(7)
Preconditions for Motion Pictures
14(1)
Major Precursors of Motion Pictures
15(1)
An International Process of Invention
16(5)
Early Filmmaking and Exhibition
21(1)
Scenics, Topicals, and Fiction Films
21(1)
Creating an Appealing Program
21(1)
The Growth of the French Film Industry
22(1)
BOX: THE SPREAD OF THE CINEMA AROUND THE WORLD: SOME REPRESENTATIVE EXAMPLE 22(2)
BOX: GEORGES MELIES, MAGICIAN OF THE CINEMA 24(28)
England and the Brighton School
24(3)
The United States: Competition and the Resurgence of Edison
27(4)
Notes and Queries
31(2)
Identification and Preservation of Early Films
31(1)
Reviving Interest in Early Cinema: The Brighton Conference
32(1)
Reference
32(1)
Further Reading
32(1)
The International Expansion of the Cinema, 1905-1912
33(19)
Film Production in Europe
33(4)
France: Pathe versus Gaumont
33(2)
Italy: Growth through Spectacle
35(1)
Denmark: Nordisk and Ole Olsen
36(1)
Other Countries
37(1)
The Struggle for the Expanding American Film Industry
37(5)
The Nickelodeon Boom
37(2)
The Motion Picture Patents Company versus the Independents
39(1)
Social Pressures and Self-Censorship
40(1)
The Rise of the Feature Film
41(1)
The Star System
41(1)
The Movies Move to Hollywood
42(1)
The Problem of Narrative Clarity
42(8)
Early Moves toward Classical Storytelling
43(7)
An International Style
50(1)
Notes and Queries
51(1)
Griffith's Importance in the Development of Film Style
51(1)
BOX: THE BEGINNINGS OF FILM ANIMATION 52(9)
References
54(1)
Further Reading
54(1)
National Cinemas, Hollywood Classicism, and World War I, 1913-1919
55(6)
The American Takeover of World Markets
56(1)
The Rise of National Cinemas
57(4)
Germany
57(1)
Italy
58(2)
Russia
60(1)
BOX: THE BRIEF HEYDAY OF THE SERIAL 61(10)
France
62(1)
Denmark
63(1)
Sweden
64(4)
The Classical Hollywood Cinema
68(3)
The Major Studios Begin to Form
68(1)
Controlling Filmmaking
68(2)
Filmmaking in Hollywood during the 1910s
70(1)
BOX: PRECISION STAGING IN EUROPEAN CINEMA 71(10)
Films and Filmmakers
73(4)
Streamlining American Animation
77(1)
Smaller Producing Countries
77(2)
Notes and Queries
79(2)
The Ongoing Rediscovery of the 1910s
79(1)
References
80(1)
Further Reading
80(1)
Part Two THE LATE SILENT ERA. 1919-1929 81(8)
France in the 1920s
85(4)
The French Film Industry after World War I
85(2)
Competition from Imports
85(1)
Disunity within the Film Industry
86(1)
Outdated Production Facilities
86(1)
Major Postwar Genres
87(1)
The French Impressionist Movement
88(1)
The Impressionists' Relation to the Industry
88(1)
A CHRONOLOGY OF FRENCH IMPRESSIONIST CINEMA 89(15)
Impressionist Theory
90(1)
Formal Traits of Impressionism
91(7)
The End of French Impressionism
98(1)
The Filmmakers Go Their Own Ways
98(1)
Problems within the Film Industry
98(1)
Notes and Queries
99(2)
French Impressionist Theory and Criticism
99(1)
Restoration Work on Napoleon
100(1)
References
100(1)
Further Reading
100(1)
Germany in the 1920s
101(3)
The German Situation after World War I
101(1)
Genres and Styles of German Postwar Cinema
102(2)
Spectacles
103(1)
The German Expressionist Movement
103(1)
A CHRONOLOGY OF GERMAN EXPRESSIONIST CINEMA 104(12)
Kammerspiel
109(1)
German Films Abroad
110(1)
Major Changes in the Mid- to Late 1920s
110(3)
The Technological Updating of the German Studios
111(1)
The End of Inflation
112(1)
The End of the Expressionist Movement
113(1)
New Objectivity
114(2)
BOX: G. W. PABST AND NEW OBJECTIVITY 116(12)
Export and Classical Style
115(3)
Notes and Queries
118(1)
German Cinema and German Society
118(1)
Expressionism, New Objectivity and the Other Arts
118(1)
References
118(1)
Further Reading
118(1)
Soviet Cinema in the 1920s
119(9)
The Hardships of War Communism, 1918-1920
119(4)
Recovery under the New Economic Policy, 1921-1924
123(1)
Increased State Control and the Montage Movement, 1925-1930
124(4)
Growth and Export in the Film Industry
124(1)
The Influence of Constructivism
125(2)
A New Generation: The Montage Filmmakers
127(1)
A CHRONOLOGY OF THE SOVIET MONTAGE MOVEMENT 128(26)
The Theoretical Writings of Montage Filmmakers
129(1)
Soviet Montage Form and Style
130(8)
Other Soviet Films
138(1)
The First Five-Year Plan and the End of the Montage Movement
139(2)
Notes and Queries
141(2)
Film Industry and Governmental Policy: A Tangled History
141(1)
The Kuleshov Effect
141(1)
The Russian Formalists and the Cinema
141(1)
References
141(1)
Further Reading
142(1)
The Late Silent Era in Hollywood, 1920-1928
143(11)
Theater Chains and the Structure of the Industry
144(2)
Vertical Integration
144(1)
Picture Palaces
145(1)
The Big Three and the Little Five
145(1)
The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
146(1)
Studio Filmmaking
147(7)
Style and Technological Changes
147(2)
Big-Budget Films of the 1920s
149(3)
New Investment and Blockbusters
152(1)
Genres and Directors
153(1)
BOX: SILENT COMEDY IN THE 1920s 154(20)
Foreign Filmmakers in Hollywood
158(4)
Films for African American Audiences
162(1)
The Animated Part of the Program
163(2)
Notes and Queries
165(2)
The Rediscovery of Buster Keaton
165(1)
References
166(1)
Further Reading
166(1)
International Trends of the 1920s
167(7)
``Film Europe''
167(3)
Postwar Animosities Fade
167(1)
Concrete Steps toward Cooperation
168(1)
Success Cut Short
169(1)
The ``International Style''
170(3)
The Blending of Stylistic Traits
170(1)
Carl Dreyer: European Director
171(2)
Film Experiments outside the Mainstream Industry
173(1)
Abstract Animation
173(1)
BOX: THE SPREAD OF ``ART CINEMA'' INSTITUTIONS 174(17)
Dada Filmmaking
177(1)
Surrealism
178(1)
Cinema Pur
179(2)
Lyrical Documentaries: The City Symphony
181(1)
Experimental Narrative
182(2)
Documentary Features Gain Prominence
184(2)
Commercial Filmmaking Internationally
186(3)
Japan
186(1)
Great Britain
187(1)
Italy
187(1)
Some Smaller Producing Countries
188(1)
Notes and Queries
189(2)
Different Versions of Silent Classics
189(1)
References
190(1)
Further Reading
190(1)
Part Three THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND CINEMA. 1926-1945 191(5)
The Introduction of Sound
193(3)
Sound in the United States
194(2)
Warner Bros. and Vitaphone
194(1)
Sound-on Film is Adopted
194(1)
Sound and Filmmaking
195(1)
BOX: EARLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY AND THE CLASSICAL STYLE 196(20)
Germany Challenges Hollywood
200(4)
Dividing the International Pie
200(1)
The Early Sound Era in Germany
201(3)
The USSR Pursues Its Own Path to Sound
204(2)
The International Adoption of Sound
206(5)
France
201(6)
Great Britain
207(1)
Japan
208(1)
Wiring the World's Theaters for Sound
209(1)
Crossing the Language Barrier
210(1)
Notes and Queries
211(2)
Filmmakers on the Coming of Sound
211(1)
Sound and the Revision of Film History
211(1)
References
211(1)
Further Reading
211(2)
The Hollywood Studio System, 1930-1945
213(3)
The New Structure of the Film Industry
214(2)
The Big Five
214(2)
The Little Three
216(1)
BOX: THE HAYS CODE: SELF-CENSORSHIP IN HOLLYWOOD 216(11)
The Independents
218(1)
Exhibition Practice in the 1930s
218(1)
Continued Innovation in Hollywood
219(5)
Sound Recording
219(1)
Camera Movement
220(1)
Technicolor
220(1)
Special Effects
221(2)
Cinematography Styles
223(1)
Major Directors
224(3)
The Older Generation
224(2)
New Directors
226(1)
BOX: CITIZEN KANE AND THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS 227(22)
New Emigre Directors
228(1)
Genre Innovations and Transformations
228(7)
The Musical
228(2)
The Screwball Comedy
230(1)
The Horror Film
231(1)
The Social Problem Film
232(1)
The Gangster Film
233(1)
Film Noir
233(2)
The War Film
235(1)
Animation and the Studio System
235(2)
Notes and Queries
237(2)
The Controversy over Orson Welles
237(1)
References
238(1)
Further Reading
238(1)
Other Studio Systems
239(10)
Quota Quickies and Wartime Pressures: The British Studios
239(7)
The British Film Industry Grows
239(2)
Export Successes
241(1)
Alfred Hitchcock's Thrillers
242(1)
Crisis and Recovery
242(2)
The Effects of the War
244(2)
Innovation within an Industry: The Studio System of Japan
246(3)
Popular Cinema of the 1930s
246(2)
The Pacific War
248(1)
BOX: YASUJIRO OZU AND KENJI MIZOGUCHI IN THE 1930s 249(14)
India: An Industry Built on Music
256(1)
A Highly Fragmented Business
256(1)
Mythologicals, Socials, and Devotionals
256(1)
Independents Weaken the System
257(1)
China: Filmmaking Caught between Left and Right
257(2)
Notes and Queries
259(2)
Japanese Cinema Rediscovered
259(1)
References
260(1)
Further Reading
260(1)
Cinema and the State: The Ussr, Germany, and Italy, 1930-1945
261(2)
The Soviet Union: Socialist Realism and World War II
261(2)
Films of the Early 1930s
262(1)
The Doctrine of Socialist Realism
262(1)
SOCIALIST REALISM AND CHAPAYEV 263(31)
The Main Genres of Socialist Realism
264(4)
The Soviet Cinema in Wartime
268(3)
The German Cinema under the Nazis
271(5)
The Nazi Regime and the Film Industry
271(1)
Films of the Nazi Era
272(3)
The Aftermath of the Nazi Cinema
275(1)
Italy: Propaganda versus Entertainment
276(5)
Industry Tendencies
276(1)
A Cinema of Distraction
277(2)
A New Realism?
279(2)
Notes and Queries
281(2)
The Case of Leni Riefenstahl
281(1)
References
281(1)
Further Reading
282(1)
France: Poetic Realism, the Popular Front, and the Occupation, 1930-1945
283(11)
The Industry and Filmmaking during the 1930s
284(5)
Production Problems and Artistic Freedom
284(1)
Fantasy and Surrealism: Rene Clair, Pierre Prevert, and Jean Vigo
284(2)
Quality Studio Filmmaking
286(1)
Emigres in France
287(1)
Everyday Realism
288(1)
Poetic Realism
289(4)
Doomed Lovers and Atmospheric Settings
289(1)
The Creative Burst of Jean Renoir
290(2)
Other Contributors
292(1)
Brief Interlude: The Popular Front
293(1)
BOX: POPULAR FRONT FILMMAKING: LA VIE EST A NOUS AND LA MARSEILLAISE 294(17)
Filmmaking in Occupied and Vichy France
296(5)
The Situation in the Film Industry
296(2)
Films of the Occupation Period
298(3)
Notes and Queries
301(2)
Renewed Interest in the Popular Front
301(1)
Reference
302(1)
Further Reading
302(1)
Leftist, Documentary, and Experimental Cinemas, 1930-1945
303(8)
The Spread of Political Cinema
303(6)
The United States
304(1)
Germany
305(1)
Belgium and the Netherlands
305(1)
Great Britain
306(1)
International Leftist Filmmaking in the Late 1930s
307(2)
Government- and Corporate-Sponsored Documentaries
309(2)
The United States
309(1)
Great Britain
310(1)
BOX: ROBERT FLAHERTY: MAN OF ARAN AND THE ``ROMANTIC DOCUMENTARY'' 311(12)
Wartime Documentaries
313(4)
Hollywood Directors and the War
313(1)
Great Britain
314(2)
Germany and the USSR
316(1)
The International Experimental Cinema
317(6)
Experimental Narratives and Lyrical and Abstract Films
317(1)
Surrealism
318(1)
Animation
319(3)
References
322(1)
Further Reading
322(1)
Part Four THE POSTWAR ERA: 1945-1960s 323(7)
American Cinema in the Postwar Era, 1945-1960
325(5)
1946-1948
326(2)
The HUAC Hearings:. The Cold War Reaches Hollywood
326(1)
The Paramount Decision
327(1)
The Decline of the Hollywood Studio System
328(2)
Changing Lifestyles and Competing Entertainment
328(1)
Hollywood Adjusts to Television
329(1)
BOX: SEE IT ON THE BIG SCREEN 330(17)
Art Cinemas and Drive-ins
333(1)
Challenges to Censorship
334(1)
The New Power of the Individual Film and the Revival of the Roadshow
335(1)
The Rise of the Independents
336(3)
Mainstream Independents: Agents, Star Power, and the Package
336(1)
Exploitation
337(2)
Independents on the Fringe
339(1)
Classical Hollywood Filmmaking: A Continuing Tradition
339(5)
Complexity and Realism in Storytelling
339(2)
Stylistic Changes
341(1)
New Twists on Old Genres
341(3)
Major Directors: Several Generations
344(3)
Veterans of the Studio Era
344(2)
Emigres Stay On
346(1)
BOX: ALFRED HITCHCOCK 347(13)
Welles's Struggle with Hollywood
348(1)
The Impact of the Theater
348(2)
New Directors
350(1)
Notes and Queries
351(2)
Widescreen Formats in Subsequent History
351(1)
References
351(1)
Further Reading
351(2)
Postwar European Cinema: Neorealism and its Context, 1945-1959
353(7)
The Postwar Context
353(1)
Film Industries and Film Culture
354(5)
West Germany: ``Papas Kino''
354(1)
Resistance to U.S. Encroachment
355(2)
Art Cinema: The Return of Modernism
357(2)
Italy: Neorealism and After
359(1)
Italian Spring
359(1)
NEOREALISM AND AFTER: A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS AND SELECTED WORKS 360(4)
Defining Neorealism
362(2)
BOX: UMBERTO D: THE MAID WAKES UP 364(1)
BOX: OPEN CITY: THE DEATH OF PINA 365(2)
Beyond Neorealism
366(1)
BOX: LUCHINO VISCONTI AND ROBERTO ROSSELLINI 367(7)
A Spanish Neorealism?
369(2)
Notes and Queries
371(2)
Controversies around Neorealism
371(1)
References
371(1)
Further Reading
372(1)
Postwar European Cinema: France, Scandinavia, and Britain, 1945-1959
373(1)
French Cinema of the Postwar Decade
373(1)
The Industry Recovers
373(1)
BOX: POSTWAR FRENCH FILM CULTURE 374(10)
The Tradition of Quality
375(2)
The Return of Older Directors
377(4)
New Independent Directors
381(2)
Scandinavian Revival
383(1)
BOX: CARL THRODOR DREYER 384(24)
England: Quality and Comedy
385(4)
Problems in the Industry
385(1)
Literary Heritage and Eccentricity
386(3)
Art-House Success Abroad
389(1)
Notes and Queries
389(2)
Postwar French Film Theory
389(1)
The Powell-Pressburger Revival
390(1)
References
390(1)
Further Reading
390(1)
Postwar Cinema Beyond the West, 1945-1959
391(17)
General Tendencies
391(2)
Japan
393(4)
Industry Recovery under the Occupation
393(1)
The Veteran Directors
394(2)
The War Generation
396(1)
Postwar Cinema in the Soviet Sphere of Influence
397(7)
The USSR: From High Stalinism to the Thaw
397(2)
Postwar Cinema in Eastern Europe
399(5)
People's Republic of China
404(3)
Civil War and Revolution
404(2)
Mixing Maoism and Tradition
406(1)
India
407(1)
A Disorganized but Prolific Industry
407(1)
The Populist Tradition and Raj Kapoor
407(1)
BOX: MUSIC AND POSTWAR INDIAN FILM 408(36)
Swimming against the Stream: Guru Dutt and Ritwik Ghatak
409(2)
Latin America
411(2)
Argentina and Brazil
411(1)
Mexican Popular Cinema
412(1)
Notes and Queries
413(2)
De-Stalinization and the Disappearing Act
413(1)
References
414(1)
Further Reading
414(1)
Art Cinema and the Idea of Authorship
415(24)
The Rise and Spread of the Auteur Theory
415(1)
Authorship and the Growth of the Art Cinema
416(1)
Luis Bunuel (1900-1983)
417(2)
Ingmar Bergman (1918- )
419(3)
Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998)
422(3)
Federico Fellini (1920-1993)
425(1)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1912- )
426(2)
Robert Bresson (1907-1999)
428(3)
Jacques Tati (1908-1982)
431(2)
Satyajit Ray (1921-1992)
433(3)
Notes and Queries
436(3)
The Impact of Auteurism
436(1)
Auteurism and the American Cinema
436(1)
1950s and 1960s Modernist Cinema
437(1)
References
438(1)
Further Reading
438(1)
New Waves and Young Cinemas, 1958-1967
439(5)
The Industries New Needs
439(1)
Formal and Stylistic Trends
440(3)
France: New Wave and New Cinema
443(1)
The New Wave
443(1)
FRENCH NEW CINEMA AND THE NOUVELLE VAGUE: A CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR RELEASES 444(2)
BOX: FRANCOIS TRUFFAUT AND JEAN-LUC GODARD 446(19)
New Cinema: The Left Bank
449(2)
Italy: Young Cinema and Spaghetti Westerns
451(3)
Great Britain: Kitchen Sink Cinema
454(2)
Young German Film
456(2)
New Cinema in the USSR and Eastern Europe
458(7)
Young Cinema in the Soviet Union
458(2)
New Waves in Eastern Europe
460(5)
BOX: MIKLOS JANSCO 465(19)
The Japanese New Wave
468(3)
Brazil: Cinema Novo
471(4)
Notes and Queries
475(2)
Censorship and the French New Wave
475(1)
New Film Theory
475(1)
References
475(1)
Further Reading
476(1)
Documentary and Experimental Cinema in the Postwar Era, 1945-Mid-1960s
477(7)
Toward the Personal Documentary
478(5)
Innovative Trends
478(2)
The National Film Board and Free Cinema
480(1)
France: The Auteurs' Documentaries
481(1)
Jean Rouch and Ethnographic Documentary
482(1)
Direct Cinema
483(1)
The United States: Drew and Associates
483(1)
BOX: NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR THE NEW DOCUMENTARY 484(6)
Direct Cinema in Bilingual Canada
486(1)
France: Cinema Verite
487(2)
Experimental and Avant-Garde Cinema
489(1)
BOX: THE FIRST POSTWAR DECADE: MAYA DEREN 490(9)
Abstraction, Collage, and Personal Expression
493(6)
THE SECOND POSTWAR DECADE: STAN BRAKHAGE 499(10)
Success and New Ambitions
500(1)
Underground and Expanded Cinema
501(6)
Notes and Queries
507(2)
Writing the History of the Postwar Avant-Garde
507(1)
References
508(1)
Further Reading
508(1)
Part Five THE CONTEMPORARY CINEMA SINCE THE 1960s 509(7)
Hollywood's Fall and Rise: 1960-1980
511(5)
The 1960s: The Film Industry in Recession
512(4)
The Studios in Crisis
512(1)
Styles and Genres
513(1)
Modifying the Classical Studio Style
514(1)
Identifying the Audience
515(1)
BOX: NEW PRODUCTION AND EXHIBITION TECHNOLOGIES 516(4)
The New Hollywood: Late 1960s to Late 1970s
516(4)
Toward an American Art Cinema
517(3)
BOX: PERSONAL CINEMA: ALTMAN AND ALLEN 520(3)
Hollywood Strikes Gold
522(1)
The Return of the Blockbuster
522(1)
BOX: THE 1970S BIG THREE: COPPOLA, SPIELBERG, AND LUCAS 523(19)
Hollywood Updated
526(2)
Scorsese as Synthesis
528(2)
Opportunities for Independents
530(2)
Notes and Queries
532(3)
The American Director as Superstar
532(1)
Film Consciousness and Film Preservation
532(1)
Exploitation Films and Connoisseurs of ``Weird Movies''
533(1)
References
533(1)
Further Reading
533(2)
Politically Critical Cinema of the 1960s and 1970s
535(7)
Political Filmmaking in the Third World
536(6)
Revolutionary Aspirations
537(1)
Political Genres and Style
538(1)
Latin America
538(4)
BOX: TWO REVOLUTIONARY FILM: MEMORIES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT AND LUCIA 542(16)
Black African Cinema
548(3)
China: Cinema and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
551(2)
Political Filmmaking in the First and Second Worlds
553(5)
Eastern Europe and the USSR
553(3)
Political Cinema in the West
556(2)
BOX: FILM ACTIVITIES DURING THE MAY EVENTS IN PARIS 558(4)
Political Modernism
562(1)
BOX: BRECHT AND POLITICAL MODERNISM 562(19)
The Politicization of Mainstream Narrative and the Art Film
568(4)
New Cinema in West Germany: The Political Wing
572(4)
Notes and Queries
576(3)
Defining Third World Revolutionary Cinema
576(1)
Film Studies and the New Film Theory
577(1)
References
577(1)
Further Reading
578(1)
Documentary and Experimental Film Since the Late 1960s
579(2)
Documentary Cinema
579(2)
Direct Cinema and Its Legacy
579(2)
BOX: FREDRICK WISEMAN AND THE TRADITION OF DIRECT CINEMA 581(14)
Synthesizing Documentary Techniques
553(31)
The Questioning of Documentary Actuality
584(2)
Documenting Upheavals and Injustice
586(1)
The Theatrical Documentary in the Age of Television
587(2)
From Structuralism to Pluralism in Avant-Garde Cinema
589(6)
Structural Film
589(5)
Reactions and Alternatives to Structural Film
594(1)
BOX: INDEPENDENT ANIMATION OF THE 1970S AND 1980s 595(13)
New Mergers
601(1)
Notes and Queries
602(3)
Rethinking Documentary
602(1)
The Idea of Structure
603(1)
The Avant-Garde and Postmodernism
603(1)
References
604(1)
Further Reading
604(1)
New Cinemas and New Developments: Europe and the Ussr Since the 1970s
605(3)
Western Europe
606(2)
Crisis in the Industry
606(2)
BOX: TELEVISION AND AARDMAN ANIMATION 608(6)
The Art Cinema Revived: Toward Accessibility
609(5)
BOX: DURAS, VON TROTTA, AND THE EUROPEAN ART CINEMA 614(21)
The Arresting Image
618(5)
Eastern Europe and the USSR
623(8)
Eastern Europe: From Reform to Revolution
623(4)
The USSR: The Final Thaw
627(4)
Notes and Queries
631(2)
The New German Cinema
631(1)
References
632(1)
Further Reading
632(1)
Beyond the Industrialized West: Latin America, the Asia-Pacific Region, the Middle East, and Africa Since the 1970s
633(2)
From Third World to Developing Nations
634(1)
Latin America: Accessibility and Decline
635(1)
BOX: LATIN AMERICAN LITERATURE AND CINEMA 635(14)
Brazil
636(1)
Argentina and Elsewhere
637(1)
Mexico
638(1)
Cuba and Other Left-Wing Cinemas
639(1)
India: Mass Output and Art Cinema
640(4)
A Parallel Cinema
641(1)
Beyond a Parallel Cinema
642(1)
Coproductions, ``International Directors,'' and a New Political Cinema
643(1)
Japan
644(4)
Independent Filmmaking: An Irreverent Generation
645(1)
The 1990s: The Punctured Bubble and a New Surge of Talent
646(2)
Mainland China: The Fifth Generation and Beyond
648(1)
The Fifth Generation
648(1)
CHRONOLOGY OF CHINA'S FIFTH GENERATION 649(11)
The Sixth Generation and Illegal Films
650(2)
New Cinemas in East Asia
652(8)
The Philippines
653(1)
Hong Kong
654(5)
Taiwan
659(1)
BOX: EDWARD YANG AND HOU HSIAO-HSIEN 660(17)
South Korea
662(1)
Australia and New Zealand
663(3)
Australia
663(2)
New Zealand
665(1)
Filmmaking in the Middle East
666(5)
Israel
667(1)
Egypt
668(1)
Turkey
668(1)
Iraq and Iran
669(2)
African Cinema
671(4)
North Africa
671(1)
Sub-Saharan Africa
672(2)
The 1990s
674(1)
Notes and Queries
675(2)
Pinning the Tail on Pinochet
675(1)
Storytelling in Third World Cinema
675(1)
References
676(1)
Further Reading
676(1)
Part Six CINEMA IN THE AGE ELECTRONIC MEDIA 677(11)
American Cinema and the Entertainment Economy: the 1980s and After
679(9)
Hollywood, Cable Television, and Videotape
680(1)
Concentration and Consolidation in the Film Industry
681(6)
The Megapicture Mentality
683(1)
The Bottom Line
684(1)
Prime Packagers
685(1)
New Revenue Streams
685(1)
Megaplexing: The New Face of Exhibition
686(1)
Artistic Trends
687(1)
Form and Style
687(1)
BOX: INTENSIFIED CONTINUITY: A STYLE FOR THE VIDEO AGE 688(14)
Directors: Coming to Terms with Megapics
689(3)
Genres
692(2)
A New Age of Independent Cinema
694(7)
Support Systems
695(1)
The Arty Indies
696(1)
Off Hollywood Indies
697(3)
Retro-Hollywood Independents
700(1)
Digital Cinema
701(1)
A TIMELINE OF 3-D COMPUTER ANIMATION 702(6)
Notes and Queries
703(2)
Video Versions
703(1)
George Lucas: Is Film Dead?
704(1)
References
704(1)
Further Reading
704(1)
Toward a Global Film Culture
705(3)
Hollyworld?
706(2)
The Media Conglomerates
706(1)
Cooperation and Cooptation
707(1)
BOX: JURASSIC PARK, GLOBAL FILM 708(5)
Battles over GATT
709(1)
Multiplexing the Planet
709(1)
Regional Alliances and the New International Film
710(3)
Europe and Asia Try to Compete
710(1)
Media Empires
711(1)
Polygram: A European Major?
711(1)
Global Films from Europe
711(1)
East Asia: Regional Alliances and Global Efforts
712(1)
BOX: BACK TO BASICS: DOGME 95 713(4)
Diasporas and the Global Soul
715(1)
The Festival Circuit
716(1)
BOX: THE TORONTO INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL 717(8)
Global Subcultures
718(2)
Video Piracy: An Efficient Distribution System?
718(1)
Fan Subcultures: Appropriating the Movies
718(2)
Digital Convergence
720(3)
The Internet as Movie Billboard
720(1)
Digital Moviemaking from Script to Screen
721(2)
Notes and Queries
723(2)
Akira, Gundam, Sailor Moon, and their friends
723(1)
Auteurs on the Web
723(1)
References
723(1)
Further Reading
723(2)
Bibliography 725(7)
Glossary 732(7)
Index 739

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