Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-03-22
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Floral morphology remains the cornerstone for plant identification and studies of plant evolution. This guide gives a global overview of the floral diversity of the angiosperms through the use of detailed floral diagrams. These schematic diagrams replace long descriptions or complicated drawings as a tool for understanding floral structure and evolution. They show important features of flowers, such as the relative positions of the different organs, their fusion, symmetry, and structural details. The relevance of the diagrams is discussed, and pertinent evolutionary trends are illustrated. The range of plant species represented reflects the most recent classification of flowering plants based mainly on molecular data, which is expected to remain stable in the future. This book is invaluable for researchers and students working on plant structure, development and systematics, as well as being an important resource for plant ecologists, evolutionary botanists and horticulturists.

Author Biography

Dr Louis P. Ronse De Craene is Director of the M.Sc. course on the Biodiversity and Taxonomy of Plants at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. He is a world-leading expert in floral morphology, with emphasis on floral development. His research interests centre on the structural complexity and evolution of flowers and encompass a broad range of angiosperm families.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Introduction to floral diagramsp. 1
Introduction to flower morphologyp. 3
Definition of flowersp. 3
Floral organsp. 5
Perianthp. 5
Androeciump. 8
Gynoeciump. 14
The floral axis and receptaclep. 18
Floral nectariesp. 21
Relationship of flowers with inflorescencesp. 22
Terminal and lateral flowersp. 22
Pseudanthiap. 23
Bracts and bracteolesp. 24
Epicalyx and calyculusp. 24
Symmetry and orientation of flowersp. 25
Phyllotaxisp. 28
Whorls and spiralsp. 28
Merismp. 30
Aestivation patternsp. 32
Fusion of floral partsp. 33
Congenital and postgenital fusionp. 33
Sympetaly and common stamen-petal tubesp. 34
Floral diagramsp. 36
Definition and significance of floral diagramsp. 36
Types of floral diagramsp. 37
Floral diagrams and floral formulaep. 38
Problems of three-dimensional complexityp. 39
Representation of accessory structuresp. 41
Floral heteromorphism and unisexual flowersp. 43
Floral development and floral diagramsp. 44
Evolutionary developmental genetics and floral diagramsp. 48
Floral diagrams used in this bookp. 51
Floral diagrams in the major cladesp. 55
Systematic significance of floral diagramsp. 57
Floral diagrams and molecular phylogenyp. 57
Molecular and morphological charactersp. 57
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classificationp. 59
Fossil flowers and floral diagramsp. 61
Overview of floral diagrams in the major clades of flowering plantsp. 62
Basal angiosperms: the ascent of flowersp. 63
The ANA-grade: Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, Nymphaealesp. 63
Magnolialesp. 70
Lauralesp. 75
Piperalesp. 82
Monocots: variation on a trimerous Bauplanp. 88
The basal monocots: Acorales and Alismatalesp. 88
The lilioids: Asparagales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Lilialesp. 98
The commelinids: Arecales, Commelinales, Poales, Zingiberalesp. 112
Early diverging eudicots: a transition between two worldsp. 129
Ranunculalesp. 129
The basal eudicot grade: Sabiales, Proteales, Trochodendrales, Buxalesp. 140
Basal core eudicots: the event of pentamerous flowersp. 149
Gunnerales and Berberidopsidalesp. 149
Santalalesp. 154
Dillenialesp. 159
Caryophyllids: how to reinvent lost petalsp. 163
Polygonalesp. 164
Core Caryophyllalesp. 175
Rosids: the diplostemonous alliancep. 193
Saxifragalesp. 193
Malvidsp. 203
Early diverging malvids: Geraniales, Myrtalesp. 203
Remaining malvids: Malvales, Brassicales, Sapindalesp. 217
Fabidsp. 243
COM-clade: Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighialesp. 244
Remaining fabids: Cucurbitales, Fabales, Fagales, Rosalesp. 269
Asterids: tubes and pseudanthiap. 292
Basal asterids: Cornales, Ericalesp. 292
Lamiids: Solanales, Gentianales, Lamialesp. 314
Campanulids: Dipsacales, Apiales, Asteralesp. 333
Conclusionsp. 349
Distinctive systematic characters and cryptic apomorphiesp. 351
Floral diagrams and major angiosperm groupsp. 353
Basal angiosperms, monocots and early diverging eudicotsp. 353
Core eudicotsp. 357
Outlookp. 364
Referencesp. 365
Glossaryp. 403
Taxonomic indexp. 414
Subject indexp. 430
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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