Food and Addiction A Comprehensive Handbook

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-08-30
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Can certain foods hijack the brain in ways similar to drugs and alcohol, and is this effect sufficiently strong to contribute to major diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, and hence constitute a public health menace? Terms like "chocoholic" and "food addict" are part of popular lore, some popular diet books discuss the concept of addiction, and there are food addiction programs with names like Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous. Clinicians who work with patients often hear the language of addiction when individuals speak of irresistible cravings, withdrawal symptoms when starting a diet, and increasing intake of palatable foods over time. But what does science show, and how strong is the evidence that food and addiction is a real and important phenomenon? Food and Addiction: A Comprehensive Handbookbrings scientific order to the issue of food and addiction, spanning multiple disciplines to create the foundation for what is a rapidly advancing field and to highlight needed advances in science and public policy. The book assembles leading scientists and policy makers from fields such as nutrition, addiction, psychology, epidemiology, and public health to explore and analyze the scientific evidence for the addictive properties of food. It provides complete and comprehensive coverage of all subjects pertinent to food and addiction, from basic background information on topics such as food intake, metabolism, and environmental risk factors for obesity, to diagnostic criteria for food addiction, the evolutionary and developmental bases of eating addictions, and behavioral and pharmacologic interventions, to the clinical, public health, and legal and policy implications of recognizing the validity of food addiction. Each chapter reviews the available science and notes needed scientific advances in the field.

Author Biography

Kelly D. Brownell, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Psychology at Yale University, where he also serves as Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health and as Director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. Dr. Brownell is a member of the Institute of Medicine and in 2006 was named by Time Magazine as one of the World's 100 Most Influential People.
Mark S. Gold, M.D., is the Donald Dizney Eminent Scholar, Distinguished Professor, and Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Florida, College of Medicine. Dr. Gold is a member of the McKnight Brain Institute and has worked for 40 years in translational addiction research. He is also an author, mentor, and inventor who has developed new treatments and models for understanding addiction and overeating.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Contributorsp. xiii
Introductionp. xxi
The Neurobiology and Psychology of Addiction
Animal Models of Drug Addictionp. 3
Human Laboratory Models of Addictionp. 14
Neuroanatomy of Addictionp. 20
Genetics of Addictionp. 30
Epigenetic Changes in Addiction and Eating Disordersp. 34
Feeding Systems and Drugs of Abusep. 40
Co-Occurring Addiction and Psychiatric Disordersp. 47
The Study of Craving and Its Role in Addictionp. 53
Stress and Addiction: A Brief Overviewp. 59
Regulation of Eating and Body Weight
The Changing Face of Global Diet and Nutritionp. 69
Weight and Diet among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2005-2008p. 81
Genetics of Body Weight Regulationp. 90
Central Regulation of Hunger, Satiety, and Body Weightp. 97
Peripheral Regulation of Hunger and Satietyp. 103
Food Intake and Metabolismp. 108
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balancep. 113
Prenatal Programming of Obesity: Role of Macronutrient-Specific Peptide Systemsp. 119
The Biology and Psychology of Tastep. 126
Leptin Gene Therapy for Hyperphagia, Obesity, Metabolic Diseases, and Addiction: A New Opportunityp. 131
Lessons from Prader-Willi Syndrome and Pathological Brain Reinforcementp. 138
Environmental Toxins as Triggers for Obesityp. 143
The Special Case of Sugar-Sweetened Beveragesp. 147
The Impact of Portion Size and Energy Density on Eatingp. 154
Specific Environmental Drivers of Eatingp. 159
Research on Food and Addiction
Food Addiction and Diagnostic Criteria for Dependencep. 167
Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Contributions to Today's Obesity Quagmirep. 172
Food Rewardp. 178
Dopamine Deficiency, Eating, and Body Weightp. 185
Genes and Reward Circuitry as Predictors of Eating and Weight Gainp. 194
Hormones, Hunger, and Food Addictionp. 200
Bingeing, Withdrawal, and Craving: An Animal Model of Sugar Addictionp. 206
Incubation of Sucrose Craving in Animal Modelsp. 214
Linking versus Wanting Food in Human Appetite: Relation to Craving, Overconsumption, and "Food Addiction"p. 220
The Psychology of Food Cravingsp. 226
Is Sugar as Addictive as Cocaine?p. 231
Caffeine, Addiction, and Food Consumptionp. 238
Interactions between Smoking, Eating, and Body Weightp. 244
Interactions between Alcohol Consumption, Eating, and Weightp. 249
Relationships between Drugs of Abuse and Eatingp. 254
Stress and Reward: Neural Networks, Eating, and Obesityp. 266
Public Attitudes about Addictions as a Cause of Obesityp. 273
Clinical Approaches and Implications
Clinical Assessment of Food and Addictionp. 281
Psychological Treatments for Substance Use Disordersp. 285
Behavioral Treatments for Obesityp. 290
Pharmacotherapy of Addictive Disordersp. 296
Pharmacotherapy for Obesity: Current and Future Treatmentsp. 303
Surgical Treatments for Obesityp. 310
Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Dependence in 2011 and Relevance to Food Addictionp. 318
Treatment of Binge Eating Disorderp. 329
Exercise Addiction and Aversion: Implications for Eating and Obesityp. 336
New Treatments for Obesity Based on Addiction Modelsp. 342
From the Front Lines: The Impact of Refined Food Addiction on Well-Beingp. 348
From the Front Lines: A Clinical Approach to Food and Addictionp. 354
Food and Addiction: A Personal Storyp. 360
Public Health Approaches and Implications
Taxes on Energy-Dense Foods to Improve Nutrition and Prevent Obesityp. 367
Addressing Disparities Related to Food Intake and Obesityp. 376
Is Food Advertising Feeding Americans' Sugar Habit? An Analysis of Exposure to Television Advertising for High-Sugar Foodsp. 382
Environmental Interventions to Reduce Overeating in Childrenp. 388
Nutrition Practices in Schoolsp. 394
Legal and Policy Implications
Legal and Policy Implications: Litigationp. 401
Legal Implications: Regulating Sales and Marketingp. 406
What Lessons for Food Policy Can Be Learned from Alcohol Control?p. 411
Policy Lessons Learned from Tobaccop. 416
Lessons from Drug Policyp. 423
Global Policies Affecting Diet and Obesityp. 430
Concluding Comments
Food and Addiction: Scientific, Social, Legal, and Legislative Implicationsp. 439
Indexp. 447
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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