Food Safety The Science of Keeping Food Safe

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-03-12
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Food safety is a multi-faceted subject, using microbiology, chemistry, standards and regulations, and risk management to address issues involving bacterial pathogens, chemical contaminants, natural toxicants, additive safety, allergens, and more.

This revised edition has been updated with the latest information on food safety. It addresses all the topics pertinent to a full understanding of keeping the food we eat safe. Each chapter of Food Safety: The Science of Keeping Food Safe, Second Edition proceeds from introductory concepts and builds towards a sophisticated treatment of the topic, allowing the reader to take what knowledge is required for understanding food safety at a wide range of levels. Illustrated with photographs and examples throughout, this new edition also boasts 4 new chapters covering radioactivity in food; food terrorism; food authenticity; and food supplements.

• This second edition has been revised and updated throughout to include the latest topics in this fast-moving field
• Includes 4 brand new chapters on radioactivity in food, food terrorism, food authenticity, and food supplements
• The most readable and user-friendly food safety book for students, scientists, regulators, and general readers

Food Safety is the ideal starting point for students and non-specialists seeking to learn about food safety issues, and an enjoyable and stylish read for those who already have an academic or professional background in the area.

Author Biography

IAN C. SHAW is Professor of Toxicology at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. His CV includes academic positions in biochemistry, toxicology, and applied biology, as well as experience as a clinical scientist and a member of various international government advisory bodies on food safety.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xiv

1 Introduction 1

Introduction 1

A brief history of food safety 1

Evolution of cellular protection mechanisms 2

2 Food Risk 13

Introduction 13

What is risk? 14

Measuring hazard 16

Determining risk 18

Acceptable risk 23

Risk versus benefit 26

Risk perception 27

The precautionary principle 30

Food risk assessment 31

Relative risk and risk ranking 33

Risk management 33

Risk communication 36

Quantitative risk assessment 36

Take home messages 45

Further reading 45

3 Bacteria 46

Introduction 46

The discovery of bacteria 47

The biology of bacteria 52

The bacterial ecology of food 61

Human bacterial pathogens on food 62

Gastroenteritis 63

Food-borne pathogenic bacteria 63

Take home messages 101

Further reading 102

4 Viruses 103

Introduction 103

The discovery of viruses 103

The biology of viruses 105

Diseases caused by viruses and mechanisms of viral transmission 108

Other food-borne viruses 115

Take home messages 116

Further reading 116

5 Parasites 117

Introduction 117

What are parasites? 117

Flatworms – Platyhelminthes 118

Tapeworms – Cestodes 118

Flukes – Trematodes 121

Nematodes 124

Protozoa 130

Take home messages 140

Further reading 140

6 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) 141

Introduction 141

The history of BSE 141

The epidemiology of BSE in England 142

Spongiform encephalopathies 143

Prions 143

The symptoms of BSE 145

BSE cases in the UK 146

BSE transmission and the origins of PrPSC 146

The risk to human consumers of BSE beef – nvCJD 149

The politics of BSE and implications for food safety worldwide 153

BSE incidence around the world 153

Take home messages 154

Further reading 155

7 Chemical Contaminants 156

Introduction 156

Pesticides 157

Insecticides 164

Herbicides 185

Fungicides 187

Veterinary medicines 192

Growth promoting chemicals 203

Fertilisers 208

Natural environmental chemicals 210

Non-agricultural environmental pollutants 213

Residues monitoring programmes 217

Dietary intake and risk to human consumers 218

Take home messages 219

Further reading 219

8 Natural Toxins 220

Introduction 220

Why produce natural toxins? 221

Natural toxins in the human food chain 222

Plant toxins 224

Mycotoxins 237

Phytohaemagglutinins in beans 241

Bacterial toxins 243

Phytoestrogens 243

Take home messages 243

Further reading 243

9 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 244

Introduction 244

The first observations of xenoestrogens’ effects 245

Estrogen receptors – ERs 246

Molecular requirements for estrogenicity 247

Estrogens are present in both males and females 247

Xenoestrogens 248

Population level effects of exposure to xenoestrogens 261

The positive health effects of xenoestrogens 264

Take home messages 265

Further reading 265

10 Genetically Modified Food 266

Introduction 266

A brief introduction to nucleic acids, genetics

and molecular biology 267

Nucleic acids 267

Converting the genetic code into a protein 268

The history of GM crops 271

The tools of the genetic engineer 272

Glyphosate-resistant crops 274

Insect-protected crops – BT toxin 275

GM crops with enhanced flavour or nutritional properties 276

What happens if humans eat GM crops or foods made from them? 277

Changed biochemistry in GM crops 278

What is the effect of eating DNA and RNA? 278

GM animals 279

Take home messages 279

Further reading 279

11 Colours, Flavours and Preservatives 280

Introduction 280

Food colours 282

Flavours 290

Preservatives 305

Take home messages 319

Further reading 319

12 Food Irradiation 320

Introduction 320

Different types of radioactivity 321

How irradiation kills cells 323

The history of food irradiation 324

The effect of radiation on microorganisms 325

How is food irradiated? 326

The effects of irradiation on food chemistry 326

The effects of irradiation on vitamins 327

Radiation dose 331

Does irradiation make food radioactive? 332

Health effects of food irradiation 332

The use of food irradiation around the world 333

Take home messages 334

Further reading 334

13 Food Safety and the Unborn Child 335

Introduction 335

‘You are what your mother ate’ 335

Growth and development of the embryo and fetus 337

Effects of food chemical contaminants 344

Effects of microbiological contaminants 345

Effects on ova and sperm 346

Take home messages 347

Further reading 347

14 Organic Food 349

Introduction 349

What does ‘organic’ mean? 350

The history and philosophy of organic farming 351

Demand for organic food 352

Organic farming methods 352

Organic farming legislation 353

Organic fertilisers 354

Organic pest control 355

Organic weed control 355

Animal health remedies 356

Food processing 356

Is organic food better for you? 357

Myths and facts about organic food 361

Take home messages 364

Further reading 365

15 Food Allergy 367

Introduction 367

What is an allergy? 368

The basics of immunology 368

Immunity and the immune response 368

Sensitisation 371

Food allergies 373

The genetics of allergy 373

Food allergens 374

Milk allergy 375

Peanut allergy 377

Soy allergy 380

Nut allergies 381

Seafood allergies 383

Gluten allergy (coeliac disease) 386

Allergy to eggs 389

Allergen cross-reactivity 390

Banana/latex allergy 390

Food additives allergy 392

Why is the incidence of food allergies increasing? 392

A cautionary note 393

Take home messages 393

Further reading 394

16 Food Legislation 395

Introduction 395

Legal processes – how laws are made 397

A very brief history of food law 398

Food legislation around the world 399

Food legislation in the USA 399

Food legislation in the UK 402

Food legislation in New Zealand 405

Policing food legislation 407

Does food legislation reduce risks to consumers? 410

Case example – non-compliance follow-up 410

The relevance of national food legislation in a global food market 411

Take home messages 412

Further reading 412

17 Radioactivity in Food 413

Introduction 414

What is radioactivity? 415

Effects of radiation on cells: Health implications 418

Energies and penetration powers of radiation 419

How cells protect themselves against exposure

to radioactivity 420

Effects of radiation on cells and implications for health 422

Radioactivity dose 424

Natural radioactivity 425

Nuclear power stations 426

Chernobyl disaster (1986) 429

Fukushima Daiichi disaster (2011) 431

Alexander Litvinenko (2006) 434

Radioactive emissions from non]reactor sources 435

Background radioactivity 436

Where do radioisotopes go in the body and what

effects do they have? 437

Radioactivity in food 439

Measuring radioactivity in food 440

Liquid scintillation counting 443

Is there a safe radioactivity exposure level? 447

Take home messages 450

Further reading 450

18 Food Supplements 452

Introduction 452

Nomenclature 453

Types of food supplements 453

Herbal remedies 453

Herbal remedies: The final word 461

Homeopathy 463

Amino acids and proteins 464

Vitamins 465

Dietary elements (minerals) 466

Essential fatty acids 468

Fish oil supplements 471

Bodybuilding supplements 472

Food and health…the development of food supplements 474

Synthesis of vitamin C 474

Definition of a medicine and approval for marketing 474

Food supplements are regulated as foods 475

Do food supplements have health benefits? 476

Are food supplements necessary? 476

Questionable marketing claims for food supplements 478

Changes in regulation of food supplements 478

When is a food a medicine? 480

What is a medicinal claim? 481

Take home messages 483

Further reading 483

19 Food Terrorism 484

Introduction 484

What is a terrorist act? 484

The terrorist threat 485

Pharmaceutical terrorism 485

Tamper]proof packaging 485

Food extortion 486

Razor blades, pins, caustic soda and slivers of glass in baby food 486

Tamper]proof packaging for baby food 486

The New Zealand botulinum toxin in milk threat (2013) 486

New Zealand 1080 in infant formula threat (2014) 487

What is 1080? 488

Political issues underpinning the 1080 threat 489

The 1080 threat unfolds… 489

The Wisconsin (US) chlordane incident (1996) 490

Biological agents in food terrorism 492

1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack 492

Is food terrorism a significant threat? 493

The WHO’s response to the risk of food terrorism 493

Preventing food terrorism 494

Dealing with a food terrorism event 495

Take home messages 496

Further reading 497

20 Food Authenticity 498

Introduction 498

Food fraud 499

Ma ̄nuka honey 499

Ma ̄nuka honey authenticity 501

Australian mā nuka honey 502

Fake mānuka honey prosecution 502

Olive oil authenticity 502

Composition of olive oil compared with other vegetable oils 503

Free fatty acids versus total fatty acids 503

Using fatty acids to authenticate olive oils 503

Pheophytins and pyropheophytins 505

Sensory tests 505

Italian olive oil scandal 507

Toxic oil syndrome, Spain (1981) 508

Analytical methods 510

Gas–liquid chromatography 510

High performance liquid chromatography 511

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 514

The use of NMR to check instant coffee authenticity 515

Isotopic ratios 515

Isotopic ratio mass spectrometry 516

Orange juice adulteration 517

Animal products 518

Immunological species identification in food 519

Using DNA technology to identify animal species in food 519

Policing food authenticity 520

Operation OPSON 520

The European horsemeat scandal (2013) 522

Food authenticity legislation 522

Food fraud, humane farming and environmental awareness 526

New Zealand free]range egg fraud (2010–2011) 526

Food fraud in the US 527

Traceability 527

Genetically modified organisms and traceability 529

Take home messages 530

Further reading 530

Index 531


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