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The Forensic Anthropology Training Manual,9780130492937
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The Forensic Anthropology Training Manual

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130492937

ISBN10:
0130492930
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/24/2006
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $70.60
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Summary

This training manual is designed to serve three purposes: to be used as a general introduction to the field of forensic anthropology; as a framework for training; and as a practical reference tool. The book will make readers aware of the challenges and responsibilities of the forensic scientist, the multidisciplinary nature of the work, and the international potential for the forensic sciences. The manual examines physical evidence, death investigation specialists, forensic anthropology, human Osteology, human Odontology, laboratory analysis, field methods, professional results, and human rights applications. For those seeking basic knowledge necessary to collect and process skeletonized human remains.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
1(8)
Introduction: The Problem of the Unidentified
2(1)
Who are the ``missing, unidentified, and disappeared''?
2(1)
Why is identification so difficult?
2(1)
The Discipline of Forensic Anthropology
3(3)
History of Forensic Anthropology
3(2)
Educational Requirements
5(1)
How is the work of an anthropologist different from the work of a pathologist or medical examiner?
6(1)
Objectives of an Anthropological Investigation
6(1)
Questions Basic to Personal Identification
6(1)
Questions Regarding the Circumstances of Death
7(1)
Cause and Manner of Death
7(1)
Stages of an Investigation
7(2)
Osteology, the Biology of Bone
9(14)
Introduction
10(1)
Why study human osteology?
10(1)
What are the practical applications?
10(1)
Structure and Function of the Skeletal System
10(6)
Tissues: Communities of Cells with a Common Purpose
10(1)
Connective Tissue: The Most Durable Tissue of the Body
11(1)
Dense Connective Tissue: Holding Everything Together
11(1)
Cartilage: A Strong but Flexible Connective Tissue
12(1)
Bone: The Strongest, Least Flexible Connective Tissue
12(4)
Classification and Description of Bones
16(1)
By Location
16(1)
By Size and Shape
16(1)
By Origin
16(1)
By Structure
16(1)
Directional and Sectional Terms for the Human Body
17(4)
Osteological Terms
21(2)
The Skull and Hyoid
23(39)
Introduction
24(4)
Left / Right Recognition
24(1)
Individualization
24(1)
Origin and Growth
24(4)
Frontal Bone
28(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
28(1)
Individualization
28(1)
Origin and Growth
28(2)
Parietal Bones
30(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
30(1)
Left / Right Recognition
30(1)
Individualization
30(1)
Origin and Growth
30(2)
Occipital Bone
32(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
32(1)
Individualization
32(1)
Origin and Growth
32(2)
Temporal Bones
34(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
34(1)
Left / Right Recognition
34(1)
Individualization
34(1)
Origin and Growth
34(2)
Zygomatic Bone (Malar)
36(1)
Description, Location, Articulation
36(1)
Left / Right Recognition
36(1)
Individualization
36(1)
Origin and Growth
36(1)
Sphenoid
37(1)
Description, Location, Articulation
37(1)
Origin and Growth
37(1)
Maxillae
38(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
38(1)
Individualization
38(1)
Origin and Growth
38(2)
Mandible
40(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
40(1)
Individualization
40(1)
Origin and Growth
40(2)
Nasals, Lacrimals, and Ethmoid
42(2)
Age Changes in the Skull
44(1)
Sex Differences in the Skull
44(3)
Racial Analysis of the Skull
47(4)
Individualization
50(1)
Anthropometry
51(2)
Frankfort Plane (a.k.a. Frankfort Horizontal)
51(1)
Craniometric Points
51(2)
Directions for Accurate Measurements
53(7)
Measuring the Cranium
53(2)
Measuring the Orbit
55(1)
Measuring the Palate
56(1)
Measuring the Mandible
56(2)
Chord Measurements
58(1)
Head Shape: Cephalic Indices and Discriminant Function Analyses
58(1)
Computerized Analysis of Sex and Race: FORDISC
59(1)
The Hyoid
60(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
60(2)
The Shoulder Girdle and Thorax: Clavicle, Scapula, Ribs, and Sternum
62(16)
Introduction
63(1)
Clavicle: The Collar Bone
63(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
63(1)
Left / Right Recognition
64(1)
Origin and Growth
64(1)
Scapula: The Shoulder Blade
65(4)
Description, Location, Articulation
65(2)
Left / Right Recognition
67(1)
Individualization: Handedness, Left / Right Dominance
67(1)
Origin and Growth
68(1)
Ribs
69(7)
Description, Location, Articulation
70(1)
Rib Sorting: Left / Right and Superior/Inferior Recognition
70(3)
Individualization: Costo-Vertebral Articulations and Abnormalities
73(1)
Age Determination with Ribs
73(1)
Age Changes in Sternal Rib Ends of Males
74(1)
Origin and Growth
75(1)
Sternum: The Breast Bone
76(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
76(1)
Individualization
76(1)
Origin and Growth
76(2)
The Vertebral Column
78(13)
Introduction
79(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
79(1)
Superior / Inferior Recognition
79(1)
Individualization
79(2)
Origin and Growth
81(1)
Cervical Vertebrae (Atlas, Axis, and C3--C7)
82(1)
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1--T12)
83(1)
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1--L5)
84(1)
Sacral Vertebrae (S1--S5 or Sacrum)
85(1)
Coccygeal Vertebrae (Coccyx)
86(1)
Reassembling the Vertebral Column, Step by Step
87(1)
Sort First
87(1)
Begin at the Top
87(1)
Stop and Review the Results
87(1)
The Aging Vertebral Body
87(4)
Age Changes in Vertebral Bodies, Superior and Lateral Views
88(1)
Age Changes in Older Vertebral Bodies: Osteophytic Growth
89(2)
The Arm: Humerus, Radius, and Ulna---and Joints
91(17)
Introduction
92(1)
Joints
92(2)
Structure, Function, and Movement of Joints
92(2)
Synovial Joints, Types of Movement with Examples
94(1)
Humerus: The Upper Arm
94(4)
Description, Location, Articulation
94(2)
Left / Right Recognition
96(1)
Handedness
96(1)
Sexual Differences
96(1)
Origin and Growth
96(2)
The Forearm
98(2)
Radius
100(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
100(1)
Left / Right Recognition
100(1)
Handedness
100(1)
Sexual Differences
100(2)
Origin and Growth
102(1)
Ulna
103(5)
Description, Location, Articulation
103(1)
Left / Right Recognition
103(1)
Origin and Growth
103(5)
The Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
108(8)
Introduction
109(1)
Carpal Bones: Wrist Bones
110(2)
Description, Location, Articulation
110(1)
Left / Right Recognition
110(1)
A Comparison of Carpal Characteristics
110(2)
Origin and Growth
112(1)
Metacarpal Bones: The Palm of the Hand
112(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
112(1)
Left / Right Recognition
112(1)
Origin and Growth
112(1)
Sex
113(1)
A Comparison of Metacarpal Characteristics
114(1)
Phalanges of the Hand: Finger Bones
115(1)
Description, Location, Articulation
115(1)
Left / Right Recognition
115(1)
Origin and Growth
116(1)
A Method for Sorting Phalanges
116(13)
The Pelvis (Innominate or Os Coxae)
117(1)
Introduction
118(1)
Innominate: Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis
118(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
118(2)
Left / Right Recognition
120(1)
Origin and Growth
120(1)
Sexual Differences
121(2)
Sexual Differences in the Pubis
121(1)
Sexual Differences in the Ilium
122(1)
Age Changes
123(6)
Age Changes in the Pubic Symphysis
123(1)
Analysis of the Pubic Symphysis
124(1)
Age Changes in Pubic Symphyses of Males
125(1)
Age Changes in the Auricular Surface of the Ilium
126(3)
The Leg: Femur, Tibia, Fibula, and Patella
129(16)
Introduction
130(1)
Femur: Upper Leg, Thigh Bone
130(5)
Description, Location, Articulation
130(1)
Left / Right Recognition
130(2)
Sexual Differences in the Femur
132(1)
Racial Differences in the Femur
132(1)
Bones of Confusion
132(1)
Origin and Growth
133(2)
Patella: Kneecap
135(1)
Description, Location, Articulation
135(1)
Left / Right Recognition
135(1)
Origin and Growth
135(1)
Lower Leg: Tibia and Fibula
136(2)
Tibia: Lower Leg, Shin Bone, Medial Ankle Bone
138(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
138(1)
Sexual Differences in the Tibia
138(1)
Left / Right Recognition
138(2)
Origin and Growth
140(1)
Fibula: Lower Leg, Lateral Ankle Bone
141(4)
Description, Location, Articulation
141(1)
Left / Right Recognition
141(1)
Bones of Confusion
141(1)
Origin and Growth
141(4)
The Foot: Tarsal Bones, Metatarsal Bones, and Phalanges
145(11)
Introduction
146(1)
Tarsal Bones: Ankle and Arch of the Foot
147(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
147(1)
Left / Right Recognition
147(1)
Origin and Growth
147(1)
A Comparison of Tarsal Characteristics
148(2)
Metatarsal Bones: Foot Bones
150(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
150(1)
A Comparison of Metatarsal Characteristics
150(2)
Left / Right Recognition
152(1)
Origin and Growth
152(1)
Phalanges: Toe Bones
153(3)
Description, Location, Articulation
153(1)
Left / Right Recognition
153(1)
Individualization
154(1)
Origin and Growth
154(1)
A Finger--Toe Comparison
155(1)
Odontology (Teeth)
156(29)
Introduction
157(1)
Structure and Function of Teeth and Supporting Tissues
158(4)
Directions, Surfaces, and Anatomy
159(2)
Tooth Numbering Systems
161(1)
Tooth Recognition
162(2)
Tips for Distinguishing Similar Teeth
164(2)
Distinguishing Maxillary Incisors from Mandibular Incisors
164(1)
Distinguishing Maxillary Premolars from Mandibular Premolars
165(1)
Distinguishing Maxillary Molars from Mandibular Molars
165(1)
Complete Permanent Dentition
166(2)
Recognizing Racial Traits
168(1)
Shovel-Shaped Incisors
168(1)
Carabelli's Cusp
168(1)
Dental Aging
169(7)
Formative Changes in Teeth
169(1)
Infant and Toddler: Deciduous Dentition
170(1)
Child: Mixed Dentition
171(1)
Teenager and Adult: Permanent Dentition
172(1)
Age Changes in Adult Teeth
173(3)
Dental Anomalies
176(1)
Dentistry and Oral Disease
177(6)
Dental Caries
177(1)
Periodontal Disease
178(1)
Apical Abscess
179(1)
Calculus Accumulation
179(1)
Occlusion and Malocclusion
179(1)
Dental Staining
180(1)
``Meth Mouth'': Effects of Methamphetamine Use
181(1)
The Edentulous Condition: Effects of Long-Term Tooth Loss
181(1)
Congenital Dental Conditions
182(1)
Dental Inventory Form
183(2)
Introduction to the Forensic Sciences
185(8)
Introduction
186(1)
Physical Evidence
186(3)
What Is Evidence?
186(1)
How Is Evidence Used?
187(1)
Challenges in Handling Physical Evidence
188(1)
Death Investigation Specialists
189(2)
Ballistic Specialists
190(1)
Crime Scene Investigators
190(1)
Criminalists
190(1)
Drug Analysts
190(1)
Fingerprint Specialists
190(1)
Forensic Anthropologists
190(1)
Forensic Pathologists
191(1)
Questioned Document Examiners
191(1)
Serologists and Geneticists (Forensic Biologists)
191(1)
Toxicologists
191(1)
Choosing the Correct Forensic Specialist
191(2)
No Visual Identification Possible
192(1)
Legal Consequence Unlikely
192(1)
Laboratory Analysis
193(39)
Introduction
194(1)
Preparation for Analysis
194(2)
Physical Facility
194(1)
Equipment, Supplies, and Reference Materials
195(1)
Evidence Management
196(4)
Assign Case Number
196(1)
Organize Database
197(1)
Prepare Case File
197(1)
Inventory the Evidence and Assign Additional Numbers if Necessary
198(1)
Transfer Non-Anthropological Evidence to Appropriate Specialists
199(1)
Prepare Evidence for Examination
199(1)
Skeletal Analysis and Description
200(24)
Minimum Number of Individuals
200(1)
Age
200(2)
Sex
202(1)
Race
203(1)
Handedness
204(1)
Stature
205(3)
Trauma
208(12)
Disease and Pathology
220(4)
Quality Check for Skeletal Analysis
224(1)
Age Changes
224(1)
Sexual Variation
224(1)
Racial Variation
225(1)
Stature Estimation
225(1)
Trauma
225(1)
Disease
225(1)
Human Identification (ID)
225(7)
Skeletal Identification: The Challenge
225(1)
Identification Levels
226(1)
Methods of Identification
227(5)
Field Methods
232(25)
Introduction
233(1)
Pre-Planning for Field Work
233(2)
Objectives
233(1)
Legal Permission
234(1)
Funding
234(1)
Insurance
234(1)
Security and Storage
234(1)
Antemortem Information
235(1)
The Interview
235(1)
Medical Records
236(1)
Antemortem Photographs
236(1)
Preparation for Excavation and Disinterment
236(2)
Numbering System
236(1)
Data Record Forms
237(1)
Equipment and Supplies
237(1)
Burial Location and Scene Investigation
238(2)
Remote Sensing
239(1)
What to Look for Before Disturbing the Surface
239(1)
Burial Classification
240(2)
Surface Burial or Below-Surface Burial
240(1)
Individual or Commingled Burial
241(1)
Isolated or Adjacent Burial
241(1)
Primary or Secondary Burial
241(1)
Disturbed or Undisturbed Burial
242(1)
The Excavation/Exhumation
242(7)
Duty Assignments
242(2)
Excavation Methods
244(5)
Postmortem Interval (Time since Death) and Forensic Taphonomy
249(7)
Immediate Postmortem Changes
249(1)
The Process of Decomposition
249(1)
Environmental Factors (Climate)
250(2)
Carrion Feeders
252(1)
Associated Plants
252(1)
Funerary Practices
253(2)
Other Preservation Factors
255(1)
Other Evidence of Funerary Practices
255(1)
Quality Check for Field Work
256(1)
Has the entire scene been searched and sampled?
256(1)
Are all human remains recognized and recovered?
256(1)
Is the written documentation complete?
256(1)
Can the entire scene and sequence of recovery be reconstructed from the photographic documentation?
256(1)
Professional Results
257(13)
Introduction
258(1)
Record Keeping
258(1)
Background Information
258(1)
Significant Dates
258(1)
Chain of Custody
259(1)
Notes
259(1)
Report Writing
259(2)
Cover Page
259(1)
Case Background
259(1)
Condition of the Evidence (Pre-Processing Appearance)
260(1)
Inventory
260(1)
Anthropological Description
260(1)
Other Observations
260(1)
Conclusions
261(1)
Recommendations
261(1)
Disposition of the Remains
261(1)
Signature and Date
261(1)
Appendix
261(1)
The Foundation
261(3)
Qualification of the Expert
262(1)
Authenticity of the Physical Evidence
262(1)
Admissibility of Expert Witness Testimony
262(2)
Depositions and Demonstrative Evidence
264(1)
Deposition
264(1)
Demonstrative Evidence
264(1)
Basic Ethics
265(1)
Respect
265(1)
Honesty
265(1)
Confidentiality
265(1)
Hierarchy of Obligations
266(1)
Final Preparation and Courtroom Testimony
266(1)
Be Well Prepared
266(1)
Demonstrate Honesty
266(1)
Show Respect
267(1)
Professional Associations
267(3)
Large-Scale Applications: Disasters, Human Rights, and POW/MIA Recovery
270(23)
Introduction
271(1)
Disasters and Mass Fatality Incidents
271(6)
MFI Response Within U.S. Government Jurisdiction
272(1)
DMORT
272(2)
The Role of the Forensic Anthropologist in Disaster Operations
274(1)
DMORT Processing and Temporary Morgue Stations
275(2)
Discussion
277(1)
Human Rights Work
277(12)
Introduction: The Scope of the Problem
277(2)
Human Rights and the Law
279(1)
The Role of the Scientist
279(2)
Contributions of Forensic Anthropologists
281(3)
History: The Mission in Argentina and the EAAF
284(1)
International Human Rights Work and Domestic Forensic Work Compared
285(1)
Critical Organizers, Funders, and Participants
286(2)
Types of Missions Related to Forensic Anthropology
288(1)
Conclusion
289(1)
POW/MIA Repatriation
289(4)
The Missing Americans
289(1)
U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii
290(1)
Field Methods
291(1)
Laboratory Methods
291(1)
Conclusion
291(2)
Appendix: Forms and Diagrams 293(34)
Glossary of Terms 327(13)
Bibliography 340(17)
Index 357


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