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The Forensic Anthropology Training Manual,9780130105769
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The Forensic Anthropology Training Manual

by
ISBN13:

9780130105769

ISBN10:
0130105767
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $68.40
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Summary

This new book focuses on the challenges and responsibilities of the forensic scientist, the multidisciplinary nature of the work, and the international potential for the forensic sciences. An excellent introduction to the realities of the profession of forensic scientist. Trains in the description and analysis of human skeletal and dental remains. Offers a well-illustrated approach to osteology training, including: a concentration on vocabulary-building, the use of case studies, and a structured approach to skeletal analysis and report-writing. An excellent text for those considering the field of forensic science.

Author Biography

Karen Ramey Burns, Ph.D. is presently teaching at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About The Author xvii
About The Illustrator xix
Introduction To Forensic Anthropology 1(1)
The Basic Problem 2(1)
Who Are the ``Missing, Unidentified, and Disappeared''? 2(1)
Why Is Identification so Difficult? 2(1)
The Discipline of Forensic Anthropology 3(1)
What Are the Objectives of an Anthropological Investigation? 3(1)
What Are the Educational Requirements of a Forensic Anthropologist? 4(1)
How Is the Work of an Anthropologist Different from the Work of a Pathologist or Medical Examiner? 4(1)
What Are the Stages of Investigation in Forensic Anthropology? 5(2)
PART I SKELETAL ANATOMY 7(128)
Introduction To Human Osteology
8(15)
Why Learn Human Osteology?
9(1)
Practical Applications for Human Osteology
9(1)
What to Expect from a Human Osteology Course
9(1)
The Basics
9(1)
Course Description
9(1)
Course Time Allotment
10(1)
Use of Human Skeletons
10(1)
Schedule of Study
10(1)
Information versus Experience
10(1)
Tissues
10(7)
Connective Tissue
10(1)
Dense Connective Tissue and Fibrous Tissue
11(1)
Cartilage
12(1)
Bone
13(1)
The Building Blocks for Bone
14(1)
Classification and Description of Bones
15(2)
Directional and Sectional Terms for the Human Body
17(1)
Examples of Directions and Sections
18(1)
Osteological Terms
18(5)
The Skull: Cranium, Mandible, And Hyoid
23(26)
Bone Recognition
28(8)
Sex Differentiation
36(2)
Examining Male and Female Skulls for Sexual Differences
36(2)
Racial Analysis
38(2)
Examining Skulls from Persons of Different Races
38(2)
Anthropometry
40(8)
Position
40(1)
Craniometric Points
40(3)
Directions for Accurate Measurements
43(1)
Head Shape and Cranial Indices
44(4)
Review of Skull Measurement Terms
48(1)
The Hyoid
48(1)
The Shoulder And Chest (Thorax): Clavicle, Scapula, And Ribs
49(11)
The Shoulder Girdle
50(1)
The Clavicle
50(2)
Epiphyseal Fusion
51(1)
The Scapula
52(2)
The Ribs
54(4)
Costo-Vertebral Articulations
56(1)
Age Determinations
56(2)
The Sternum
58(2)
The Vertebral Column
60(8)
Overview of Vertebral Sections
61(3)
Cervical Vertebrae (Atlas, Axis, and C3-C7)
62(1)
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
62(1)
Lumber Vertebrae (L1-L5)
62(1)
Sacral Vertebrae (S1-S5)
62(1)
Coccygeal Vertebrae (Coccyx)
62(2)
Reassembling the Vertebral Column
64(1)
Sorting
64(1)
Beginning at the Top
64(1)
Viewing the Results
64(1)
The Aging Vertebral Body
64(4)
The Arm: Humerus, Radius, And Ulna
68(7)
The Humerus
69(1)
The Forearm
70(5)
The Radius
71(1)
The Ulna
72(3)
The Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, And Phalanges
75(6)
Carpal Bones
76(1)
Metacarpal Bones
77(3)
Phalanges of Hand
80(1)
A Method for Sorting Phalanges
80(1)
The Pelvis (Hip): The Innominate, Composed Of The Ilium, Ischium, And Pubis
81(11)
The Structure of the Innominate
82(2)
Side Differences and Specific Structures of the Pelvis
84(3)
Age Differences in the Male Pubic Symphysis
87(5)
Examples from the Male Pubic Symphysis
88(1)
Examples of Six Phases of Pubic Symphysis Aging
89(3)
The Leg: Femur, Tibia, Fibula, And Patella
92(11)
The Femur
93(1)
The Tibia
94(2)
The Fibula
96(2)
The Patella
98(2)
Sexual Differences in the Bones of the Leg
100(3)
The Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals, And Phalanges
103(6)
Tarsal Bones
105(2)
Metatarsal Bones
107(1)
Phalanges: A Finger-Toe Comparison
108(1)
Human Odontology (The Teeth)
109(26)
Introduction to Odontology
110(3)
Tooth Structure
113(1)
Tooth Recognition
114(2)
Incisors
114(1)
Canines
114(1)
Premolars
115(1)
Molars
115(1)
Tips for Recognizing Similar Teeth
116(3)
Distinguishing Maxillary Incisors from Mandibular Incisors
116(1)
Distinguishing Maxillary Premolars from Mandibular Premolars
117(1)
Distinguishing Maxillary Molars from Mandibular Molars
118(1)
Recognizing Racial Traits
119(1)
The Universal Numbering System
120(2)
Dental Aging
122(7)
Formative Changes in Teeth
122(1)
Infant and Toddler---Deciduous Dentition
123(1)
Child--Mixed Dentition
124(1)
Teenager and Adult---Permanent Dentition
125(1)
Degenerative Changes in Teeth
126(3)
Dentistry Terms
129(1)
Oral Disease
130(2)
Dental Caries
130(1)
Apical Abscess
130(1)
Calculus Accumulation
130(1)
Periodontal Disease
130(2)
Dental Staining
132(1)
The Effects of Long-Term Tooth Loss
132(1)
Dental Inventory Form
133(2)
PART II FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERFACE 135(92)
Introduction To The Forensic Sciences
136(8)
Physical Evidence
137(2)
What is Evidence?
137(1)
What Evidence is Used in a Court of Low?
137(1)
How Is Evidence Used?
137(1)
Challenges in the Use of Physical Evidence
138(1)
Death Investigation Specialists
139(3)
Ballistic Specialists
139(1)
Crime Scene Investigators
140(1)
Criminalists
140(1)
Drug Analysts
140(1)
Fingerprint Specialists
140(1)
Forensic Anthropologists
140(1)
Forensic Pathologists
140(1)
Forensic Psychiatrists
141(1)
Questioned Document Examiners
142(1)
Serologists
142(1)
Toxicologists
142(1)
Which Specialist---Forensic Pathologist, Forensic Anthropologist, or Crime Scene Investigator?
142(2)
No Visual Identification Possible
142(1)
Legal Consequence Unlikely
142(2)
Laboratory Analysis
144(33)
Analysis
145(1)
Organization of Analysis
145(1)
Information Categories
145(1)
Sequence of Analysis
145(1)
The Basics of Skeletal Analysis
145(1)
Preparation for Analysis
146(4)
The Laboratory
146(2)
Overall Examination
148(1)
Preparation for Skeletal Material
148(2)
Skeletal analysis and Description
150(8)
Age
150(1)
Sex
151(1)
Race
152(2)
Stature
154(1)
Stature Determination by Formulae
155(2)
Handedness
157(1)
Analysis of Trauma
158(8)
Timing---When Did the Incident Occur?
158(2)
Classification---What Caused the Injury?
160(6)
The Stages of Bone Healing
166(2)
Timing the Healing Process
167(1)
Disease Analysis
168(4)
Age-Related Conditions
169(1)
Nutrition and Metabolism
169(1)
Bacterial Infections
170(1)
Neoplasms
171(1)
A Final Review of the Data
172(1)
The Basics of Human Identification
173(4)
Photo Superimposition
173(1)
Other Useful Methods
174(3)
Field Methods
177(21)
Preparation for Field Work
178(1)
Expectations
178(1)
Is the Job Legally, Financially, Physically, and Technically Possible?
178(1)
Antemortem Information
179(1)
The Interview
179(1)
Medical Records
180(1)
Numbering System and Records
180(1)
Evidence Identification
180(1)
Data Record Forms
181(1)
Equipment and Supplies
181(3)
Tools
182(2)
Burial Location and Scene Investigation
184(2)
What to Look for
184(1)
Burial Classification
185(1)
The Excavation/Exhumation
186(2)
Assigning Duties
186(2)
Excavation Methods
188(7)
Evidence Management
195(1)
Chain of Custody
195(1)
Numbering System
196(1)
Boxing and Storage Systems
196(1)
Quality check
196(2)
Items to Recognize and Recover
196(1)
Completion of Written Documentation
196(1)
Reconstruction of the Entire Scene from the Photographic Documentation
196(2)
Professional Results
198(6)
Record Keeping
199(1)
Background Information
199(1)
Significant Dates
199(1)
Chain of Custody
199(1)
Notes
199(1)
Report Writing
199(2)
Case Background
200(1)
General Condition of the Evidence
200(1)
Inventory
200(1)
Anthropological Description
200(1)
Other Observation
200(1)
Conclusions
201(1)
Recommendations
201(1)
Signature and Date
201(1)
Appendix
201(1)
Basic Ethics
201(1)
Respect
201(1)
Honesty
201(1)
Confidentiality
202(1)
Courtroom Testimony
202(2)
What Does It Mean to Be ``Well Prepared''?
202(1)
How Is Honesty Presented beyond the ``Swearing In''?
202(1)
How Does a Witness ``Show Respect''?
202(2)
Human Rights Applications
204(23)
The Role of the Scientist in Human Rights Work
205(3)
Evidence
205(1)
Professional Committees
205(1)
Human Rights Work Compared with Standard Forensic Work
206(2)
The Contribution of forensic Anthropology
208(4)
Scientific Human Rights Missions
210(2)
Participants in International Missions
212(3)
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
212(1)
Truth Commissions and Commissions of Inquiry
212(1)
Intergovernment Institutions
213(1)
Human Rights Groups and Organizations Interested in Science and Human Rights
213(1)
Philanthropic Agencies and International Funding Agencies
213(1)
Technical Resources
214(1)
Multinational Forensic Teams
215(1)
Planning Scientific Missions
215(3)
Written Permission
216(1)
Budgeting and Funding
216(1)
Specialists and Laborers
217(1)
Laboratory and Storage Areas
217(1)
Living Arrangements
217(1)
Weather Conditions
217(1)
Press Interests
217(1)
Safety and Security
217(1)
Types of Missions
218(6)
The Exploratory Mission
218(2)
The Major Excavation Mission
220(2)
The Training Mission
222(2)
Follow-up and Conclusion to the Missions
224(1)
Results of Missions
224(1)
Human Identification
225(1)
Physical Evidence
225(1)
International Publicity
225(1)
The Future
225(2)
Appendix: Forensic Forms 227(30)
Glossary 257(9)
Bibliography 266(7)
Index 273


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