Freedom of Speech

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-05-17
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Social and cultural changes have led to free speech claims being made in novel contexts: to challenge the validity of bans on tobacco advertising, to publish 'kiss and tell' stories about celebrities, and to resist attempts to regulate the Internet. In this fully revised and updated new edition of his classic work, Barendt considers the meaning and scope of freedom of speech. How far should free speech and expression clauses go to protect pornography, commercial advertising, and public meetings on the streets? Does this freedom cover desecration of a national flag? Does it include nude dancing? Eric Barendt discusses the legal protection of free speech in countries including England, the United States (including recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court), Canada, and Germany. He examines the varied approaches of different legal systems and constitutional traditions to balancing free speech and freedom of the press against rights to reputation, privacy, and copyright, and explores case law in light of the philosophical and political arguments for free speech guarantees.

Author Biography

Eric Barendt is Goodman Professor of Media Law at University College London.

Table of Contents

A Note on Abbreviationsp. xxi
Table of United Kingdom Casesp. xxiii
Table of United States Casesp. xxviii
Table of German Casesp. xxxv
Table of Decisions of the European Commission and Court of Human Rightsp. xxxvii
Cases from Other Jurisdictionsp. xl
Why Protect Free Speech?p. 1
Introductionp. 1
Four Arguments for a Free Speech Principlep. 6
Arguments concerned with the importance of discovering truthp. 7
Free speech as an aspect of self-fulfilmentp. 13
The argument from citizen participation in a democracyp. 18
Suspicion of governmentp. 21
Free Speech Interestsp. 23
The speaker's interest in communicating ideas and informationp. 23
The audience interest in receiving ideas and informationp. 25
The bystanders' (or public) interest in speechp. 27
Freedom of Speech and Other Valuesp. 30
Hate speech, dignity, and equalityp. 31
Pluralism and freedom of speechp. 34
The Constitutional Protection of Free Speechp. 36
Free Speech in Liberal Legal Systemsp. 39
Englandp. 39
Common lawp. 40
The Human Rights Act 1998p. 42
Free speech cases after the Human Rights Act 1998p. 45
United States of Americap. 48
Canadap. 55
Germanyp. 59
The European Human Rights Conventionp. 64
Other Jurisdictionsp. 67
Francep. 67
Italyp. 70
Australiap. 71
The Scope of Freedom of Speechp. 74
Introductionp. 74
Speech and Conductp. 78
General issuesp. 78
Flag desecrationp. 84
Nude dancing and sexually explicit conductp. 86
Conclusionsp. 87
Speech and Moneyp. 88
General issuesp. 88
Corporate speechp. 91
Rights Not to Speakp. 93
Language Rightsp. 98
What Type of Freedom?p. 100
Preliminary issuesp. 100
Only a narrow liberty?p. 104
Access to Informationp. 108
Freedom of Speech and Government Subsidiesp. 112
Prior Restraintsp. 117
The Varieties and Vices of Prior Restraintsp. 118
The distinction between prior restraints and penal sanctionsp. 118
The principal features of classic prior restraintsp. 122
Judicial prior restraintsp. 124
Conclusionsp. 128
Theatre, Film, and Video Censorshipp. 129
Official Secrets and Confidential Informationp. 136
Contempt of Court and Permits for Meetingsp. 145
Contempt of courtp. 145
Permits for meetingsp. 148
Private Censorshipp. 151
Political Speechp. 154
Introductionp. 154
The Preferred Position of Political Speechp. 155
Sedition and Related Offencesp. 162
Racist Hate Speechp. 170
Arguments of principlep. 170
Hate speech lawsp. 177
Blasphemy and Incitement to Religious Hatredp. 186
The common law of blasphemyp. 186
Religious hatred laws and freedom of speechp. 189
Disclosure of Official Secretsp. 192
General principlesp. 192
Official secrets lawsp. 195
Libel and Invasion of Privacyp. 198
Introductionp. 198
Is Defamation 'Speech'?p. 199
Balancing Free Speech and Reputationp. 205
The United Statesp. 206
Australia and New Zealandp. 211
Germanyp. 213
Englandp. 219
The European Convention on Human Rightsp. 222
Conclusions on balancing in libel casesp. 225
Insults and Satirep. 227
Privacy and Free Speechp. 230
Introductionp. 230
Publication of confidential informationp. 232
Revealing personal identityp. 235
Publication of photographsp. 237
Presenting the claimant in a false lightp. 240
The privacy of politicians and other public figuresp. 241
Conclusions on balancing in privacy casesp. 244
Copyright and Other Property Rightsp. 247
Introductionp. 247
Why is Copyright Immune from Free Speech Scrutiny?p. 248
Doctrinal argumentsp. 248
Historical argumentsp. 251
Copyright is a property rightp. 253
Free Speech Coverage of Copyright Infringementp. 254
General arguments for coveragep. 254
The free speech interests of infringersp. 256
Deference to copyright legislationp. 259
Balancing Copyright and Freedom of Speechp. 260
Trade Mark and Publicity Rightsp. 263
Trade marks and the Gay Olympics casep. 263
Publicity rightsp. 265
Meetings, Protest, and Public Orderp. 268
Introductionp. 268
The Right to Assemble and Freedom of Speechp. 270
Access to Streets and Other Public Forap. 273
Theoretical issuesp. 273
Traditional public fora: streets, open spaces, and public hallsp. 276
New public fora for speech and assemblyp. 281
Freedom of speech on private propertyp. 286
Conclusionsp. 289
Public Orderp. 290
General principlesp. 290
Inflammatory and offensive speechp. 295
The problem of the hostile audiencep. 302
Notice and Buffer-Zone Requirementsp. 306
Notice requirementsp. 306
Buffer zones to regulate anti-abortion protestp. 308
Free Speech and the Judicial Processp. 312
Introductionp. 312
Attacks on the Judiciaryp. 316
Prejudice to Legal Proceedingsp. 322
Arguments of principlep. 323
Legal restrictions on prejudicial publicityp. 328
Alternatives to contempt of court proceedingsp. 331
The law in the United Statesp. 334
Balancing free speech and the administration of justicep. 336
Open Justicep. 338
Arguments of principlep. 338
Access to the courtsp. 342
Televising court proceedingsp. 346
Reporting restrictionsp. 349
Pornographyp. 352
Introductionp. 352
Is Pornography 'Speech'?p. 355
Arguments of principlep. 355
Pornography which falls outside 'speech'p. 361
Obscenity and the Moral Tone of Societyp. 363
Specific Harmsp. 370
Introductionp. 370
The character of the harmp. 371
Sexual crimesp. 373
Harm to childrenp. 374
Harm to womenp. 378
Conclusionsp. 381
Pornography, the Arts, and Learningp. 381
Pornography and Offensivenessp. 385
Commercial Speechp. 392
Introductionp. 392
What is Commercial Speech?p. 395
Should Commercial Speech be Covered by Free Speech Clauses?p. 399
Introductionp. 399
The interest of consumers in commercial informationp. 401
The public interest in the free flow of commercial informationp. 402
Paternalismp. 403
Conclusionsp. 404
The Regulation of Advertisingp. 406
General principlesp. 406
Restrictions on professional advertisingp. 409
Disclosure requirementsp. 412
Tobacco Advertisingp. 413
Freedom of Speech in the Mediap. 417
Introductionp. 417
Press Freedom and Free Speechp. 419
Three perspectives on press freedomp. 419
Editorial freedomp. 425
The Implications of a Distinct Press and Media Freedomp. 427
Taxation and the mediap. 427
Competition law and the mediap. 429
Press rights of access to informationp. 434
Privilege not to disclose sources of informationp. 435
Whose Right to Press and Media Freedom?p. 441
Freedom of Speech and Broadcastingp. 444
Conclusionsp. 449
Freedom of Speech and the Internetp. 451
Introductionp. 451
How Should the Internet be Treated?p. 455
Rejection of the analogy with broadcastingp. 455
Similar, but not identical, to the pressp. 455
The Internet is not a public forump. 456
Pornography on the Internetp. 458
The application of obscenity lawsp. 458
The protection of childrenp. 459
Indecent images of children on the Internetp. 461
Defamation and the Internetp. 463
General principlesp. 463
The immunity of Internet service providersp. 464
Wider defences for individuals?p. 466
The Problems of Global Communicationp. 468
Introductionp. 468
The appropriate forum for the regulation of Internet communicationsp. 469
Enforcement of judgmentsp. 471
Legal and technical solutions to the regulation of global communicationsp. 472
Freedom of Speech in Special Contextsp. 475
Introductionp. 475
Election Campaignsp. 476
Limits on expenditure and contributionsp. 476
Other issuesp. 484
Free Speech in Employmentp. 486
Preliminary issuesp. 486
Balancing the interests of employees and employersp. 489
Speech by members of the armed forcesp. 494
Free Speech in Educationp. 496
Introductionp. 496
The free speech rights of students and teachersp. 497
Free speech in universitiesp. 500
Free Speech and Prisonersp. 502
Select Bibliographyp. 507
Indexp. 513
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