9781319194437

From Critical Thinking to Argument

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  • ISBN13:

    9781319194437

  • ISBN10:

    1319194435

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-10-16
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

From Critical Thinking to Argument is a brief but thorough guide to argument at a great value.  This versatile text gives students strategies for critical thinking, reading, and writing and makes argument concepts clear through its treatment of classic and modern approaches to argument, including Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument, as well as visual rhetoric. For today’s increasingly visual learners who are challenged to separate what’s real from what’s not, new activities and visual flowcharts support information literacy, and an appendix of practical Sentence Guides helps students incorporate the moves of academic writers into their own arguments. With just eighteen readings, this affordable guide can stand alone or complement an anthology.

Table of Contents

PART ONE: FROM CRITICAL THINKING TO ARGUMENT AND RESEARCH
 
1           Critical Thinking 
Thinking through an Issue 
Analyzing and Evaluating from Multiple Perspectives 
             Survey, Analyze, and Evaluate the Issue 
Visual Guide: Evaluating a Proposal 
             Obstacles to Critical Thinking 
             Anticipating Counterarguments 
Critical Thinking at Work: From a Cluster to a Short Essay 
ALEXA CABRERA, Stirred and Strained: Pastafarians Should Be Allowed to Practice in Prison (student essay) 
Generating Ideas: Writing as a Way of Thinking 
             Confronting Unfamiliar Issues 
             Using Clustering to Discover Ideas 
             Approaching an Issue (or an Assignment) 
             Prompting Yourself: Classical Topics and Invention 
An Essay for Generating Ideas
NINA FEDOROFF, The Genetically Engineered Salmon Is a Boon for Consumers and Sustainability 
Thinking Critically: Generating Ideas with Topics 
             Thinking Critically about the Issue 
A Checklist for Critical Thinking 
A Short Essay Calling for Critical Thinking 
LYNN STUART PARRAMORE, Fitbits for Bosses
Examining Assumptions 
A Checklist for Examining Assumptions 
*HELEN BENEDICT, The Military Has a Man Problem 
 
2           Critical Reading: Getting Started 
Active Reading 
             Previewing 
             A Short Essay for Previewing Practice 
Thinking Critically: Previewing
SANJAY GUPTA, Why I Changed My Mind on Weed 
             Reading with a Careful Eye: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating 
             Reading: Fast and Slow 
             Defining Terms and Concepts 
Summarizing and Paraphrasing 
A Checklist for a Paraphrase
Patchwriting and Plagiarism 
Strategies for Summarizing 
             Critical Summary 
Visual Guide: Writing a Critical Summary 
             A Short Essay for Summarizing Practice 
SUSAN JACOBY, A First Amendment Junkie 
A Checklist for a Summary
Essays for Analysis
GWEN WILDE, Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised (student essay)
ZACHARY SHEMTOB and DAVID LAT, Executions Should Be Televised
 
3           Critical Reading: Getting Deeper into Arguments 
Persuasion, Argument, and Rhetorical Appeals 
Visual Guide: Evaluating Persuasive Appeals 
Thinking Critically: Identifying Ethos 
Reason, Rationalization, and Confirmation Bias 
Types of Reasoning  
             Induction 
             Deduction 
             Premises and Syllogisms 
Some Procedures in Argument 
             Definitions 
             Assumptions 
             Evidence: Experimentation, Examples, Authoritative Testimony, and Numerical Data 
Thinking Critically: Authoritative Testimony 
A Checklist for Evaluating Statistical Evidence 
Nonrational Appeals 
             Satire, Irony, Sarcasm 
             Emotional Appeals 
Thinking Critically: Nonrational Appeals 
Does All Writing Contain Arguments? 
A Checklist for Analyzing an Argument 
An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writer’s Strategies 
*JOHN TIERNEY, The Reign of Recycling (annotated essay) 
 
4           Visual Rhetoric: Thinking about Images as Arguments 
Uses of Visual Images 
             Types of Emotional Appeals 
Seeing versus Looking: Reading Advertisements 
A Checklist for Analyzing Images
Levels of Images 
Visual Guide: Analyzing Images  
Documenting Reality: Reading Photographs 
             A Word on “Alternative Facts” 
Accommodating, Resisting, and Negotiating the Meaning of Images 
Are Some Images Not Fit to Be Shown?: Politics and Pictures  
An Argument on Publishing Images 
Writing about Political Cartoons  
Thinking Critically: Analysis of a Political Cartoon 
A Checklist for Analyzing Political Cartoons 
An Example: A Student’s Essay Analyzing Images 
*RYAN KWON, The American Pipe Dream? (student essay) 
Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, and Pie Charts 
             A Word on Misleading or Manipulative Visual Data 
A Checklist for Charts and Graphs 
Using Visuals in Your Own Paper  
 
5           Writing an Analysis of an Argument
Analyzing an Argument    
Examining The Author’s Thesis  
Examining The Author’s Purpose            
Examining The Author’s Methods           
Examining The Author’s Persona            
Examining The Author’s Audience          
A Checklist for Analyzing an Author’s Intended Audience          
             Organizing Your Analysis                 
Visual Guide: Organizing Your Analysis    
             Summary versus Analysis        
A Checklist for Analyzing a Text      
An Argument, Its Elements, And a Student’s Analysis of the Argument 
NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle
Thinking Critically: Examining Language to Analyze an Author’s Argument   
             The Essay Analyzed           
*THERESA CARCALDI, For Sound Argument, Drop The Jokes: How Kristof Falls Short in Convincing His Audience (student essay)          
An Analysis of the Student’s Analysis     
A Checklist for Writing an Analysis of an Argument                
 
6        Developing an Argument of Your Own  
Planning an Argument      
             Getting Ideas: Argument as an Instrument of Inquiry                
             Three Brainstorming Strategies: Freewriting, Listing, and Diagramming 
             Revision as Invention 
             Asking Questions with Stasis Theory             
             Considering Evidence       
             The Thesis or Main Point                 
A Checklist for a Thesis Statement  
Thinking Critically: Walking the Tightrope    
             Imagining an Audience     
             The Audience as Collaborator 
             Addressing Opposition and Establishing Common Ground 
A Checklist for Imagining an Audience          
Drafting and Revising Argument    
             The Title              
             The Opening Paragraphs                 
             Organizing the Body of the Essay   
Visual Guide: Organizing Your Argument  
             The Ending         
Thinking Critically: Using Transitions in Argument  
             Uses of an Outline            
A Checklist for Organizing an Argument       
             Tone and the Writer’s Persona       
             We, One, or I?                    
Thinking Critically: Eliminating We, One, and I           
A Checklist for Establishing Tone and Persona             
             Avoiding Sexist Language   
Peer Review                   
A Checklist for Peer Review
A Student’s Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version               
EMILY ANDREWS, Why I Don’t Spare Change (student essay)  
 
7            Using Sources
Why Use Sources?
             Entering a Discourse        
             Understanding Information Literacy             
Choosing a Topic
Finding Sources
Visual Guide: Finding Discourse on Your Topic       
             Finding Quality Information Online
             Finding Articles Using Library Databases
Thinking Critically: Using Search Terms         
             Locating Books
Evaluating Sources
             Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Sources         
             Evaluating Online Sources 
             Why Finding Reliable Internet Sources Is So Challenging          
             A Word on “Fake News” 
A Checklist for Identifying Fake News
             Native Advertising and Branded Content                     
             Considering How Current Sources Are         
A Checklist for Evaluating Sources     
Performing Your Own Primary Research     
             Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Visual Guide: Conducting Interviews          
             Conducting Observations 
             Conducting Surveys          
             Research in Archives and Special Collections             
Synthesizing Sources
Taking Notes
             A Note on Plagiarizing      
A Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarism
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Quoting from Sources
Visual Guide: Integrating Quotations
Thinking Critically: Using Signal Phrases       
Documentation
             A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations within the Text
MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations within the Text
APA Format: The List of References
A Checklist for Critical Papers Using Sources                 
An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format
LESLEY TIMMERMAN, An Argument for Corporate Responsibility (student essay)
An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
*HANNAH SMITH BROOKS, Does Ability Determine Expertise? (student essay)
 
Part Two  FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT
 
8         A Philosopher’s View: The Toulmin Model              
Visual Guide: The Toulmin Method 
Components of the Toulmin Model
The Claim
Grounds
Warrants
Backing
Modal Qualifiers
Rebuttals
Thinking Critically: Constructing a Toulmin Argument                
Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument
JAMES E. McWILLIAMS, The Locavore Myth: Why Buying from Nearby Farmers Won’t Save the Planet  
Thinking with Toulmin’s Method
 A Checklist Using the Toulmin Method  


9         A Logician’s View: Deduction, Induction, and Fallacies  
Using Formal Logic for Critical Thinking        
Visual Guide: Deduction and Induction         
Deduction
Examples of Deduction
Induction
             Observation and Inference
             Probability
             Mill’s Methods
Fallacies
             Fallacies of Ambiguity
             Fallacies of Presumption
             Fallacies of Irrelevance
             Additional Fallacies           
A Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View
Thinking Critically: Identifying Fallacies 
MAX SHULMAN, Love Is a Fallacy
 
10        A Psychologist’s View: Rogerian Argument           
Rogerian Argument: An Introduction
Visual Guide: Rogerian Argument  
A Checklist for Analyzing Rogerian Argument              
CARL R. ROGERS, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
EDWARD O. WILSON, Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister


Appendix: Sentence Guides for Academic Writers


Index

Supplemental Materials

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The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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