Fundamentals of Financial Management: Concise

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-02-06
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
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"Brigham/Houston: A Classic, redefined...because a classic never goes out of style." The market leader, Brigham/Houston, continues to grow in reputation and amount of users as the most effective approach for teaching the first undergraduate corporate finance course. This Concise version of the extremely successful, Brigham/Houston-Fundamentals of Financial Management, contains the same level of topical rigor while also reflecting the latest in theory, research, real-world examples, and use of technology as Fundamentals. The seamless, integrated ancillary package, still painstakingly prepared by the authors, is a hallmark of the Brigham/Houston package which reduces course preparation time for instructors and makes the subject more accessible for learners. New for this edition is the addition of iLrn Finance, an online student assessment and tutorial resource to help improve student performance. Additionally, access to Thomson ONE - Business School Edition, an online financial database that students can use to complete projects or select end of chapter exercises, is included with each new text.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. iv
Introduction to Financial Managementp. 1
An Overview of Financial Managementp. 2
Striking the Right Balancep. 2
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 3
Forms of Business Organizationp. 4
Stock Prices and Shareholder Valuep. 6
Intrinsic Values, Stock Prices, and Compensation Plansp. 8
Some Important Trendsp. 11
Is Shareholder Wealth Maximization a Worldwide Goal?p. 12
Business Ethicsp. 12
What Companies Are Doingp. 13
Consequences of Unethical Behaviorp. 13
How Should Employees Deal with Unethical Behavior?p. 14
Protection for Whistle-Blowersp. 15
Conflicts between Managers and Stockholdersp. 16
The Role of Finance in the Organizationp. 17
Tying it All Togetherp. 18
Fundamental Concepts in Financial Managementp. 23
Time Value of Moneyp. 24
Will You Be Able to Retire?p. 24
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 24
Time Linesp. 25
Future Valuesp. 26
Simple versus Compound Interestp. 27
Step-by-Step Approachp. 27
Formula Approachp. 27
Financial Calculatorsp. 28
Spreadsheetsp. 28
Hints on Using Financial Calculatorsp. 29
Graphic View of the Compounding Processp. 30
Present Valuesp. 31
Graphic View of the Discounting Processp. 33
Finding the Interest Rate, Ip. 34
Finding the Number of Years, Np. 35
Annuitiesp. 35
Future Value of an Ordinary Annuityp. 36
Future Value of an Annuity Duep. 38
Present Value of an Ordinary Annuityp. 39
Finding Annuity Payments, Periods, and Interest Ratesp. 40
Finding Annuity Payments, PMTp. 40
Finding the Number of Periods, Np. 41
Finding the Interest Rate, Ip. 41
Perpetuitiesp. 42
Uneven Cash Flowsp. 44
Future Value of an Uneven Cash Flow Streamp. 46
Solving for I with Uneven Cash Flowsp. 47
Semiannual and Other Compounding Periodsp. 48
Comparing Interest Ratesp. 50
Fractional Time Periodsp. 52
Amortized Loansp. 52
Tying it All Togetherp. 54
Integrated Case: First National Bankp. 62
Continuous Compounding and Discounting
Financial Statements, Cash Flow, and Taxesp. 64
Doing Your Homework with Financial Statementsp. 64
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 65
A Brief History of Accounting and Financial Statementsp. 65
Financial Statements and Reportsp. 66
The Balance Sheetp. 68
The Income Statementp. 72
Net Cash Flowp. 75
Statement of Cash Flowsp. 75
Massaging the Cash Flow Statementp. 78
Statement of Retained Earningsp. 78
Uses and Limitations of Financial Statementsp. 79
Financial Analysis on the Internetp. 80
Modifying Accounting Data for Investor and Managerial Decisionsp. 81
Operating Assets and Operating Capitalp. 81
Operating Cash Flowsp. 84
Free Cash Flowp. 84
MVA and EVAp. 86
The Federal Income Tax Systemp. 87
Corporate Taxesp. 87
Personal Taxesp. 87
Interest Paidp. 87
Interest Earnedp. 88
Dividends Paidp. 88
Dividends Receivedp. 88
Tax Loss Carry-Back and Carry-Forwardp. 88
Capital Gainsp. 88
Depreciationp. 89
Small Businessesp. 89
Tying it All Togetherp. 89
Integrated Case: D'Leon Inc., Part Ip. 95
The Federal Income Tax System
Analysis of Financial Statementsp. 100
Lessons Learned from Enron and WorldComp. 100
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 102
Ratio Analysisp. 102
Liquidity Ratiosp. 103
Current Ratiop. 103
Quick, or Acid Test, Ratiop. 104
Asset Management Ratiosp. 104
Inventory Turnover Ratiop. 105
Days Sales Outstandingp. 106
Fixed Assets Turnover Ratiop. 106
Total Assets Turnover Ratiop. 107
Debt Management Ratiosp. 108
Total Debt to Total Assetsp. 110
Times-Interest-Earned Ratiop. 110
EBITDA Coverage Ratiop. 111
Profitability Ratiosp. 112
Profit Margin on Salesp. 112
Global Perspectives: Global Accounting Standards: Can One Size Fit All?p. 113
Return on Total Assetsp. 114
Basic Earning Power (BEP) Ratiop. 114
Return on Common Equityp. 115
Market Value Ratiosp. 115
Price/Earnings Ratiop. 116
Price/Cash Flow Ratiop. 116
Market/Book Ratiop. 116
Trend Analysisp. 118
Tying the Ratios Together: The Du Pont Equationsp. 118
Comparative Ratios and "Benchmarking"p. 121
Looking for Warning Signs within the Financial Statementsp. 123
Uses and Limitations of Ratio Analysisp. 124
Problems with ROEp. 125
EVA and ROEp. 126
Looking Beyond the Numbersp. 128
Tying it All Togetherp. 129
Integrated Case: D'Leon Inc., Part IIp. 136
Financial Markets and Institutionsp. 141
A Strong Financial System Is Necessary for a Growing and Prosperous Economyp. 141
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 142
An Overview of the Capital Allocation Processp. 143
Financial Marketsp. 145
Types of Marketsp. 145
Recent Trendsp. 146
Financial Institutionsp. 148
The Stock Marketp. 153
Citigroup Built to Compete in a Changing Environmentp. 154
The Physical Location Stock Exchangesp. 154
The NYSE and Nasdaq Combine Forces with the Leading Online Trading Systemsp. 155
The Over-the-Counter and the Nasdaq Stock Marketsp. 156
The Market for Common Stockp. 157
Types of Stock Market Transactionsp. 157
Stock Markets and Returnsp. 160
Stock Market Reportingp. 160
Stock Market Returnsp. 162
Stock Market Efficiencyp. 163
Levels of Market Efficiencyp. 163
Measuring the Marketp. 164
Implications of Market Efficiencyp. 166
Is the Stock Market Efficient?p. 167
A Closer Look at Behavioral Finance Theoryp. 168
Tying it All Togetherp. 169
Integrated Case: Smyth Barry & Company, Part Ip. 170
Financial Assetsp. 173
Interest Ratesp. 174
Low Interest Rates Encourage Investment and Stimulate Consumer Spendingp. 174
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 175
The Cost of Moneyp. 175
Interest Rate Levelsp. 176
The Determinants of Market Interest Ratesp. 180
The Real Risk-Free Rate of Interest, r*p. 181
The Nominal, or Quoted, Risk-Free Rate of Interest, r[subscript RF]p. 182
Inflation Premium (IP)p. 182
Default Risk Premium (DRP)p. 183
An Almost Riskless Treasury Bondp. 184
Liquidity Premium (LP)p. 186
Maturity Risk Premium (MRP)p. 186
The Term Structure of Interest Ratesp. 187
What Determines the Shape of the Yield Curve?p. 189
The Links between Expected Inflation and Interest Rates: A Closer Lookp. 192
Using the Yield Curve to Estimate Future Interest Ratesp. 193
Other Factors that Influence Interest Rate Levelsp. 196
Federal Reserve Policyp. 196
Federal Budget Deficits or Surplusesp. 196
International Factorsp. 197
Business Activityp. 197
Global Perspectives: Measuring Country Riskp. 198
Investing Overseasp. 199
Interest Rates and Business Decisionsp. 199
Tying it All Togetherp. 201
Integrated Case: Smyth Barry & Company, Part IIp. 206
Bonds and Their Valuationp. 207
Sizing Up Risk in the Bond Marketp. 207
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 208
Who Issues Bonds?p. 208
Key Characteristics of Bondsp. 209
Par Valuep. 210
Coupon Interest Ratep. 210
Maturity Datep. 210
Call Provisionsp. 211
Sinking Fundsp. 211
Other Featuresp. 212
Bond Valuationp. 213
Bond Yieldsp. 216
Yield to Maturityp. 216
Yield to Callp. 217
Current Yieldp. 218
Changes in Bond Values over Timep. 218
Bonds with Semiannual Couponsp. 222
Assessing a Bond's Riskinessp. 223
Interest Rate Riskp. 223
Reinvestment Rate Riskp. 225
Comparing Interest Rate and Reinvestment Rate Riskp. 226
Default Riskp. 227
Various Types of Corporate Bondsp. 228
Bond Ratingsp. 229
Bankruptcy and Reorganizationp. 233
Bond Marketsp. 234
Tying it All Togetherp. 236
Intergated Case: Western Money Management Inc.p. 243
Zero Coupon Bonds
Bankruptcy and Reorganization
Risk and Rates of Returnp. 244
No Pain No Gainp. 244
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 245
Stand-Alone Riskp. 246
Probability Distributionsp. 247
Expected Rate of Returnp. 248
Measuring Stand-Alone Risk: The Standard Deviationp. 250
Using Historical Data to Measure Riskp. 252
Measuring Stand-Alone Risk: The Coefficient of Variationp. 254
Risk Aversion and Required Returnsp. 255
The Trade-Off between Risk and Returnp. 256
Risk in a Portfolio Contextp. 257
Expected Portfolio Returns, r[subscript p]p. 258
Portfolio Riskp. 259
The Benefits of Diversification Are More Important Than Everp. 263
Diversifiable Risk versus Market Riskp. 263
The Concept of Betap. 266
Global Perspectives: The Benefits of Diversifying Overseasp. 270
The Relationship between Risk and Rates of Returnp. 271
Estimating the Market Risk Premiump. 272
The Impact of Inflationp. 275
Changes in Risk Aversionp. 275
Changes in a Stock's Beta Coefficientp. 277
Some Concerns about Beta and the CAPMp. 277
Some Concluding Thoughts: Implications for Corporate Managers and Investorsp. 278
Tying it All Togetherp. 280
Integrated Case: Merrill Finch Inc.p. 286
Calculating Beta Coefficients
Stocks and Their Valuationp. 289
Searching for the Right Stockp. 289
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 290
Legal Rights and Privileges of Common Stockholdersp. 290
Control of the Firmp. 290
The Preemptive Rightp. 291
Types of Common Stockp. 292
Common Stock Valuationp. 292
Definitions of Terms Used in Stock Valuation Modelsp. 293
Expected Dividends as the Basis for Stock Valuesp. 294
Constant Growth Stocksp. 296
Illustration of a Constant Growth Stockp. 296
Dividend and Earnings Growthp. 297
When Can the Constant Growth Model Be Used?p. 298
Expected Rate of Return on a Constant Growth Stockp. 299
Valuing Stocks Expected to Grow at a Nonconstant Ratep. 300
Evaluating Stocks That Don't Pay Dividendsp. 304
Valuing the Entire Corporationp. 305
The Corporate Valuation Modelp. 306
Other Approaches to Valuing Common Stocksp. 308
Comparing the Total Company and Dividend Growth Modelsp. 308
Stock Market Equilibriump. 310
Changes in Equilibrium Stock Pricesp. 311
Investing in International Stocksp. 313
Preferred Stockp. 315
Global Perspectives: Investing in Emerging Marketsp. 316
Tying it All Togetherp. 316
Integrated Case: Mutual of Chicago Insurance Companyp. 322
Investing in Long-Term Assets: Capital Budgetingp. 327
The Cost of Capitalp. 328
Creating Value at GEp. 328
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 329
An Overview of the Weighted Average Cost of Capitalp. 329
Basic Definitionsp. 331
Cost of Debt, r[subscript d](1 - T)p. 332
Cost of Preferred Stock, r[subscript p]p. 333
Funny-Named Preferred-Like Securitiesp. 334
Cost of Retained Earnings, r[subscript s]p. 335
The CAPM Approachp. 336
Dividend-Yield-plus-Growth-Rate, or Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), Approachp. 336
Bond-Yield-plus-Risk-Premium Approachp. 339
How Much Does It Cost to Raise External Capital?p. 340
Cost of New Common Stock, r[subscript e]p. 340
Add Flotation Costs to a Project's Costp. 341
Increase the Cost of Capitalp. 341
When Must External Equity Be Used?p. 342
Composite, or Weighted Average, Cost of Capital, WACCp. 343
Factors That Affect the WACCp. 344
Factors the Firm Cannot Controlp. 344
Factors the Firm Can Controlp. 344
Global Perspectives: Global Variations in the Cost of Capitalp. 345
Adjusting the Cost of Capital for Riskp. 346
Some Other Problems with Cost of Capital Estimatesp. 348
Tying it All Togetherp. 349
Integrated Case: Coleman Technologies Inc.p. 355
The Cost of New Common Stock and the WACC
The Basics of Capital Budgetingp. 357
Competition in the Aircraft Industryp. 357
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 358
Generating Ideas for Capital Projectsp. 358
Project Classificationsp. 359
The Net Present Value (NPV) Criterionp. 360
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)p. 363
Comparison of the NPV and IRR Methodsp. 364
NPV Profilesp. 364
NPV Rankings Depend on the Cost of Capitalp. 365
Independent Projectsp. 367
Mutually Exclusive Projectsp. 367
Multiple IRRsp. 369
Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)p. 371
Payback Periodp. 373
Conclusions on Capital Budgeting Methodsp. 375
Decision Criteria Used in Practicep. 376
Using Capital Budgeting Techniques in Other Contextsp. 377
The Post-Auditp. 378
Tying it All Togetherp. 379
Integrated Case: Allied Components Companyp. 385
Cash Flow Estimation and Risk Analysisp. 387
Home Depot Keeps Growingp. 387
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 388
Background on the Projectp. 388
Project Analysisp. 390
Input Data, Part 1p. 390
Depreciation Schedule, Part 2p. 390
Salvage Value Calculations, Part 3p. 391
Projected Cash Flows, Part 4p. 392
Appraisal of the Proposed Project, Part 5p. 393
Other Points on Cash Flow Analysisp. 394
Cash Flow versus Accounting Incomep. 394
Timing of Cash Flowsp. 395
Incremental Cash Flowsp. 395
Replacement Projectsp. 395
Sunk Costsp. 395
Opportunity Costsp. 396
Externalitiesp. 396
Estimating Project Riskp. 397
Measuring Stand-Alone Riskp. 398
Sensitivity Analysisp. 398
Scenario Analysisp. 400
Monte Carlo Simulationp. 401
Global Perspectives: Capital Budgeting Practices in the Asian/Pacific Regionp. 402
Different Capital Structuresp. 403
Introduction to Real Optionsp. 403
Abandonment/Shutdown Optionsp. 404
The Optimal Capital Budgetp. 406
Tying it All Togetherp. 408
Integrated Case: Allied Food Productsp. 414
Tax Depreciationp. 418
Replacement Project Analysis
Refunding Operations
Using the CAPM to Estimate the Risk-Adjusted Cost of Capital
Techniques for Measuring Beta Risk
Comparing Mutually Exclusive Projects with Unequal Lives
Real Options: Investment Timing, Growth, and Flexibility
Capital Structure and Dividend Policyp. 421
Capital Structure and Leveragep. 422
Debt: Rocket Booster or Anchor?p. 422
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 423
The Target Capital Structurep. 423
Business and Financial Riskp. 424
Business Riskp. 425
Operating Leveragep. 427
Financial Riskp. 430
Determining the Optimal Capital Structurep. 436
WACC and Capital Structure Changesp. 436
The Hamada Equationp. 438
The Optimal Capital Structurep. 439
Capital Structure Theoryp. 442
Yogi Berra on the M&M Propositionp. 443
The Effect of Taxesp. 443
The Effect of Potential Bankruptcyp. 444
Trade-Off Theoryp. 445
Signaling Theoryp. 446
Using Debt Financing to Constrain Managersp. 447
Checklist for Capital Structure Decisionsp. 448
Global Perspectives: Taking a Look at Global Capital Structuresp. 451
Variations in Capital Structuresp. 451
Tying it All Togetherp. 452
Integrated Case: Campus Deli Inc.p. 458
Degree of Leverage
Distributions to Shareholders: Dividends and Share Repurchasesp. 464
Microsoft Shifts Gears and Begins to Unload Part of Its Vast Cash Hoardp. 464
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 465
Dividends versus Capital Gains: What Do Investors Prefer?p. 465
Dividend Irrelevance Theoryp. 466
Reasons Some Investors Prefer Dividendsp. 466
Reasons Some Investors May Prefer Capital Gainsp. 467
Other Dividend Policy Issuesp. 468
Information Content, or Signaling, Hypothesisp. 468
Clientele Effectp. 468
Establishing the Dividend Policy in Practicep. 469
Setting the Target Payout Ratio: The Residual Dividend Modelp. 469
Global Perspectives: Dividend Yields Around the Worldp. 472
Earnings, Cash Flows, and Dividendsp. 475
Payment Proceduresp. 476
Dividend Reinvestment Plansp. 479
Summary of Factors Influencing Dividend Policyp. 480
Constraintsp. 480
Investment Opportunitiesp. 480
Alternative Sources of Capitalp. 481
Effects of Dividend Policy on r[subscript s]p. 481
Stock Dividends and Stock Splitsp. 481
Stock Splitsp. 482
Stock Dividendsp. 482
Effect on Stock Pricesp. 483
Stock Repurchasesp. 484
The Effects of Stock Repurchasesp. 484
Stock Repurchases Soar in 2004p. 485
Advantages of Repurchasesp. 486
Disadvantages of Repurchasesp. 487
Conclusions on Stock Repurchasesp. 487
Tying it All Togetherp. 488
Integrated Case: Southeastern Steel Companyp. 494
An Example: The Residual Dividend Model
Working Capital Management, Forecasting, and Multinational Financial Managementp. 497
Working Capital Managementp. 498
Best Buy Successfully Manages Its Working Capitalp. 498
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 498
Working Capital Terminologyp. 499
The Cash Conversion Cyclep. 499
Calculating the Targeted CCCp. 500
Calculating the Actual CCCp. 501
Some Firms Operate with Negative Working Capital!p. 502
Alternative Current Asset Investment Policiesp. 503
Alternative Current Asset Financing Policiesp. 504
Maturity Matching, or "Self-Liquidating," Approachp. 505
Aggressive Approachp. 505
Conservative Approachp. 505
Choosing between the Approachesp. 507
The Cash Budgetp. 507
Cash and Marketable Securitiesp. 511
Currencyp. 512
Demand Depositsp. 512
Marketable Securitiesp. 513
Inventoriesp. 514
Supply Chain Managementp. 515
Accounts Receivablep. 516
Credit Policyp. 516
Setting and Implementing the Credit Policyp. 517
Monitoring Accounts Receivablep. 518
Accounts Payable (Trade Credit)p. 520
Bank Loansp. 523
Promissory Notep. 523
Line of Creditp. 524
Revolving Credit Agreementp. 524
Costs of Bank Loansp. 525
Commercial Paperp. 527
Accruals (Accrued Liabilities)p. 528
Use of Security in Short-Term Financingp. 528
Tying it All Togetherp. 529
Integrated Case: Ski Equipment Inc.p. 534
Inventory Management
Short-Term Loans and Bank Financing
Financial Planning and Forecastingp. 538
Forecasting Apple's Futurep. 538
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 539
Strategic Planningp. 539
The Sales Forecastp. 541
The AFN Equationp. 542
Key Determinants of External Funds Requirementsp. 544
Excess Capacity Adjustmentsp. 544
Forecasted Financial Statementsp. 546
Initial Forecast: "Business as Usual"p. 546
Using Regression to Improve Financial Forecastsp. 549
Using Individual Ratios in the Forecasting Processp. 551
Modifying Accounts Receivablep. 551
Modifying Inventoriesp. 552
Other "Special Studies"p. 552
Tying it All Togetherp. 553
Integrated Case: New World Chemicals Inc.p. 558
Forecasting Financial Requirements When Financial Ratios Change
Multinational Financial Managementp. 562
U.S. Firms Look Overseas to Enhance Shareholder Valuep. 562
Putting Things in Perspectivep. 563
Multinational or Global Corporationsp. 563
Multinational versus Domestic Financial Managementp. 566
The International Monetary Systemp. 568
International Monetary Terminologyp. 568
Current Monetary Arrangementsp. 569
Foreign Exchange Rate Quotationsp. 570
Cross Ratesp. 571
Interbank Foreign Currency Quotationsp. 572
Trading in Foreign Exchangep. 573
Spot Rates and Forward Ratesp. 573
Interest Rate Parityp. 574
Purchasing Power Parityp. 576
Inflation, Interest Rates, and Exchange Ratesp. 577
Hungry for a Big Mac? Go to China!p. 578
Stock Market Indices Around the Worldp. 580
International Money and Capital Marketsp. 581
International Credit Marketsp. 582
International Stock Marketsp. 582
International Capital Budgetingp. 583
International Capital Structuresp. 585
Multinational Working Capital Managementp. 586
Cash Managementp. 586
Credit Managementp. 587
Inventory Managementp. 588
Tying it All Togetherp. 589
Integrated Case: Citrus Products Inc.p. 593
Solutions to Self-Test Questions and Problemsp. 1
Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problemsp. 24
Selected Equations and Datap. 29
Selected Equations and Data
Indexp. 1
Executive Compensation
Online Financial Calculators
Examining the Financial Report-3M
Using Ratio Analysis as a Tool-Brady Corporation
World Financial Markets
Yield Curves and Interest Rates
BondsOnline Educated Investor Center
Evaluating Portfolio Risk and Return
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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